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  • Philosophical problems

    Philosophical problems

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    • Dilemmas

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Dilemmas


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    • Issues in ethics

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Issues in ethics


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    • Mind–body problem


    • Paradoxes

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    • Problem of evil

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Problem of evil


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    • List of unsolved problems in philosophy

    • This is a list of some of the major unsolved problems in philosophy. Clearly, unsolved philosophical problems exist in the lay sense (e.g. "What is the meaning of life?", "Where did we come from?", "What is reality?", etc.). However, professional philosophers generally accord serious philosophical problems specific nam ... Read »


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    • Aporime

    • An aporime is a problem difficult to resolve, and which has never been resolved, though it may not be, in itself, impossible. The word is derived from the Greek ἄπορον, which signifies something very difficult and impracticable, being formed from the privative α, and πόρος, "passa ... Read »


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    • Benacerraf's identification problem


    • Bradley's regress


    • Competing goods

    • The balance of Competing goods is a philosophical problem involving the acknowledgement of multiple social values that may at times conflict with one another. The 20th-century philosopher Martha Nussbaum invokes Aristotle in her discussions of the problem, writing that "[T]he Aristotelian agent scrutinizes each valuab ... Read »


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    • Demarcation problem

    • The demarcation problem in the philosophy of science is about how to distinguish between science and nonscience, including between science, pseudoscience, and other products of human activity, like art and literature, and beliefs. The debate continues after over a century of dialogue among philosophers of science and s ... Read »


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    • Eternity of the world

    • The question of the eternity of the world was a concern for both ancient philosophers and the medieval theologians and philosophers of the 13th century. The question is whether the world has a beginning in time, or whether it has existed from eternity. The problem became a focus of a dispute in the 13th century, when s ... Read »


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    • Frame problem

    • In artificial intelligence, the frame problem describes an issue with using first-order logic (FOL) to express facts about a robot in the world. Representing the state of a robot with traditional FOL requires the use of many axioms that simply imply that things in the environment do not change arbitrarily. For example, ... Read »


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    • Free will

    • Free will is the ability to choose between different possible courses of action. It is closely linked to the concepts of responsibility, praise, guilt, sin, and other judgments which apply only to actions that are freely chosen. It is also connected with the concepts of advice, persuasion, deliberation, and prohibition ... Read »


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    • Free will in antiquity

    • Free will in antiquity was not discussed in the same terms as used in the modern free will debates, but historians of the problem have speculated who exactly was first to take positions as determinist, libertarian, and compatibilist in antiquity. There is wide agreement that these views were essentially fully formed ov ... Read »


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    • Frege's Puzzle


    • Problem of future contingents

    • Future contingent propositions (or simply, future contingents) are statements about states of affairs in the future that are neither necessarily true nor necessarily false. The problem of future contingents seems to have been first discussed by Aristotle in chapter 9 of his On Interpretation (De Interpretatione), usin ... Read »


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    • Gettier problem

    • The Gettier problem, in the field of epistemology, is a landmark philosophical problem with our understanding of knowledge. Attributed to American philosopher Edmund Gettier, Gettier-type counterexamples (called "Gettier-cases") challenged the long-held justified true belief (or JTB) account of knowledge. On the JTB ac ... Read »


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    • If a tree falls in a forest

    • "If a tree falls in a forest and no one is around to hear it, does it make a sound?" is a philosophical thought experiment that raises questions regarding observation and perception. Philosopher George Berkeley, in his work, A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge (1710), proposes, "But, say you, s ... Read »


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    • Problem of induction

    • The problem of induction is the philosophical question of whether inductive reasoning leads to knowledge understood in the classic philosophical sense, since it focuses on the alleged lack of justification for either: The problem calls into question all empirical claims made in everyday life or through the scientific ... Read »


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    • Is–ought problem


    • Meaning of life

    • The meaning of life, or the answer to the question "What is the meaning of life?", pertains to the significance of living or existence in general. Many other related questions include "Why are we here?", "What is life all about?", or "What is the purpose of existence?" There have been a large number of proposed answers ... Read »


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    • Mind–body problem


    • Molyneux's problem


    • Moral luck

    • Moral luck describes circumstances whereby a moral agent is assigned moral blame or praise for an action or its consequences even if it is clear that said agent did not have full control over either the action or its consequences. This term, introduced by Bernard Williams, has been developed, along with its significanc ... Read »


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    • Necessary evil

    • A necessary evil is an unfavorable thing (an evil) that someone believes must be done or accepted because it is necessary to achieve a better outcome—especially because possible alternative courses of action or inaction would be worse. It is the "lesser evil" in the Lesser of two evils (or lesser evil) principle, ... Read »


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    • Ordinary language philosophy

    • Ordinary language philosophy is a philosophical methodology that sees traditional philosophical problems as rooted in misunderstandings philosophers develop by distorting or forgetting what words actually mean in everyday use. "Such 'philosophical' uses of language, on this view, create the very philosophical problems ... Read »


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    • Problem of other minds

    • The problem of other minds has traditionally been regarded as an epistemological challenge raised by the skeptic. The challenge may be expressed as follows: given that I can only observe the behavior of others, how can I know that others have minds? The thought behind the question is that no matter how sophisticated so ... Read »


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    • Philosophical problems of testimony

    • In philosophy, testimony includes any words or utterances that are presented as evidence for the claims they express. This definition may be distinguished from the legal notion of testimony in that the speaker does not have to make a declaration of the truth of the facts. The role of testimony in acquiring belief and ... Read »


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    • Physical determinism

    • Determinism is the philosophical position that for every event there exist conditions that could cause no other event. "There are many determinisms, depending on what pre-conditions are considered to be determinative of an event or action." Deterministic theories throughout the history of philosophy have sprung from di ... Read »


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    • Plato's Problem


    • Predeterminism

    • Predeterminism is the idea that all events are determined in advance. Predeterminism is the philosophy that all events of history, past, present and future, have been already decided or are already known (by God, fate, or some other force), including human actions. Predeterminism is closely related to determinism. The ... Read »


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    • Problem of evil

    • The problem of evil refers to the question of how to reconcile the existence of evil with an omnibenevolent, omniscient and omnipotent God (see theism). An argument from evil attempts to show that the co-existence of evil and such a God is unlikely or impossible. Attempts to show the contrary have traditionally been di ... Read »


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    • Problem of mental causation

    • The problem of mental causation is a conceptual issue in the philosophy of mind. That problem, in short, is how to account for the common-sense idea that intentional thoughts or intentional mental states are causes of intentional actions. The problem divides into several distinct sub-problems, including the problem of ... Read »


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    • Problem of religious language

    • The problem of religious language considers whether it is possible to talk about God meaningfully if the traditional conceptions of God as being incorporeal, infinite, and timeless, are accepted. Because these traditional conceptions of God make it difficult to describe God, religious language has the potential to be m ... Read »


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    • Problem of time

    • In quantum gravity, the problem of time is a conceptual conflict between general relativity and quantum mechanics. Roughly speaking, the problem of time is that there is none in general relativity. This is because in general relativity, the Hamiltonian is an energy constraint that must vanish to allow for general covar ... Read »


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    • Regress argument

    • The regress argument (also known as the diallelus (Latin < Greek di allelon "through or by means of one another")) is a problem in epistemology and, in general, a problem in any situation where a statement has to be justified. According to this argument, any proposition requires a justification. However, any justifica ... Read »


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    • Synchronicity

    • Synchronicity is a concept, first explained by psychoanalyst Carl Jung, which holds that events are "meaningful coincidences" if they occur with no causal relationship yet seem to be meaningfully related. During his career, Jung furnished several slightly different definitions of it. Jung variously defined synchronicit ... Read »


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    • Problem of universals

    • In metaphysics, the problem of universals refers to the question of whether properties exist, and if so, what they are.Properties are qualities or relations that two or more entities have in common. The various kinds of properties, such as qualities and relations, are referred to as universals. For instance, one can im ... Read »


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    • Verisimilitude

    • Verisimilitude (or truthlikeness) is a philosophical concept that distinguishes between the relative and apparent (or seemingly so) truth and falsity of assertions and hypotheses. The problem of verisimilitude is the problem of articulating what it takes for one false theory to be closer to the truth than another false ... Read »


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    • Von Neumann–Wigner interpretation


    • World riddle

    • The term "world riddle" or "world-riddle" has been associated, for over 100 years, with Friedrich Nietzsche (who mentioned Welträthsel in several of his writings) and with the biologist-philosopher Ernst Haeckel, who, as a professor of zoology at the University of Jena, wrote the book Die Welträthsel in 1895†... Read »


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