Main

  • Philosophical concepts

    Philosophical concepts

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Philosophical concepts

    • Aesthetic concepts

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Concepts in aesthetics


      Wikipedia
    • Epistemological concepts

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Concepts in epistemology


      Wikipedia
    • Ethical concepts

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Concepts in ethics


      Wikipedia
    • Logical concepts

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Concepts in logic


      Wikipedia
    • Metaphysical concepts

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Concepts in metaphysics


      Wikipedia
    • Social concepts

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Social concepts


      Wikipedia
    • Philosophers

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Philosophers


      Wikipedia
    • Literature

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Philosophical literature


      Wikipedia
    • Theories

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Philosophical theories


      Wikipedia
    • A priori

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about A priori


      Wikipedia
    • Concepts in aesthetics

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Concepts in aesthetics


      Wikipedia
    • Ancient Greek philosophical concepts

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Ancient Greek philosophical concepts


      Wikipedia
    • Concepts in ancient philosophy

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Concepts in ancient philosophy


      Wikipedia
    • Concepts in metaphilosophy

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Concepts in metaphilosophy


      Wikipedia
    • Concepts in the philosophy of mathematics

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Concepts in the philosophy of mathematics


      Wikipedia
    • Concepts in the philosophy of mind

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Concepts in the philosophy of mind


      Wikipedia
    • Concepts in epistemology

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Concepts in epistemology


      Wikipedia
    • Concepts in ethics

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Concepts in ethics


      Wikipedia
    • Existentialist concepts

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Existentialist concepts


      Wikipedia
    • Infinity

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Infinity


      Wikipedia
    • Concepts in logic

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Concepts in logic


      Wikipedia
    • Mental content

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Mental content


      Wikipedia
    • Concepts in metaphysics

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Concepts in metaphysics


      Wikipedia
    • Philosophical categories

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Philosophical categories


      Wikipedia
    • Power (social and political)

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Power (social and political)


      Wikipedia
    • Religious philosophical concepts

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Religious philosophical concepts


      Wikipedia
    • Conceptions of self

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Conceptions of self


      Wikipedia
    • Philosophical terminology

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Philosophical terminology


      Wikipedia
    • Truth

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Truth


      Wikipedia
    • List of philosophical concepts


    • A priori and a posteriori

    • The Latin phrases a priori (lit. "from the earlier") and a posteriori (lit. "from the latter") are philosophical terms of art popularized by Immanuel Kant's Critique of Pure Reason (first published in 1781, second edition in 1787), one of the most influential works in the history of philosophy. However, in their Latin ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Aboutness

    • Aboutness is a term used in library and information science (LIS), linguistics, philosophy of language, and philosophy of mind. In LIS, it is often considered synonymous with subject (documents). In the philosophy of mind it has been often considered synonymous with intentionality, perhaps since John Searle (1983). In ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Absolute (philosophy)

    • In philosophy, metaphysics, religion, spirituality, and other contexts, the Absolute is a term for the most real being. The Absolute is conceived as being itself or perhaps the being that transcends and comprehends all other beings. While there is agreement that there must be some fundamental reality, there is disagre ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Absolute time and space

    • Absolute space and time is a concept in physics and philosophy about the properties of the universe. In physics, absolute space and time may be a preferred frame. A version of the concept of absolute space can be seen in Aristotelian physics. Westman writes that "whiff" of absolute space can be observed in Coperni ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Abstract and concrete

    • Abstract and concrete (German: abstrakt; konkret) are classifications that denote whether a term describes an object with a physical referent or one with no physical referents. They are most commonly used in philosophy and semantics. Abstract objects are sometimes called abstracta (sing. abstractum) and concrete object ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Absurdity

    • An absurdity is a thing that is extremely unreasonable, so as to be foolish or not taken seriously, or the state of being so. "Absurd" is an adjective used to describe an absurdity, e.g., "this encyclopedia article is absurd". It derives from the Latin absurdum meaning "out of tune", hence irrational. The Latin surdus ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Affect (philosophy)

    • Affect (from Latin affectus or adfectus) is a concept, used in the philosophy of Baruch Spinoza and elaborated by Henri Bergson, Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari, that places emphasis on bodily experience. For Spinoza, as discussed in Parts Two and Three of his Ethics, affects are states of mind and body related to ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Always already

    • Always already is an adverb, sometimes written “always-already”, common in literary discourse. In a typical instance, "always already" appeared in the narrative theory of Paul Ricoeur, in the argument that "human action can be narrated...because it is always already symbolically mediated" (by signs, rule ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Amor fati

    • Amor fati (lit. "love of fate") is a Latin phrase that may be translated as "love of fate" or "love of one's fate". It is used to describe an attitude in which one sees everything that happens in one's life, including suffering and loss, as good or, at the very least, necessary, in that they are among the facts of one' ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Amour de soi

    • Amour de soi (French, "love of self") is a concept in the philosophy of Jean-Jacques Rousseau that refers to the kind of self-love that humans share with brute animals and predates the appearance of society. Acts committed out of amour de soi tend to be for individual well-being. They are naturally good and not malicio ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Amour-propre

    • Amour-propre (French, "self-love") is a concept in the philosophy of Jean-Jacques Rousseau that depends upon the opinion of others. Rousseau contrasts it with amour de soi, which also means "self-love", but which does not involve seeing oneself as others see one. According to Rousseau, amour de soi is more primitive a ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Anthropic principle

    • The anthropic principle is the philosophical consideration that observations of the Universe must be compatible with the conscious and sapient life that observes it. Some proponents of the anthropic principle reason that it explains why this universe has the age and the fundamental physical constants necessary to accom ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Arborescent

    • Arborescent is a term used by the French thinkers Deleuze and Guattari to characterize thinking marked by insistence on totalizing principles, binarism and dualism. The term, first used in A Thousand Plateaus (1980) where it was opposed to the rhizome, comes from the way genealogy trees are drawn: unidirectional progre ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Archimedean point

    • An Archimedean point (or "Punctum Archimedis") is a hypothetical vantage point from which an observer can objectively perceive the subject of inquiry, with a view of totality. The ideal of "removing oneself" from the object of study so that one can see it in relation to all other things, but remain independent of them, ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Atopy (philosophy)

    • Atopy (Greek ατοπία, atopía - placelessness, unclassifiable, of high originality; Socrates has often been called "átopos") describes the ineffability of things or emotions that are seldom experienced, that are outstanding and that are original in the strict sense. The term depicts a certain qual ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Aufheben

    • Aufheben or Aufhebung is a German word with several seemingly contradictory meanings, including "to lift up", "to abolish", "cancel" or "suspend", or "to sublate". The term has also been defined as "abolish", "preserve", and "transcend". In philosophy, aufheben is used by Hegel to explain what happens when a thesis and ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Bathos

    • Bathos (/ˈbeɪθɒs/ BAY-thoss;Greek: , lit. "depth") is a literary term, first coined by Alexander Pope in his 1727 essay "Peri Bathous", to describe amusingly failed attempts at sublimity (i.e., pathos). In particular, bathos is associated with anticlimax, an abrupt transition from a lofty style or grand ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • The Bear and the Gardener

    • The Bear and the Gardener is a fable of eastern origin that warns against making foolish friendships. There are several variant versions, both literary and oral, across the world and its folk elements are classed as Aarne-Thompson-Uther type 1586. The La Fontaine version has been taken as demonstrating various philosop ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Beerwolf

    • A Beerwolf, (Bärwolf, Werwolf ) is a German folk-tale monster commonly known as a Werewolf. Beerwolf is a concept introduced by Martin Luther (in a 1539 debate) that Luther uses to describe the Pope and Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. In the context of resistance theory, a "Beerwolf", "in contrast to a mere tyrant, n ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Binary opposition

    • A binary opposition (also binary system) is a pair of related terms or concepts that are opposite in meaning. Binary opposition is the system by which, in language and thought, two theoretical opposites are strictly defined and set off against one another. It is the contrast between two mutually exclusive terms, such a ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Biofact (philosophy)

    • In philosophy, sociology and the arts, the word "biofact" is a hybrid between an artifact and living being, or between concepts of nature and technology. Biofact was introduced as a neologism in 2001 by the German philosopher Nicole C. Karafyllis and fuses the words artifact and bios. In 2003, Karafyllis published ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Black cat analogy

    • The Black Cat Analogy is an analogy, accounting for the differences, mainly between science and religion, but also between others, such as philosophy and metaphysics. The analogy can be described like this: It can also be applied to other bodies of knowledge or learning, for example by Ernest Gellner to Marxism. ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Body without organs

    • The "body without organs" (French: corps sans organes) is a concept used by French philosopher Gilles Deleuze. It usually refers to the deeper reality underlying some well-formed whole constructed from fully functioning parts. At the same time, it may also describe a relationship to one's literal body. Deleuze began u ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Brute fact

    • In contemporary philosophy, a brute fact is a fact that has no explanation. More narrowly, brute facts may instead be defined as those facts which cannot be explained (as opposed to simply having no explanation). To reject the existence of brute facts is to think that everything can be explained. ("Everything can be ex ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Cambridge change

    • A Cambridge change is a philosophical concept of change according to which an entity x has changed if and only if there is some predicate F that is true (not true) of x at a time t1 but not true (true) of x at some later time t2. The term Cambridge change was coined by Peter Geach in the late 1960s, in reference to Ru ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Categorization

    • Categorization is the process in which ideas and objects are recognized, differentiated, and understood. Categorization implies that objects are grouped into categories, usually for some specific purpose. Ideally, a category illuminates a relationship between the subjects and objects of knowledge. Categorization is fun ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Causal adequacy principle

    • The causal adequacy principle (CAP) is a philosophical claim made by René Descartes that the cause of an object must contain at least as much reality as the object itself, whether formally or eminently. Descartes defends this principle by quoting Roman philosopher Lucretius: "Ex nihilo nihil fit", meaning "Nothing ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Change (philosophy)

    • Change refers to a difference in a state of affairs at different points in time. Although it is a familiar experience, an analysis of change provides subtle problems which have occupied philosophers since the Presocratics.Heraclitus is the first philosopher known to have directly raised such issues, with aphorisms such ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Choiceless awareness

    • Choiceless awareness is posited in philosophy, psychology, and spirituality to be the state of unpremeditated, complete awareness of the present without preference, effort, or compulsion. The term was popularized in mid-20th century by Jiddu Krishnamurti, in whose philosophy it signifies a main theme. Similar or relate ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Citationality

    • Citationality, in literary theory, is an author's citation (quoting) of other authors' works. Some works are highly citational (making frequent use of numerous allusion to and quotations from other works), while others seem to exist in a vacuum, without explicit references to other authors or texts. Some writers, such ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Class (philosophy)

    • In at least one source, a "class" is a set in which an individual member can be recognized in one or both of two ways: a) it is included in an extensional definition of the whole set (a list of set members) b) it matches an Intensional definition of one set member. By contrast, a "type" is an intensional definition; it ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Clinamen

    • Clinamen (/klaɪˈneɪmən/; plural clinamina, derived from clÄ«nāre, to incline) is the Latin name Lucretius gave to the unpredictable swerve of atoms, in order to defend the atomistic doctrine of Epicurus. According to Lucretius, the unpredictable swerve occurs "at no fixed place or time": When atoms m ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Closed concept

    • A closed concept is a concept where all the necessary and sufficient conditions required to include something within the concept can be listed. For example, the concept of a triangle is closed because a three-sided polygon, and only a three-sided polygon, is a triangle. All the conditions required to call something a t ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Compossibility

    • Compossibility is a philosophical concept from Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. According to Leibniz, a complete individual thing (for example a person) is characterized by all its properties, and these determine its relations with other individuals. The existence of one individual may contradict the existence of another. A ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Computational creativity

    • Computational creativity (also known as artificial creativity, mechanical creativity, creative computing or creative computation) is a multidisciplinary endeavour that is located at the intersection of the fields of artificial intelligence, cognitive psychology, philosophy, and the arts. The goal of computational crea ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Conjecture

    • In mathematics, a conjecture is a conclusion or proposition based on incomplete information, for which no proof has been found. Conjectures such as the Riemann hypothesis (still a conjecture) or Fermat's Last Theorem (which was a conjecture until proven in 1995) have shaped much of mathematical history as new areas of ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Construct (philosophy)

    • A construct in the philosophy of science is an ideal object, where the existence of the thing may be said to depend upon a subject's mind. This contrasts with a real object, where existence does not seem to depend on the existence of a mind. In a scientific theory, particularly within psychology, a hypothetical constr ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Cosmology episode

    • A cosmology episode is a sudden loss of meaning, followed eventually by a transformative pivot, which creates the conditions for revised meaning. In the wake of the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis, the Vietnam War, the 1977 Tenerife airport disaster, the 1984 Bhopal chemical disaster, and the relatively sudden insertion of ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • De dicto and de re

    • De dicto and de re are two phrases used to mark a distinction in intentional statements, associated with the intentional operators in many such statements. The distinction is used regularly in metaphysics and in philosophy of language. The literal translation of the phrase "de dicto" is "about what is said", whereas d ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Defeatism

    • Defeatism is the acceptance of defeat without struggle, often with negative connotations. It can be linked to pessimism in psychology. The term defeatism commonly is used in politics as a descriptor for an ideological stance that considers co-operation with the opposition party. In the military context, in wartime, an ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Desiring-production

    • Desiring-production (French: machine désirante, "desire-machine") is a term coined by the French thinkers Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari in their book Anti-Œdipus (1972). They oppose the Freudian conception of the unconscious as a representational "theater", instead favoring a productive "factory" model: de ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Deterritorialization

    • Deterritorialization (French: déterritorialisation) is a concept created by Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari in Anti-Oedipus (1972). The term "deterritorialization" first occurs in French psychoanalytic theory to refer, broadly, to the fluid, dissipated and schizophrenic nature of human subjectivity in contempor ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Device paradigm

    • In the philosophy of technology, the device paradigm is the way "technological devices" are perceived and consumed in modern society, according to Albert Borgmann. He introduced the term to help in understanding the nature of modern technology. Borgmann recommends the development or restoration of what he calls "focal ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Différance


    • Disciplinary institution

    • Disciplinary institutions (French: institution disciplinaire) is a concept proposed by Michel Foucault in Discipline and Punish (1975). School, prison, barracks, or the hospital are examples of historical disciplinary institutions, all created in their modern form in the 19th century with the Industrial Revolution. Dis ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Discourse

    • Discourse (from Latin discursus, "running to and from") denotes written and spoken communications such as: As discourse, an enouncement (statement) is not a unit of semiotic signs, but an abstract construct that allows the semiotic signs to assign meaning, and so communicate specific, repeatable communications to, bet ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Documentality

    • Documentality is the theory of documents that underlies the ontology of social reality put forward by the Italian philosopher Maurizio Ferraris (see Ferraris 2007, 2008, 2009a and 2009b). The theory gives to documents a central position within the sphere of social objects, conceived as distinct from physical and ideal ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Dwelling

    • In law, a dwelling (also residence, abode) is a self-contained unit of accommodation used by one or more households as a home, such as a house, apartment, mobile home, houseboat or other 'substantial' structure. A dwelling typically includes nearby outbuildings, sheds etc. within the curtilage of the property, excludin ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Ecocentrism

    • Ecocentrism (/ˌɛkoʊˈsɛntrɪzəm/; from Greek: οἶκος oikos, "house" and κέντρον kentron, "center") is a term used in ecological political philosophy to denote a nature-centered, as opposed to human-centered, system of values. The justification for ecocentrism usua ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • End of history

    • The end of history is a political and philosophical concept that supposes that a particular political, economic, or social system may develop that would constitute the end-point of humanity's sociocultural evolution and the final form of human government. A variety of authors have argued that a particular system is the ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Essentially contested concept

    • In a paper delivered to the Aristotelian Society on 12 March 1956,Walter Bryce Gallie (1912–1998) introduced the term essentially contested concept to facilitate an understanding of the different applications or interpretations of the sorts of abstract, qualitative, and evaluative notions—such as "art" and "s ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Eternal feminine

    • The eternal feminine is a psychological archetype or philosophical principle that idealizes an immutable concept of "woman". It is one component of gender essentialism, the belief that men and women have different core "essences" that cannot be altered by time or environment. The conceptual ideal was particularly vivid ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Eternity

    • Eternity in common parlance is either an infinite or an indeterminately long period of time. In classical philosophy, however, eternity is defined as what exists outside time while sempiternity is the concept that corresponds to the colloquial definition of eternity. Eternity is an important concept in many religions, ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Excellence

    • Excellence is a talent or quality which is unusually good and so surpasses ordinary standards. It is also used as a standard of performance as measured e.g. through economic indicators. Excellence is a continuously moving target that can be pursued through actions of integrity, being frontrunner in terms of products / ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Exemplification

    • Exemplification, in the philosophy of language, is a mode of symbolization characterized by the relation between a sample and what it refers to. Unlike ostension, which is the act of showing or pointing to a sample, exemplification is possession of a property plus reference to its label (Goodman, 1976). For exampl ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Extelligence

    • Extelligence is a term coined by Ian Stewart and Jack Cohen in their 1997 book Figments of Reality. They define it as the cultural capital that is available to us in the form of external media (e.g. tribal legends, folklore, nursery rhymes, books, videotapes, CD-ROMs, etc.) They contrast extelligence with intelligence ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Fa (concept)

    • Fa (Chinese: 法;Mandarin pronunciation: [fà]) is a concept in Chinese philosophy that covers ethics, logic, and law. It can be translated as "law" in some contexts, but more often as "model" or "standard." First gaining importance in the Mohist school of thought, the concept was principally elaborated in Lega ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • False pleasure

    • False pleasure may be a pleasure based on a false belief (as of supposedly having come into money), or a pleasure deemed to be in some way false, perhaps by comparison with truer, realler, or higher pleasures. Lacan maintained that philosophers should seek to "discern not true pleasures from false, for such a distinct ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Family resemblance

    • Family resemblance (German: Familienähnlichkeit) is a philosophical idea made popular by Ludwig Wittgenstein, with the best known exposition given in his posthumously published book Philosophical Investigations (1953). It argues that things which could be thought to be connected by one essential common feature may i ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Final vocabulary

    • Richard Rorty coined the term "final vocabulary" which he explicated in Contingency, Irony, and Solidarity to mean a set of communicative beliefs whose contingency the bearer more or less ignores. Final vocabulary describes any such beliefs, whether held by one human or all. The ironist always suspects a final vocabula ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Five elements (Japanese philosophy)

    • The five elements philosophy in Japanese Buddhism, godai (五大?, lit. "five great"), is derived from Indian Vastu shastra philosophy and Buddhist beliefs. It is perhaps best known in the Western world for its use in Miyamoto Musashi's famous text Gorin-no-sho (The Book of Five Rings), in which he explains diffe ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Five wits

    • These are the v. wyttes remeuing inwardly: Fyrst, commyn wytte, and than ymaginacyon, Fantasy, and estymacyon truely, And memory, as I make narracyon; Each upon other hath occupacyon. Hering, sight, smelling and fele, cheuing er wittes five, All sal be tint er sal pas, quen þe hert sal riue. In the time of William ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Free play (Derrida)

    • Free play is a literary concept from Jacques Derrida's 1966 essay, "Structure, Sign, and Play in the Discourse of the Human Sciences." In his essay, Derrida speaks of a philosophical “event” that has occurred to the historic foundation of structure. Before the “event,” man was the center of all thin ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Fusion of horizons

    • "Fusion of horizons" (German: Horizontverschmelzung) is a dialectical concept which results from the rejection of two alternatives: objectivism, whereby the objectification of the other is premised on the forgetting of oneself; and absolute knowledge, according to which universal history can be articulated within a sin ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Genealogy (philosophy)

    • In philosophy, genealogy is a historical technique in which one questions the commonly understood emergence of various philosophical and social beliefs by attempting to account for the scope, breadth or totality of Discourse extending the possibility of analysis as opposed to the Marxist use of the term Ideology to exp ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Genidentity

    • As introduced by Kurt Lewin, genidentity is an existential relationship underlying the genesis of an object from one moment to the next. What we usually consider to be an object really consists of multiple entities, which are the phases of the object at various times. Two objects are not identical because they have the ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Gestell

    • Gestell (or sometimes Ge-stell) is a German word used by twentieth-century German philosopher Martin Heidegger to describe what lies behind or beneath modern technology. He introduced the term in 1954 in his The Question Concerning Technology (the text is based on the lecture "The Framework" ("Das Gestell"), which he f ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Grounding (metaphysics)

    • Grounding is a topic in metaphysics. One thing is sometimes said to "ground" another when the first in some way accounts for the being of the second. For example, it is sometimes claimed that facts about physical particles ground facts about larger objects. ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Grouped Events

    • In philosophy, a grouped event is the experience of two or more events that occur in sequence or concurrently that can be subsequently categorized. Grouped events can fall into categories depending upon whether the events are causal or acausal (noncausal), and are with or without meaning (significance). Causal eve ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Half-truth

    • A partial-truth is a deceptive statement that includes some element of truth. The statement might be partly true, the statement may be totally true but only part of the whole truth, or it may use some deceptive element, such as improper punctuation, or double meaning, especially if the intent is to deceive, evade, blam ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Hate speech

    • Hate speech is speech which attacks a person or group on the basis of attributes such as gender, ethnic origin, religion, race, disability, or sexual orientation. In the law of some countries, hate speech is described as speech, gesture or conduct, writing, or display which is forbidden because it incites violence or p ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Historicity (philosophy)

    • Historicity in philosophy is the idea or fact that something has an historical origin and developed through history: concepts, practices, values. This is opposed to the belief that the same thing, in particular normative institutions or correlated ideologies, are natural or essential and thus exist universally. Histor ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Holocentric

    • Holocentric is a philosophical position which focuses on solutions as the outcome of human activity and on critical learning. One of the four fundamental worldview types proposed by Richard Bawden in 1997, the other three being Technocentric, Ecocentric, and Egocentric. Drawing on ideas introduced by Burrell and Morg ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Homo faber

    • Homo faber (Latin for "Man the Maker") is the concept of human beings able to control their fate and their environment through tools. In Latin literature, Appius Claudius Caecus uses this term in his Sententiæ, referring to the ability of man to control his destiny and what surrounds him: Homo faber suae quisqu ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Homo sacer

    • Homo sacer (Latin for "the sacred man" or "the accursed man") is a figure of Roman law: a person who is banned and may be killed by anybody, but may not be sacrificed in a religious ritual. The meaning of the term sacer in Ancient Roman religion is not fully congruent with the meaning it took after Christianization, a ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Humanitas

    • Humanitas is a Latin noun meaning human nature, civilization and kindness. The Latin word humanitas corresponded to the Greek concepts of philanthrôpía (loving what makes us human) and paideia (education) which were amalgamated with a series of qualities that made up the traditional unwritten Roman code of c ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Hypomnema

    • Hypomnema (Greek. ὑπόμνημα, plural ὑπομνήματα, hypomnemata), also spelled hupomnema, is a Greek word with several translations into English including a reminder, a note, a public record, a commentary, an anecdotal record, a draft, a copy, and other variations on ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Ideal speech situation

    • An ideal speech situation was a term introduced in the early philosophy of Jürgen Habermas. It argues that an ideal speech situation is found when communication between individuals is governed by basic, implied rules. In an ideal speech situation, participants would be able to evaluate each other’s assertions s ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Idée reçue


    • Ideological repression

    • Ideological repression refers to forceful activities against competing ideologies and philosophies. Alan Wolfe defines ideological repression as "the attempt to manipulate people's consciousness so they accept the ruling ideology, and distrust and refuse to be moved by competing ideologies". Among instruments of ideo ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Ideology

    • Ideology is a collection of beliefs held by an individual, group or society. It can be described as a set of conscious and unconscious ideas which make up one's beliefs, goals, expectations, and motivations. An ideology is a comprehensive normative vision that is followed by people, governments, or other groups that is ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Idol (philosophy)

    • Several philosophers have developed concepts that they have called idols, including: ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Ignorance

    • Ignorance is the lack of knowledge. The word ignorant is an adjective describing a person in the state of being unaware and is often (incorrectly) used to describe individuals who deliberately ignore or disregard important information or facts. Ignoramus is commonly used in the US as a term for someone who is willfull ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Immanent critique

    • Immanent critique is a method of discussing culture which aims to locate contradictions in society's rules and systems. This method is used in the study of cultural forms in philosophy and the social sciences and humanities. It may be contrasted with "transcendental" Kantian critical philosophy. Immanent critique furth ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Immanent evaluation

    • Immanent evaluation is a philosophical concept used by Gilles Deleuze in Nietzsche and Philosophy (1962), opposed to transcendent judgment. Friedrich Nietzsche had argued, in On the Genealogy of Morals, that moral philosophy was nihilist in its judgment of the world based on transcendent values: life was rejected by s ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Implicate and explicate order

    • Implicate order and explicate order are ontological concepts for quantum theory coined by theoretical physicist David Bohm during the early 1980s. They are used to describe two different frameworks for understanding the same phenomenon or aspect of reality. In particular, the concepts were developed in order to explain ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Individuation

    • The principle of individuation, or principium individuationis, describes the manner in which a thing is identified as distinguished from other things. The concept appears in numerous fields and is encountered in works of Carl Gustav Jung, Gilbert Simondon, Bernard Stiegler, Friedrich Nietzsche, Arthur Schopenhauer, Da ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Ineffability

    • Ineffability is concerned with ideas that cannot or should not be expressed in spoken words (or language in general), often being in the form of a taboo or incomprehensible term. This property is commonly associated with philosophy, aspects of existence, and similar concepts that are inherently "too great", complex, or ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Infinity

    • Infinity (symbol: ∞) is an abstract concept describing something without any bound or larger than any number. Philosophers have speculated about the nature of the infinite, such as Zeno of Elea, who proposed many paradoxes involving infinity, and Eudoxus of Cnidus, who used the idea of infinitely small quantities ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Innocence

    • Innocence (or ) is a lack of guilt, with respect to any kind of crime, or wrongdoing. In a legal context, innocence is to the lack of legal guilt of an individual, with respect to a crime. In other contexts, it is a lack of experience. Innocence can also imply lesser experience in either a relative view to social ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Insignificance

    • People may face feelings of insignificance due to a number of causes, including having low self-esteem, being depressed, living in a huge, impersonal city, comparing themselves to wealthy celebrity success stories, working in a huge bureaucracy, or being in awe of a natural wonder. A person's "...sense of personal ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Intension

    • In linguistics, logic, philosophy, and other fields, an intension is any property or quality connoted by a word, phrase, or another symbol. In the case of a word, the word's definition often implies an intension. For instance, intension of the word '[plant]' includes properties like "being composed of cellulose" and "a ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Intentional stance

    • The intentional stance is a term coined by philosopher Daniel Dennett for the level of abstraction in which we view the behavior of a thing in terms of mental properties. It is part of a theory of mental content proposed by Dennett, which provides the underpinnings of his later works on free will, consciousness, folk p ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Interpellation (philosophy)

    • Interpellation is associated in particular with the work of French philosopher Louis Althusser. In Marxist theory, interpellation is an important concept regarding the notion of ideology. According to Althusser, every society is made up of Ideological State Apparatuses (ISAs) and Repressive State Apparatuses (RSAs) whi ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Invagination

    • Invagination is the infolding of one part within another part of a structure, a folding that creates a pocket. The term, originally used in embryology, has been adopted in other disciplines as well. It has many meanings in each term or subject. The term is used to explain a special kind of metanarrative. It was first ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Jing (concept)

    • Jing (Chinese: 敬; pinyin: Jìng) is a concept in Chinese philosophy which is typically translated as "reverence." It is often used by Confucius in the term gōngjìng (Chinese: 恭敬), meaning "respectful reverence". The Confucian notion of respect has been likened to the later, western Kantian notion ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Jus sanguinis

    • Jus sanguinis (Latin: right of blood) is a principle of nationality law by which citizenship is not determined by place of birth but by having one or both parents who are citizens of the state. Children at birth may automatically be citizens if their parents have state citizenship or national identities of ethnic, cult ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Jus soli

    • Jus soli (English pronunciation: /dʒʌs ˈsoʊlaɪ/; Latin pronunciation: [juːs ˈsɔ.liː]), meaning 'right of the soil', commonly referred to as birthright citizenship, is the right of anyone born in the territory of a state to nationality or citizenship. As an unconditional basis for citizensh ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Katastematic pleasure

    • In Epicurean philosophy, katastematic pleasure is pleasure felt when being in a particular state, as opposed to kinetic pleasure, which is felt while performing an activity. It is the pleasure that accompanies well-being as such. Absence of pain, aponia, and lack of disturbance of mind, ataraxia, are two of the katast ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Knight of faith

    • The knight of faith is an individual who has placed complete faith in himself and in God and can act freely and independently from the world. The 19th-century Danish philosopher Søren Kierkegaard vicariously discusses the knight of faith in several of his pseudonymic works, with the most in-depth and detailed critiq ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Laïcité


    • Last man

    • The last man (German: der letzte Mensch) is a term used by the philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche in Thus Spoke Zarathustra to describe the antithesis of the imagined superior being, the Übermensch, whose imminent appearance is heralded by Zarathustra. The last man is tired of life, takes no risks, and seeks only comfo ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • League of peace

    • League of peace (Latin: foedus pacificum) is an expression coined by Immanuel Kant in his work "Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch". The league of peace should be distinguished from a peace treaty (pactum pacis) because a peace treaty prevents or terminates only one war, while the league of peace seeks to end all ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Leibniz's gap


    • Leveling (philosophy)

    • Leveling is a social process in which the uniqueness of the individual is rendered non-existent by assigning equal value to all aspects of human endeavors, thus missing all the intricacies and subtle complexities of human identity. Leveling is highly associated with existential philosopher Søren Kierkegaard. Fo ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Limit-experience

    • A limit-experience (French: expérience limite) is a type of action or experience which approaches the edge of living in terms of its intensity and its seeming impossibility. This approach has led to the seeking of limit experiences as a sort of dark mysticism. A limit experience breaks the subject from itself. The i ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Line of flight

    • A line of flight (French: ligne de fuite) is a concept developed by Gilles Deleuze and used extensively in his work with Félix Guattari. Translator Brian Massumi notes that in French, "Fuite covers not only the act of fleeing or eluding but also flowing, leaking, and disappearing into the distance (the vanishing poi ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Master–slave dialectic


    • Meaning of life

    • The meaning of life, or the answer to the question "What is the meaning of life?", pertains to the significance of living or existence in general. Many other related questions include "Why are we here?", "What is life all about?", or "What is the purpose of existence?" There have been a large number of proposed answers ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Mental fact

    • Mental facts include such things as perceptions, feelings, and judgments. Mental facts are ultimately caused by physical facts, in that mental facts depend on physical and biological functions which are required for consciousness. The physical and biological processes which are necessary for consciousness enable consci ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Metaxy

    • Metaxy (Greek: μεταξύ) is defined in Plato's Symposium via the character of the priestess Diotima as the "in-between" or "middle ground". Diotima, tutoring Socrates, uses the term to show how oral tradition can be perceived by different people in different ways. In the poem by Socrates she depicts Ero ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Mimpathy

    • Mimpathy (German: Nachfühlen, literally "after experience") is a philosophical concept related to empathy and sympathy. In Dagobert D. Runes' 1942 Dictionary of Philosophy, contributor Herman Hausheer defines mimpathy as the sharing of another's feelings on a matter, without necessarily experiencing feelings of symp ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Minority (philosophy)

    • Minority, and the related concept of "becoming-minor," is a philosophical concept developed by Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari in their books Kafka: Towards a Minor Literature (1975), A Thousand Plateaus (1980), and elsewhere. In these texts, they criticize the concept of "majority". For Deleuze and Guattari, "bec ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Multiplicity (philosophy)

    • Multiplicity is an assertion that there is more than one geo-historical trajectory. It is a philosophical concept that Edmund Husserl and Henri Bergson developed by analogy with Riemann's description of the mathematical concept. It forms an important part of the philosophy of Gilles Deleuze, particularly in his collabo ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Mundane reason

    • Mundane Reason is a book by Melvin Pollner. The basic premise of the concept of mundane reason is that the standard assumptions about reality that people typically make as they go about day to day, including the very fact that they experience their reality as perfectly natural, are actually the result of social, cultu ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Negative capability

    • Negative capability was a phrase first used by Romantic poet John Keats in 1817 to characterise the capacity of the greatest writers (particularly Shakespeare) to pursue a vision of artistic beauty even when it leads them into intellectual confusion and uncertainty, as opposed to a preference for philosophical certaint ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Nemesis (philosophy)

    • Nemesis (Greek: νέμεσις) is a philosophical term first created by Aristotle in his Nichomachean Ethics. The term means one who feels pain caused by others' undeserved success. It is part of a trio of terms, with epikhairekakia (ἐπιχαιρεκακία ) meaning one wh ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Neurathian bootstrap

    • Neurath's boat is a simile used in anti-foundational accounts of knowledge, especially in the philosophy of science, which was first formulated by Otto Neurath. It is based in part on the Ship of Theseus which, however, is standardly used to illustrate other philosophical questions, to do with problems of identity. It ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Neuromantic (philosophy)

    • According to the anthropologist Bradd Shorre, the neuromantic refers to the cybernetic frame of mind excited among computer enthusiasts as they experience what Michael Heim called "the all-at-once simultaneity of totalizing presentness". Shorre explains "the sense of mastery over language resources that word processing ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Nietzschean affirmation

    • Nietzschean affirmation (also known as life-affirming) (German: Bejahung) is a concept in the philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche. The best example of this concept can be found in Nietzsche's Nachlass: If we affirm one single moment, we thus affirm not only ourselves but all existence. For nothing is self-sufficient, ne ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Noema

    • Noema (plural: noemata) derives from the Greek word νόημα meaning "thought" or "what is thought about."Edmund Husserl used noema as a technical term in phenomenology to stand for the object or content of a thought, judgment, or perception, but its precise meaning in his work has remained a matter of cont ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Nomological

    • In philosophy, nomological denotes something resembling general laws, especially laws that lack logical necessity or theoretical underpinnings; they just are. Nomological things are "lawlike". See also: ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Normative

    • Normative means relating to an ideal standard or model, or being based on what is considered to be the normal or correct way of doing something. Normative has specialized meanings in different academic disciplines such as philosophy, social sciences, and law. In philosophy, normative statements make claims about ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Normative science

    • In the applied sciences, normative science is a type of information that is developed, presented, or interpreted based on an assumed, usually unstated, preference for a particular policy or class of policies. Regular or traditional science does not presuppose a policy preference, but normative science, by definition, d ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • One Divides Into Two

    • The One Divides into Two controversy (一分为二) was an ideological debate about the nature of contradiction that took place in China in 1964. The concept originated in Lenin's Philosophical Notebooks. The philosopher Yang Xianzhen, originated the idea of "Two Unites into One", which he said was the prim ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Palingenesis

    • Palingenesis (/ˌpælɪnˈdʒɛnəsɪs/; or palingenesia) is a concept of rebirth or re-creation, used in various contexts in philosophy, theology, politics, and biology. Its meaning stems from Greek palin, meaning again, and genesis, meaning birth. It is a central component of Roger Griffin's analysis ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Panopticon

    • The Panopticon is a type of institutional building designed by the English philosopher and social theorist Jeremy Bentham in the late 18th century. The concept of the design is to allow all (pan-) inmates of an institution to be observed (-opticon) by a single watchman without the inmates being able to tell whether or ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Passions (philosophy)

    • In philosophy and religion the passions are the instinctive, emotional, primitive drives in a human being (including, for example, lust, anger, aggression and jealousy) which a human being must restrain, channel, develop and sublimate in order to be possessed of wisdom. Passions in religion and philosophy have a differ ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Perpetual peace

    • Perpetual peace refers to a state of affairs where peace is permanently established over a certain area. The idea of perpetual peace first came up during the 18th century, when Charles-Irénée Castel de Saint-Pierre published his essay "Project for Perpetual Peace" anonymously while working as the negotiator for ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Philosophical progress

    • A prominent question in metaphilosophy is that of whether philosophical progress occurs, and more so, whether such progress in philosophy is even possible. It has even been disputed, most notably by Ludwig Wittgenstein, whether genuine philosophical problems actually exist. The opposite has also been claimed, most nota ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Plane of immanence

    • Plane of immanence (French: plan d'immanence) is a founding concept in the metaphysics or ontology of French philosopher Gilles Deleuze. Immanence, meaning "existing or remaining within" generally offers a relative opposition to transcendence, that which is beyond or outside. Deleuze rejects the idea that life and crea ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Political consciousness

    • Following the work of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Karl Marx outlined the workings of a political consciousness. Consciousness typically refers to the idea of a being who is self-aware. It is a distinction often reserved for human beings. This remains the original and most common usage of the term. For Marx, co ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Posthegemony

    • Posthegemony or post-hegemony is a concept which designates a period or a situation in which hegemony is no longer said to function as the organizing principle of a national or post-national social order, or of the relationships between and amongst nation-states within the global order. The concept has different meanin ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Potential person

    • In philosophy and bioethics, potential (future) person (in plural, sometimes termed potential people) has been defined as an entity which is not currently a person but which is capable of developing into a person, given certain biologically and/or technically possible conditions. The term unconceived has also been used ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Pour soi

    • Being and Nothingness

      Being and Nothingness: An Essay on Phenomenological Ontology (French: L'Être et le néant : Essai d'ontologie phénoménologique), sometimes subtitled A Phenomenological Essay on Ontology, is a 1943 book by philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre. Sartre's main purpose is to assert the individual's existence as prior ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Power (social and political)

    • In social science and politics, power is the ability to influence or outright control the behavior of people. The term "authority" is often used for power perceived as legitimate by the social structure. Power can be seen as evil or unjust, but the exercise of power is accepted as to humans as social beings. In busine ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Praxis (process)

    • Praxis (Ancient Greek: πρᾶξις) is the process by which a theory, lesson, or skill is enacted, embodied, or realized. "Praxis" may also refer to the act of engaging, applying, exercising, realizing, or practising ideas. This has been a recurrent topic in the field of philosophy, discussed in the writ ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Principled Distance

    • Principled Distance is a new model of secularism given by Rajeev Bhargava. It is different from western model of secularism which is the separation of government institutions and persons mandated to represent the state from religious institutions and religious dignitaries. He says that Indian secularism did not erect a ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Privation

    • Privation is the absence or lack of basic necessities. In psychology, privation occurs when a child has no opportunity to form a relationship with a parent figure, or when such relationship is distorted, due to their treatment. It is different to deprivation, which occurs when an established relationship is severed. I ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Property (philosophy)

    • In philosophy, mathematics, and logic, a property is a characteristic of an object; a red object is said to have the property of redness. The property may be considered a form of object in its own right, able to possess other properties. A property however differs from individual objects in that it may be instantiated, ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Qi

    • Qi

      In traditional Chinese culture, qì or ch'i ( qì, also known as khí in Vietnamese culture, gi in Korean culture, ki in Japanese culture) is an active principle forming part of any living thing.Qi literally translates as "breath", "air", or "gas", and figuratively as "material energy", "life force", or "energ ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Qing (concept)

    • In Chinese philosophy, qing (情) is a concept translated variously as "reality", "feelings," "genuine", "essence", "disposition", or "emotion". Neo-Confucians understand qing as products of environmental circumstances affecting xing, or innate human nature. This interpretation of qing as an emotional or disposition ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Radical unintelligibility

    • Radical Unintelligibility, a term coined by Bernard Lonergan, is the philosophical idea that we can act against our better judgment. We can refuse to choose what we know is worth choosing. It is the refusal to make a decision that one deems one ought to make. Mortal sin is radically unintelligible: when we commit a mor ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Real freedom

    • Real freedom is a term coined by the political philosopher and economist Philippe Van Parijs. It expands upon notions of negative freedom by incorporating not simply institutional or other constraints on a person's choices, but also the requirements of physical reality, resources and personal capacity. To have real fre ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Reflective disclosure

    • Reflective disclosure is a model of social criticism proposed and developed by philosopher Nikolas Kompridis. It is partly based on Martin Heidegger's insights into the phenomenon of world disclosure, which Kompridis applies to the field of political theory. The term refers to practices through which we can imagine and ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Relation (history of concept)

    • The concept of relation as a term used in general philosophy has a long and complicated history. One of the interests for the Greek philosophers lay in the number of ways in which a particular thing might be described, and the establishment of a relation between one thing and another was one of these. A second interest ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Repressive desublimation

    • Repressive desublimation is a term first coined by philosopher and sociologist Herbert Marcuse in his 1964 work One-Dimensional Man, that refers to the way in which, in advanced industrial society (capitalism), "the progress of technological rationality is liquidating the oppositional and transcending elements in the ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Reterritorialization

    • Reterritorialization (French: reterritorialisation) is the restructuring of a place or territory that has experienced deterritorialization. Deterritorialization is a term created by Deleuze and Guattari in their philosophical project Capitalism and Schizophrenia (1972–1980). They distinguished that relative deterr ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Rhizome (philosophy)

    • Rhizome is a philosophical concept developed by Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari in their Capitalism and Schizophrenia (1972–1980) project. It is what Deleuze calls an "image of thought," based on the botanical rhizome, that apprehends multiplicities. Deleuze and Guattari use the terms "rhizome" and "rhiz ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Right to exist

    • The right to exist is said to be an attribute of nations. According to an essay by the nineteenth century French philosopher Ernest Renan, a state has the right to exist when individuals are willing to sacrifice their own interests for the community it represents. Unlike self-determination, the right to exist is an att ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • The saying and the said

    • Emmanuel Levinas, in an attempt to overcome a certain naivety within his exploration of ethics as given in what he describes as the face-to-face encounter, attempts to introduce language into what had only been a "picture" of such an encounter. He distinguishes between The saying of something and what it is that is sai ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Schizoanalysis

    • Schizoanalysis (French: schizanalyse; schizo- from Greek σχίζειν skhizein, meaning "to split") is a concept created by philosopher Gilles Deleuze and psychoanalyst Félix Guattari and first expounded in their book Anti-Oedipus (1972). Its formulation was continued in their follow-up work, A Thous ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Science of man

    • The science of man (or the science of human nature) is a topic in David Hume's 18th century experimental philosophy A Treatise of Human Nature (1739). The science of man expanded the understanding of facets of human nature, including senses, impressions, ideas, imagination, passions, morality, justice, and society. Th ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Sense data

    • In the philosophy of perception, the theory of sense data was a popular view held in the early 20th century by philosophers such as Bertrand Russell, C. D. Broad, H. H. Price, A.J. Ayer, and G.E. Moore. Sense data are supposedly mind-dependent objects whose existence and properties are known directly to us in perceptio ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Si (concept)

    • Si 思 is a concept in Chinese philosophy that is usually translated as "reflection" or "concentration." It refers to a species of attentive, non-rational thought that is directed at a specific subject. ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Simulacrum

    • A simulacrum (plural: simulacra from Latin: simulacrum, which means "likeness, similarity") is a representation or imitation of a person or thing. The word was first recorded in the English language in the late 16th century, used to describe a representation, such as a statue or a painting, especially of a god. By the ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Sittlichkeit

    • Sittlichkeit is the concept of "ethical life" or "ethical order" furthered by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel in the Elements of the Philosophy of Right (PR). Sittlichkeit is the third sphere of right (Recht) that Hegel establishes, and is marked by family life, civil society, and the State. It attempts to bridge in ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Soku hi

    • Soku-hi (Japanese: 即非) means "is and is not". The term is primarily used by the representatives of the Kyoto School of Eastern philosophy. The logic of soku-hi or "is and is not" represents a balanced logic of symbolization reflecting sensitivity to the mutual determination of universality and particularity ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Sortal

    • Sortal is a concept that has been used by some philosophers in discussing issues of identity, persistence and change. The simplest property of a sortal is that it can be counted, i.e. can take numbers as modifiers. For example, "pea" is a sortal in the sentence "I want two peas", whereas "water" is not a sortal in the ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • State of nature

    • The state of nature is a concept used in moral and political philosophy, religion, social contract theories and international law to denote the hypothetical conditions of what the lives of people might have been like before societies came into existence. There must have been a time before organized societies existed, a ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Superficiality

    • What social psychologists call "the principle of superficiality versus depth" has pervaded Western culture since at least the time of Plato. Socrates sought to convince his debaters to turn from the superficiality of a worldview based on the acceptance of convention to the examined life of philosophy, founded (as ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Superrationality

    • In economics and game theory, a participant is considered to have superrationality (or renormalized rationality) if they have perfect rationality (and thus maximize their own utility) but assume that all other players are superrational too and that a superrational individual will always come up with the same strategy a ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Technicism

    • Transhumanism (abbreviated as H+ or h+) is an international intellectual movement that aims to transform the human condition by developing and making widely available sophisticated technologies to greatly enhance human intellect and physiology. Transhumanist thinkers study the potential benefits and dangers of emergin ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Tetrapharmakos

    • The Tetrapharmakos (τετραφάρμακος) "four-part remedy" is a summary of the first four of the Κύριαι Δόξαι (Kuriai Doxai, the forty Epicurean Principal Doctrines given by Diogenes Laertius in his Life of Epicurus) in Epicureanism, a recipe for leadin ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Thrownness

    • Thrownness (German: Geworfenheit) is a concept introduced by German philosopher Martin Heidegger (1889–1976) to describe humans' individual existences as "being thrown" (geworfen) into the world. Geworfen denotes the arbitrary or inscrutable nature of Dasein that connects the past with the present. The past, throu ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Thumos

    • Thumos (also commonly spelled thymo; Greek: θυμός) is a Greek word expressing the concept of "spiritedness" (as in "spirited stallion" or "spirited debate"). The word indicates a physical association with breath or blood and is also used to express the human desire for recognition. In Homer's works, thu ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Ti (concept)

    • Ti (simplified Chinese: 体; traditional Chinese: 體; pinyin: tǐ; Wade–Giles: t'i) is the Chinese word for or body. In Neo-Confucianism, this concept is often associated with , which means "use" or "function." ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Transcendental apperception

    • In philosophy, Kantian transcendental apperception is that which Immanuel Kant thought makes experience possible. It is where the self and the world come together. Transcendental apperception is the uniting and building of coherent consciousness out of different elementary inner experiences (differing in both time and ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Transmodernity

    • Transmodernity is a philosophical concept used by the Spanish philosopher and feminist Rosa María Rodríguez Magda in her 1989 essay La sonrisa de Saturno: Hacia una teoría transmoderna. Her approach, based on Hegelian logic, views modernity, postmodernity, and transmodernity as a dialectic triad in which trans ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Transparent eyeball

    • The transparent eyeball is a philosophical metaphor originated by Ralph Waldo Emerson. The transparent eyeball is a representation of an eye that is absorbent rather than reflective, and therefore takes in all that nature has to offer. Emerson intends that the individual become one with nature, and the transparent eyeb ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Transvaluation of values

    • The revaluation of all values or the transvaluation of all values is a concept from the philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche. Elaborating the concept in The Antichrist, Nietzsche asserts that Christianity, not merely as a religion but also as the predominant moral system of the Western world, inverts nature, and is "host ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Transworld identity

    • Transworld Identity is the idea that objects exist in multiple possible worlds. ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Trichotomy (philosophy)

    • A trichotomy is a three-way classificatory division. Some philosophers pursued trichotomies. Important trichotomies discussed by Aquinas include the causal principles (agent, patient, act), the potencies for the intellect (imagination, cogitative power, and memory and reminiscence), and the acts of the intellect (conc ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Truism

    • A truism is a claim that is so obvious or self-evident as to be hardly worth mentioning, except as a reminder or as a rhetorical or literary device, and is the opposite of falsism. In philosophy, a sentence which asserts incomplete truth conditions for a proposition may be regarded as a truism. An example of such a se ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Truth

    • Truth is most often used to mean being in accord with fact or reality, or fidelity to an original or standard. Truth may also often be used in modern contexts to refer to an idea of "truth to self," or authenticity. The commonly understood opposite of truth is falsehood, which, correspondingly, can also take on a logi ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Übermensch


    • Unicity (philosophy)

    • The principle of unicity explains that each event, each living being, each object, each person or each circumstance has the characteristic of its uniqueness, of its particularity. Other similar events, living beings, objects, persons or circumstances may exist, but never the same entity. ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Unity of opposites

    • The unity of opposites is the central category of dialectics, said to be related to the notion of non-duality in a deep sense. It is viewed sometimes as either a metaphysical concept, a philosophical concept or a scientific concept. It defines a situation in which the existence or identity of a thing (or situation) dep ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Unity of the proposition

    • In philosophy, the unity of the proposition is the problem of explaining how a sentence in the indicative mood expresses more than just what a list of proper names expresses. The problem was discussed under this name by Bertrand Russell, but can be traced back to Plato. In Plato's Sophist, the simplest kind of sen ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Universality (philosophy)

    • In philosophy, universality is the notion that universal facts can be discovered and is therefore understood as being in opposition to relativism. In certain religions, universalism is the quality ascribed to an entity whose existence is consistent throughout the universe. This article also discusses Kantian and Plato ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Urdoxa

    • Urdoxa is a portmanteau of the German prefix ur- and the Ancient Greek δόξα (doxa), meaning "primary" or "first" doctrine. For Plato and Aristotle, the notion of "doxa" meant "opinion". The term grew in popular usage in the work of Edmund Husserl whose phenomenological project was indexed on attempting, vi ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Via media

    • Via media is a Latin phrase meaning "the middle road" and is a philosophical maxim for life which advocates moderation in all thoughts and actions. Originating from early Ancient Greek philosophy, where Aristotle (384–322 BCE) taught moderation, urging his students to follow the middle road between extremes, the ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Virtuality (philosophy)

    • Virtuality is a concept in philosophy, particularly that of French thinker Gilles Deleuze. Deleuze used the term virtual to refer to an aspect of reality that is ideal, but nonetheless real. An example of this is the meaning, or sense, of a proposition that is not a material aspect of that proposition (whether written ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Volksgeist

    • Volksgeist is a German loanword (literally meaning "spirit of the people" or "National character") for a unique "spirit" possessed collectively by each people or nation. The idea is often attributed to the philosopher Johann Gottfried Herder, but he never actually used the word. Hegel coined the term Volksgeist in 1801 ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Wen and wu

    • Wén 文 and wǔ æ­¦ - a conceptual pair in Chinese philosophy and political culture describing opposition and complementarity of civil ① and military ② realms of government. Differentiation between wen and wu was engaged in discussions on criminal punishment, administrative control, creation and re ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Will to power

    • The will to power (German: der Wille zur Macht) is a prominent concept in the philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche. The will to power describes what Nietzsche may have believed to be the main driving force in humans – achievement, ambition, and the striving to reach the highest possible position in life. These are al ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Xin (concept)

    • In Chinese philosophy, xin can refer to one's "disposition" or "feelings" (Chinese: 心; pinyin: xÄ«n), or to one's confidence or trust in something or someone (Chinese: ä¿¡; pinyin: xìn). Literally, xin (心) refers to the physical heart, though it is sometimes translated as "mind" as the ancient Chinese ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Zeitgeist

    • The Zeitgeist (spirit of the age or spirit of the time) is the dominant set of ideals and beliefs that motivate the actions of the members of a society in a particular period in time. For example, the Zeitgeist of modernism motivated the creation of new forms in the fields of architecture, art, and fashion during much ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    Wikipedia
  • What Else?

    • Philosophical concepts

Extras