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    Nutrition

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    • Alcohol and health

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    • Animal fats

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    • Nutritional deficiencies

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    • Dehydration

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    • Dietary supplements

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    • Dietetics

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    • Diets

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    • Nutritional diseases

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    • Drinking water

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    • Eating behaviors

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    • Food science

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    • Food studies journals

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    • Force-feeding

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    • Human weight

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    • Hunger

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    • Infant feeding

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    • Nutrition and dietetics journals

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    • Malnutrition

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    • Medical food

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    • Nutrients

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    • Nutritional advice pyramids

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    • Nutritional supplement companies

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    • Nutritionists

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    • Obesity

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    • Plant nutrition

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    • Prebiotics (nutrition)

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    • Probiotics

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    • Nutrition


    • Outline of nutrition

    • The following is provided as an overview of and a topical guide to nutrition: Nutrition – study of the relationship between diet and states of health and disease. The scope of nutrition science ranges from malnutrition to optimal health. ... Read »


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    • 11S globulin family

    • 11S globulin family is a family of globulin proteins chiefly found in seeds of legumes (legumin-like), along with 7S family, often found in a protein fraction within an protein isolate. They are used as storage of important nutrients for plant growth, and therefore hardy enough to pass through the human digestive syste ... Read »


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    • Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics

    • Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics

      The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics is the United States' largest organization of food and nutrition professionals, and represents over 100,000 credentialed practitioners — registered dietitian nutritionists, dietetic technicians, registered, and other dietetics professionals holding undergraduate and advanced ... Read »


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    • Acceptable daily intake

    • Acceptable daily intake or ADI is a measure of the amount of a specific substance (originally applied for a food additive, later also for a residue of a veterinary drug or pesticide) in food or drinking water that can be ingested (orally) on a daily basis over a lifetime without an appreciable health risk. ADIs are exp ... Read »


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    • African Nutrition Leadership Programme

    • The African Nutrition Leadership Programme (ANLP) is a 10 days training course that started in 2002 to assist the development of future leaders in the field of human nutrition in Africa. The emphasis of the programme is on understanding and developing the qualities and skills of leaders, team building, communication an ... Read »


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    • Alliesthesia

    • Alliesthesia (αλλoς (allós) - other, and αἴσθησις (aísthēsis) - sensation, perception ; French : alliesthésie, German : Alliästhesie) describes the dependence of the perception of pleasure or disgust perceived when consuming a stimulus on the "milieu inté ... Read »


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    • Alliin

    • Alliin

      Alliin /ˈæli.ɪn/ is a sulfoxide that is a natural constituent of fresh garlic. It is a derivative of the amino acid cysteine. When fresh garlic is chopped or crushed, the enzyme alliinase converts alliin into allicin, which is responsible for the aroma of fresh garlic. Garlic has been used since antiquity as a ... Read »


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    • Alpha-GPC

    • Alpha-GPC

      L-Alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine (alpha-GPC, choline alfoscerate) is a natural choline compound found in the brain. It is also a parasympathomimetic acetylcholine precursor which may have potential for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. Alpha-GPC rapidly delivers choline to the brain across the ... Read »


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    • American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition

    • The American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ASPEN) is a US-based professional organization. Its members include dieticians, nurses, pharmacists, physicians and scientists who are involved in providing clinical nutrition to patients. ASPEN was founded in 1976. It has over 6,000 members. Its stated missio ... Read »


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    • Amino acid score

    • Amino acid score, in combination with protein digestibility, is the method used to determine if a protein is complete. PDCAAS and DIAAS are the two major protein standards which determine the completeness of proteins by their unique composition of essential amino acids. ... Read »


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    • An apple a day keeps the doctor away

    • "An apple a day keeps the doctor away" is an English-language proverb claiming that apple consumption or fruits and vegetables in general has health benefits. The first recorded use of the proverb was in the 1860s in Wales, (country of United Kingdom). The original wording of the saying was "Eat an apple on going to b ... Read »


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    • Animal nutrition

    • Animal nutrition focuses on the dietary needs of domesticated animals, primarily those in agriculture and food production. There are seven major classes of nutrients: carbohydrates, fats, fibre, minerals, protein, vitamin, and water. The macronutrients (excluding fiber and water) provide structural material (amino ac ... Read »


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    • Animal nutritionist

    • An animal nutritionist is a person who specializes in animal nutrition, which is especially concerned with the dietary needs of animals in captivity: , pets, and animals in wildlife rehabilitation facilities. The science of animal nutrition encompasses principles of chemistry (especially biochemistry), physics, mathem ... Read »


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    • Anthoxanthin

    • Anthoxanthins (flavones and flavonols) are a type of flavonoid pigments in plants. Anthoxanthins are water-soluble pigments which range in color from white or colorless to a creamy to yellow, often on petals of flowers. These pigments are generally whiter in an acid medium and yellowed in an alkaline medium. They are v ... Read »


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    • Antinutrient

    • Antinutrients are natural or synthetic compounds that interfere with the absorption of nutrients. Nutrition studies focus on those antinutrients commonly found in food sources and beverages. Protease inhibitors are substances that inhibit the actions of trypsin, pepsin and other proteases in the gut, preventing th ... Read »


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    • Atwater system

    • The Atwater system (after Wilbur Olin Atwater) or derivatives of this system are used for the calculation of the available energy of foods. The system was developed largely from the experimental studies of Atwater and his colleagues in the later part of the 19th century and the early years of the 20th at Wesleyan Unive ... Read »


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    • Authority Nutrition

    • Authority Nutrition

      Authority Nutrition is a website that provides articles about nutrition, health and weight loss. The website was founded by Kris Gunnars in December, 2012, and now gets millions of visits each month. It currently holds the #1 Alexa rank for nutrition. The website has several licensed nutritionists/dietitians writing ... Read »


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    • Auxology

    • Auxology, sometimes called auxanology (from Greek αὔξω, auxō, or αὐξάνω, auxanō, "grow"; and -λογία, -logia), is a meta-term covering the study of all aspects of human physical growth (though it is also a fundamental of biology, generally speaking). Auxology is a h ... Read »


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    • Biological value

    • Biological value (BV) is a measure of the proportion of absorbed protein from a food which becomes incorporated into the proteins of the organism's body. It captures how readily the digested protein can be used in protein synthesis in the cells of the organism. Proteins are the major source of nitrogen in food. BV assu ... Read »


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    • Blood lipids

    • Blood lipids (or blood fats) are lipids in the blood, either free or bound to other molecules. They are mostly transported in a protein capsule, and the density of the lipids and type of protein determines the fate of the particle and its influence on metabolism. The concentration of blood lipids depends on intake and ... Read »


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    • Blood sugar regulation

    • Blood sugar regulation is the process by which the levels of blood sugar, primarily glucose, are maintained by the body within a narrow range. This phenomenon of tight regulation is commonly referred to as glucose homeostasis. Insulin and glucagon are the most well known of the hormones involved, but more recent discov ... Read »


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    • Body fat percentage

    • The body fat percentage (BFP) of a human or other living being is the total mass of fat divided by total body mass; body fat includes essential body fat and storage body fat. Essential body fat is necessary to maintain life and reproductive functions. The percentage of essential body fat for women is greater than that ... Read »


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    • Body volume index

    • The Body Volume Index (BVI) is a new measurement for obesity, proposed as an alternative and enhancement to the body mass index (BMI). People of different age, gender or ethnicity will have different body shapes, with different weight distribution and recent studies have highlighted the limitations of BMI as an indica ... Read »


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    • John Boyd Orr, 1st Baron Boyd-Orr

    • John Boyd Orr, 1st Baron Boyd-Orr

      John Boyd Orr, 1st Baron Boyd-Orr CH, DSO, MC, FRS (23 September 1880 – 25 June 1971), known as Sir John Boyd Orr from 1935 to 1949, was a Scottish teacher, doctor, biologist and politician who received the Nobel Peace Prize for his scientific research into nutrition and his work as the first Director-General of t ... Read »


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    • Callanetics

    • The Callanetics exercise programme was created by Callan Pinckney in the early 1980s. It is a system of exercise involving frequent repetition of small muscular movements and squeezes, designed to improve muscle tone. The programme was developed by Pinckney from classical ballet exercises, to help ease a back problem t ... Read »


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    • A calorie is a calorie

    • "A calorie is a calorie" is a tautology used to convey the speaker's conviction that the concept of the "calorie" is in fact a sufficient way to describe energy content of food. It has been a commonly cited truism since the early 1960s. The tautological phrase means that regardless of the form of food calorie a person ... Read »


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    • Canadian health claims

    • Canadian health claims by Health Canada, the department of the Canadian Government responsible for national health, has allowed five scientifically verified disease risk reduction claims to be used on food labels and on food advertising. Other countries, including the United States and Great Britain, have approved simi ... Read »


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    • CAP-e

    • CAP-e (cell-based antioxidant protection in erythrocytes), is a novel in vitro bioassay for antioxidant activity developed by Alexander Schauss, Gitte Jensen, and associates at the American Institute for Biosocial and Medical Research (AIBMR), a private contract research organization (CRO) located in Puyallup, Washingt ... Read »


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    • Carbohydrate

    • A carbohydrate is a biological molecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula Cm(H2O)n (where m could be different from n). Some exceptions exist; for example, deoxyribose, a sugar comp ... Read »


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    • Carbohydrate counting

    • Carbohydrate counting or “carb” counting is a meal planning tool used in diabetes management to help optimize blood sugar control. It can be used with or without the use of insulin therapy. Carbohydrate counting involves determining whether a food item has carbohydrate followed by the subsequent determination ... Read »


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    • Carbohydrate digestion

    • All carbohydrates absorbed in the small intestine must be hydrolyzed to monosaccharides prior to absorption. Hydrolysis precedes transport of monosaccharides in hamster intestine. From sucrose, glucose is taken up much faster than fructose. Monosaccharide transport saturates with D-glucose at 30 mM. Digestion of starc ... Read »


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    • Chelates in animal nutrition

    • Chelates ( che·late ) [kee-leyt] in animal feed are organic forms of essential trace minerals such as copper, iron, manganese and zinc. Animals absorb, digest and use mineral chelates better than inorganic minerals. This means that lower concentrations can be used in animal feeds. In addition, animals fed chelated ... Read »


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    • Children's right to adequate nutrition in New Zealand


    • Cholesterol

    • Cholesterol

      Cholesterol, from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid) followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol, is an organic molecule. It is a sterol (or modified steroid), a type of lipid molecule, and is biosynthesized by all animal cells, because it is an essential structural component of all animal cell ... Read »


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    • List of cholesterol in foods

    • This list consists of common foods with their cholesterol content recorded in milligrams per 100 grams (3.5 ounces) of food. Cholesterol is a sterol, a steroid-like hormone made by animals, including humans. The human body makes one-eighth to one-fourth teaspoons of pure cholesterol daily. A cholesterol level o ... Read »


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    • Ciberobn

    • The Spanish Biomedical Research Centre in Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition (Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición: CIBERObn, www.ciberobn.com) is a public research consortium which was founded on November 28, 2006 financed by the Instituto de Salud Car ... Read »


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    • Clinical nutrition

    • Clinical nutrition is nutrition of patients in health care. in this sense refers to the management of patients, including not only outpatients at clinics, but also (and mainly) inpatients in hospitals. It incorporates primarily the scientific fields of nutrition and dietetics. It aims to keep a healthy energy balance ... Read »


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    • Complete protein

    • A complete protein (or whole protein) is a source of protein that contains an adequate proportion of all nine of the essential amino acids necessary for the dietary needs of humans or other animals. According to the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine, complete proteins are supplied by meat, poultry, ... Read »


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    • Conditioned satiety

    • Conditioned satiety is one of the three known food-specific forms of suppression of appetite for food by effects of eating, along with alimentary alliesthesia and sensory-specific satiety. Conditioned satiety was first evidenced in 1955 in rats by the late French physiologist professor Jacques Le Magnen. The term was c ... Read »


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    • Copper in health

    • Copper is an essential trace element that is vital to the health of all living things (humans, plants, animals, and microorganisms). In humans, copper is essential to the proper functioning of organs and metabolic processes. The human body has complex homeostatic mechanisms which attempt to ensure a constant supply of ... Read »


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    • CRNHs

    • Centres de Recherche en Nutrition Humaine

      The CRNHs goal is to improve the knowledge on the function properties of food, on metabolism and on human physiology, from basic research to the study of behaviours and their impact on health. The French territory is now provided with four CRNH having common tools and complementary scientific skills that allow them to ... Read »


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    • Degreasing

    • Degreasing, often called Defatting or fat trimming, is the removal of fatty acids from an object. In culinary science, degreasing is done with the intention of reducing the fat content of a meal. Degreasing is often used by dieters, particularly those following low fat diets to reduce their fat consumption to indu ... Read »


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    • 7-Dehydrocholesterol

    • 7-Dehydrocholesterol

      7-Dehydrocholesterol is a zoosterol that functions in the serum as a cholesterol precursor, and is converted to vitamin D3 in the skin, therefore functioning as provitamin-D3. The presence of this compound in human skin enables humans to manufacture vitamin D3 from ultraviolet rays in the sun light, via an intermediate ... Read »


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    • Dicopper chloride trihydroxide

    • Dicopper chloride trihydroxide

      Micronutrients TBCC Intellibond C Copper Hydroxychloride Paratacamite: rhombohedral Clinoatacamite: monoclinic Botallackite: monoclinic Dicopper chloride trihydroxide is the chemical compound with the formula Cu2(OH)3Cl. It is often referred to as tribasic copper chloride (TBCC), copper trihydroxyl chloride or copp ... Read »


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    • Diet and cancer

    • Dietary factors are recognized as having a significant effect on the risk of cancers, with different dietary elements both increasing and reducing risk. Diet, physical inactivity, and obesity may be related to up to 30–35% of cancer deaths. One review in 2011 suggested that total caloric intake influences cancer i ... Read »


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    • Dietary fiber

    • Dietary fiber or roughage is the indigestible portion of food derived from plants. It has two main components: Dietary fibers can act by changing the nature of the contents of the gastrointestinal tract and by changing how other nutrients and chemicals are absorbed. Some types of soluble fiber absorb water to become a ... Read »


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    • Mineral (nutrient)

    • A mineral is a chemical element required as an essential nutrient by organisms to perform functions necessary for life. Minerals originate in the earth and cannot be made by living organisms. Plants get minerals from soil. Most of the minerals in a human diet come from eating plants and animals or from drinking water. ... Read »


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    • Dietary Reference Intake

    • The Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) is a system of nutrition recommendations from the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academies (United States). It was introduced in 1997 in order to broaden the existing guidelines known as Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs, see below). The DRI values differ from those us ... Read »


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    • Dietary Reference Values

    • Dietary Reference Values (DRV) is the name of the nutritional requirements systems used by the United Kingdom Department of Health and the European Union's European Food Safety Authority. In 1991, the United Kingdom Department of Health published the Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients for the Unite ... Read »


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    • Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score

    • Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score (DIAAS) is a new protein quality method, promoted by the Food and Agriculture Organization to replace the current protein ranking standard, Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS). ... Read »


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    • Discretionary food

    • Discretionary food is a term for foods and drinks not necessary to provide the nutrients the human body's needs, but that may add variety to a person's diet. Australia's National Health and Medical Research Council describes discretionary foods as “foods and drinks not necessary to provide the nutrients the body ... Read »


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    • Dole Nutrition Institute

    • The Dole Nutrition Institute (DNI) is a research and education foundation based in Westlake Village, California at the headquarters of Dole Food Company. The institute exists as a resource offering educational publications on a plant-based diet. The Dole Nutrition Institute offers self-produced health and nutritio ... Read »


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    • Dunn Human Nutrition Unit

    • MRC Mitochondrial Biology Unit

      The MRC Mitochondrial Biology Unit (formerly the MRC Dunn Human Nutrition Unit) is an institution of the Medical Research Council based at the Addenbrooke’s Hospital / Cambridge Biomedical Campus site in Cambridge, England. The unit is a University of Cambridge partner institution concerned with the study of the , ... Read »


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    • Ecotrophology

    • Ecotrophology is a branch of nutritional science concerned with everyday practice. It is mainly in Germany that it is seen as a separate branch of health care, and the word is rare outside Germany. Ecotrophologists are specialists in nutrition, household management and economics. This includes physiological, economic a ... Read »


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    • Empty calorie

    • In human nutrition, the term empty calories applies to food such as solid fats or added sugars supplying food energy but little or no other nutrition. The USDA advises, "A small amount of empty calories is okay, but most people eat far more than is healthy." The phrase is derived from nutrient density (proportion of n ... Read »


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    • Energy homeostasis

    • In biology, energy homeostasis, or the homeostatic control of energy balance, is a biological process that involves the coordinated homeostatic regulation of food intake (energy inflow) and energy expenditure (energy outflow). The human brain, particularly the hypothalamus, plays a central role in regulating energy hom ... Read »


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    • Ergosterol

    • Ergosterol

      Ergosterol (ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3β-ol) is a sterol found in cell membranes of fungi and protozoa, serving many of the same functions that cholesterol serves in animal cells. Because many fungi and protozoa cannot survive without ergosterol, the enzymes that create it have become important targets for drug discovery ... Read »


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    • Essential amino acid

    • An essential amino acid, or indispensable amino acid, is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized de novo (from scratch) by the organism, and thus must be supplied in its diet. The nine amino acids humans cannot synthesize are phenylalanine, valine, threonine, tryptophan, methionine, leucine, isoleucine, lysine, and hi ... Read »


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    • Essential nutrient

    • An essential nutrient is a nutrient required for normal physiological function that cannot be synthesized by the body, and thus must be obtained from a dietary source. Apart from water, which is universally required for the maintenance of homeostasis, essential nutrients are indispensable for the metabolic processes of ... Read »


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    • European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    • The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study is a Europe-wide prospective cohort study of the relationships between diet and cancer, as well as other chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease. With over half a million participants, it is the largest study of diet and disease to b ... Read »


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    • European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism

    • The European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) is an organization in the field of parenteral and enteral nutrition and promotes basic and clinical research, basic and advanced education, organization of consensus statements about clinical care and care quality control. In 1979 an informal meeting l ... Read »


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    • Fat

    • Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein. Fats, also known as triglycerides, are esters of three fatty acid chains and the alcohol glycerol. The terms "oil", "fat", and "lipid" are often confused. "Oil" normally refers to a fat with short or unsaturated fatty acid chains that is ... Read »


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    • Fatty acid

    • In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated. Most naturally occurring fatty acids have an unbranched chain of an even number of carbon atoms, from 4 to 28. Fatty acids are usually derived from triglycerides or phosph ... Read »


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    • Federation of European Nutrition Societies

    • Federation of European Nutrition Societies (FENS)

      The Federation of European Nutrition Societies (FENS) is a non-profit association, established in 1979 as a roof organization for the national nutrition societies in Europe, with each country represented by its representative Nutrition Society or Association within FENS. The aims of FENS are the combination of effort ... Read »


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    • Flavan-3-ol

    • Flavan-3-ols (sometimes referred to as flavanols) are derivatives of flavans that use the 2-phenyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-chromen-3-ol skeleton. These compounds include catechin, epicatechin gallate, epigallocatechin, epigallocatechin gallate, proanthocyanidins, theaflavins, thearubigins. Flavanols (with an "a") are not to be ... Read »


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    • Flavonoid

    • Flavonoids (or bioflavonoids) (from the Latin word flavus meaning yellow, their color in nature) are a class of plant and fungus secondary metabolites. Chemically, flavonoids have the general structure of a 15-carbon skeleton, which consists of two phenyl rings (A and B) and heterocyclic ring (C). This carbon structur ... Read »


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    • Fluid balance

    • Fluid balance is an aspect of the homeostasis of living organisms in which the amount of water in the organism needs to be controlled, via osmoregulation and behavior, such that the concentrations of electrolytes (salts in solution) in the various body fluids are kept within healthy ranges. The core principle of fluid ... Read »


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    • Food and diet in ancient medicine

    • Modern understanding of disease is very different from the way it was understood in ancient Greece and Rome. The way modern physicians approach healing of the sick differs greatly from the methods used by early general healers or elite physicians like Hippocrates or Galen. In modern medicine, the understanding of disea ... Read »


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    • Food circle

    • A food circle is a visual nutrition guide in the form of a pie chart used to explain healthy nutrition. An example is the United States Department of Agriculture's MyPlate, which has replaced the USDA' s food pyramid promoted until 2011 (called "Food Guide Pyramid"). Developed under the Obama administration, MyPlate sh ... Read »


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    • Food composition data

    • Food composition data (FCD) are detailed sets of information on the nutritionally important components of foods and provide values for energy and nutrients including protein, carbohydrates, fat, vitamins and minerals and for other important food components such as fibre. The data are presented in food composition datab ... Read »


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    • Food contaminant

    • Food contamination refers to the presence in food of harmful chemicals and microorganisms which can cause consumer illness. This article addresses the chemical contamination of foods, as opposed to microbiological contamination, which can be found under foodborne illness. The impact of chemical contaminants on consume ... Read »


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    • Food energy

    • Food energy is chemical energy that animals (including humans) derive from their food and molecular oxygen through the process of cellular respiration. (Cellular respiration involves either the process of joining oxygen from air with the molecules of food (aerobic respiration) or the process of reorganizing the atoms w ... Read »


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    • Food First Information and Action Network

    • Introduction FIAN - formerly, FoodFirst Information and Action Network - FIAN International is now the official name of the organization. FIAN is an international human rights organization that has advocated for the realization of the right to food for more than 25 years. FIAN consists of national sections and indivi ... Read »


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    • Food group

    • A food group is a collection of foods that share similar nutritional properties or biological classifications. Nutrition guides typically divide foods into food groups and recommend daily servings of each group for a healthy diet. In the United States for instance, USDA has described food as being in from 4 to 11 diffe ... Read »


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    • Free sugar

    • Free sugar is defined by the World Health Organization and the UN Food and Agriculture Organization in multiple reports as "all monosaccharides and disaccharides added to foods by the manufacturer, cook, or consumer, plus sugars naturally present in honey, syrups, and fruit juices". It is used to distinguish between th ... Read »


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    • Fructose

    • D-Fructose

      Fructose, or fruit sugar, is a simple ketonic monosaccharide found in many plants, where it is often bonded to glucose to form the disaccharide sucrose. It is one of the three dietary monosaccharides, along with glucose and galactose, that are absorbed directly into the bloodstream during digestion. Fructose was discov ... Read »


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    • Functional beverage

    • A functional beverage is a non-alcoholic drink. Some include ingredients like herbs, vitamins, minerals, amino acids, or additional raw fruit or vegetables. Examples of functional beverages include sports and performance drinks, energy drinks, ready to drink (RTD) teas, enhanced fruit drinks, soy beverages, and enhanc ... Read »


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    • Functional food

    • A functional food is a food given an additional (often one related to health-promotion or disease prevention) by adding new ingredients or more of existing ingredients. The term may also apply to traits purposely bred into existing edible plants, such as purple or gold potatoes having enriched anthocyanin or carotenoi ... Read »


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    • Galactose

    • D-Galactose

      Galactose ( + , "milk sugar"), sometimes abbreviated Gal, is a monosaccharide sugar that is less sweet than glucose and fructose. It is a C-4 epimer of glucose. Galactan is a polymeric form of galactose found in hemicellulose. Galactan can be converted to galactose by hydrolysis. Galactose exists in both open-cha ... Read »


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    • Gluconasturtiin

    • Gluconasturtiin

      Gluconasturtiin (phenethylglucosinolate) is one of the most widely distributed glucosinolates in the cruciferous vegetables, mainly in the roots, and is probably one of the plant compounds responsible for the natural pest-inhibiting properties of growing crucifers, such as cabbage, mustard or rape, in rotation with oth ... Read »


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    • Glucose

    • D-Glucose

      Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6. Glucose circulates in the blood of animals as blood sugar. It is made during photosynthesis from water and carbon dioxide, using energy from sunlight. The reverse of the photosynthesis reaction, which releases this energy, is an important source of power for ... Read »


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    • Glucosinolate

    • The glucosinolates are natural components of many pungent plants such as mustard, cabbage, and horseradish. The pungency of those plants is due to mustard oils produced from glucosinolates when the plant material is chewed, cut, or otherwise damaged. These natural chemicals most likely contribute to plant defence again ... Read »


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    • Gluten

    • Gluten (from Latin , "glue") is a mixture of proteins found in wheat and related grains, including barley, rye, oat (depending on cultivar and processing), and all their species and hybrids (such as spelt,kamut, and triticale). Gluten is appreciated for its viscoelastic properties. It gives elasticity to dough, helping ... Read »


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    • Glycemic index

    • The glycemic index or glycaemic index (GI) is a number associated with a particular type of food that indicates the food's effect on a person's blood glucose (also called blood sugar) level. A value of 100 represents the standard, an equivalent amount of pure glucose. The GI represents the rise in a person's blood sug ... Read »


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    • Glycemic load

    • The glycemic load (GL) of food is a number that estimates how much the food will raise a person's blood glucose level after eating it. One unit of glycemic load approximates the effect of consuming one gram of glucose. Glycemic load accounts for how much carbohydrate is in the food and how much each gram of carbohydrat ... Read »


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    • Glycogen

    • Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in humans, animals and fungi. The polysaccharide structure represents the main storage form of glucose in the body. In humans, glycogen is made and stored primarily in the cells of the liver and the muscles, hydrated with thr ... Read »


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    • GNC (store)

    • GNC Holdings Inc.

      GNC Holdings Inc. is a Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania-based American commercial enterprise focused on the retail sale of health and nutrition related products, including vitamins, supplements, minerals, herbs, sports nutrition, diet, and energy products. In 1935, David Shakarian opened a small health food store, Lackzoo ... Read »


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    • Guideline Daily Amount

    • Guideline Daily Amounts (GDAs) are a nutrition facts label that originally began in 1998 as a collaboration between the UK government, the food industry and consumer organizations. The process was overseen by the Institute of Grocery Distribution (IGD). To help consumers make sense of the nutrition information provided ... Read »


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    • Harris–Benedict equation


    • Health effects of chocolate

    • The health effects of chocolate are the possible positive and negative effects on health of eating chocolate. Unconstrained consumption of large quantities of any energy-rich food, such as chocolate, without a corresponding increase in activity, increases the risk of obesity. Raw chocolate is high in cocoa butter, a f ... Read »


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    • Health effects of natural phenols and polyphenols

    • Because of the large structural diversity and extensive metabolism of dietary polyphenols, it is difficult to determine their fate in vivo and assert specific health effects. Although many are speculated to be part of the health-promoting effects of consuming fruits and vegetables, no evidence exists to date that dieta ... Read »


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    • Health effects of salt

    • The health effects of salt are the conditions associated with the consumption of either too much or too little salt. Salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl) and is used in food for both preservation and flavor. Sodium ions are needed in small quantities by most living things, as are chloride ions ... Read »


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    • Health effects of tea

    • According to legend, the health effects of tea have been examined ever since the first infusions of Camellia sinensis about 4700 years ago in China. Emperor Shennong claimed in The Divine Farmer's Herb-Root Classic that Camellia sinensis infusions were useful for treating a variety of disease conditions. Historically ... Read »


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    • Hemp protein

    • Hemp protein is the protein content of hemp seeds, made up of 35% albumin and 65% edestin, both being globulin types of protein. Hemp protein has a PDCAAS score of 0.61 (the limiting amino acid being lysine, with a digestibility of 94.9% and a biological value of 87. ... Read »


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    • History of USDA nutrition guides

    • The history of USDA nutrition guides includes over 100 years of American nutrition advice. The guides have been updated over time, to adopt new scientific findings and new public health marketing techniques. Over time they have described from 4 to 11 food groups. Various guides have been criticized as not accurately re ... Read »


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    • Holozoic nutrition

    • Holozoic nutrition (Greek: holo-whole ; zoikos-of animals) is a type of heterotrophic nutrition that is characterized by the internalization (ingestion) and internal processing of liquids or solid food particles.Protozoa, such as amoebas, and most of the free living animals, such as humans, exhibit this type of nutr ... Read »


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    • Simon Howard

    • Simon John Howard is a public health physician working in the North East of England. He has authored or co-authored a number of articles on public health in medical journals, and served as Public Health Registrar to Chief Medical Officer Sally Davies from 2013-2014, acting as Editor-in-Chief of the 2012 Annual Report o ... Read »


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    • Human milk oligosaccharide

    • Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are a family of structurally diverse unconjugated glycans that are found in and unique to human breast milk, despite not actually being digestible by human infants. HMOs function as a prebiotic helping to establish commensal bacteria. HMOs also function as anti-adhesives that help pre ... Read »


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    • Human nutrition

    • Human nutrition refers to the provision of essential nutrients necessary to support human life and health. Generally, people can survive up to 40 days without food, a period largely depending on the amount of water consumed, stored body fat, muscle mass and genetic factors. Poor nutrition is a chronic problem often li ... Read »


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    • Insulin index

    • The Insulin Index of a food represents how much it elevates the concentration of insulin in the blood during the two-hour period after the food is ingested. The index is similar to the Glycemic Index (GI) and Glycemic Load (GL), but rather than relying on blood glucose levels, the Insulin Index is based upon blood insu ... Read »


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    • Interesterified fat

    • Interesterified fat is a type of oil where the fatty acids have been moved from one triglyceride molecule to another. This is generally done to modify the melting point, slow rancidification and create an oil more suitable for deep frying or making margarine with good taste and low saturated fat content. It is not the ... Read »


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    • International Union of Nutritional Sciences

    • The International Union of Nutritional Sciences (IUNS) is an international non-governmental organization established in 1948 to devote the advancement of nutrition. Since its 1948 foundation, the membership has grown to include 82 national adhering bodies and 16 affiliations. The Council consists of 5 Officers, th ... Read »


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    • Intradialytic parenteral nutrition

    • Intradialytic parenteral nutrition (IDPN) is a nutritional support therapy (medical nutrition therapy) for people on hemodialysis who have a difficult time maintaining adequate nutrition. It is administered directly into the bloodstream of patients suffering from chronic kidney disease (CKD) in an effort to decrease th ... Read »


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    • Isotel

    • An isotel is a substance having the same purpose or function as another (Greek ίσο = same, τέλος = purpose). The term was coined by the biochemist Roger J. Williams. ... Read »


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    • Jenny Is a Good Thing

    • Jenny Is a Good Thing is a 1969 American short documentary film about children and poverty, directed by Joan Horvath. Produced for Project Head Start, it shows the importance of good nutrition for underprivileged nursery school children. The film was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Documentary Short. ... Read »


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    • Lactose content of foods

    • This is a list of lactose content of some common food items.Dairy products contain varying amounts of lactose, depending on processing methods. Milk consumed with other products (such as chocolate, cereal) may greatly improve tolerability. The amount of lactose leading to symptoms varies between individuals. ... Read »


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    • Lauric acid

    • Lauric acid

      Lauric acid or systematically, dodecanoic acid, is a saturated fatty acid with a 12-carbon atom chain, thus falling into the medium chain fatty acids, is a white, powdery solid with a faint odor of baby oil or soap. The salts and esters of lauric acid are known as laurates. Lauric acid, as a component of triglycer ... Read »


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    • Leaf protein concentrate

    • Leaf protein concentrate (LPC) is a concentrated form of the proteins found in the leaves of plants. It has been examined as a human or animal food source, because it is potentially the cheapest, most abundant source of available protein. Although humans can derive some protein from the direct consumption of leaves as ... Read »


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    • List of foods by protein content

    • Below is a list of protein content in foods, organised by food group and given in measurements of grams of protein per 100 grams of food portion. Most natural foods are composed largely of water. Reduction of water content has the greatest effect of increasing protein. It is to be noted that not all protein is equally ... Read »


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    • List of non-starchy vegetables

    • Non-Starchy Vegetables are vegetables that contain a lower amount of carbohydrates and calories compared to their starchy counterparts. Thus, for the same calories, one can eat a larger quantity of non-starchy vegetables compared to smaller servings of starchy vegetables. ... Read »


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    • List of nutrition guides

    • This is a list of nutrition guides. A nutrition guide is a reference that provides nutrition advice for general health, typically by dividing foods into food groups and recommending servings of each group. Nutrition guides can be presented in written or visual form, and are commonly published by government agencies, he ... Read »


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    • Loma Linda University School of Public Health, Department of Nutrition

    • The Department of Nutrition is one of six departments at the School of Public Health. While nutrition was always part of the curriculum at the university, the department was initiated when the School of Public Health was begun in 1963. The Department of Nutrition is notable for its landmark research on the health ... Read »


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    • Malnutrition

    • Malnutrition

      Malnutrition or malnourishment is a condition that results from eating a diet in which nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems. It may involve calories, protein, carbohydrates, vitamins or minerals. Not enough nutrients is called undernutrition or undernourishment while ... Read »


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    • Malnutrition–inflammation complex


    • Medical food

    • Medical foods are foods that are specially formulated and intended for the dietary management of a disease that has distinctive nutritional needs that cannot be met by normal diet alone. They were defined in the Food and Drug Administration's 1988 Orphan Drug Act Amendments and are subject to the general food and safet ... Read »


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    • Medical Nutrition

    • Medical Nutrition is a therapeutic composition developed to satisfy the nutritional requirements of patients that have specific medical conditions in a manner that supports their physical upkeep, treatment procedure, and symptom management. Normally, individuals obtain the necessary nutrients their bodies require thro ... Read »


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    • Medical nutrition therapy

    • Medical nutrition therapy (MNT) is a therapeutic approach to treating medical conditions and their associated symptoms via the use of a specifically tailored diet devised and monitored by a medical doctor physician, registered dietitian,or professional nutritionist. The diet is based upon the patient's medical record, ... Read »


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    • Metabolic advantage

    • Metabolic advantage is a term used in nutrition to describe the ability of a diet to achieve greater weight loss (or less weight gain) than another diet of equivalent calories. It is a claimed effect of low-carbohydrate diets and was popularised by the Atkins diet, but although several mechanisms exist to make it biolo ... Read »


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    • Microgreen

    • A microgreen is a tiny vegetable green that is used both as a visual and flavor component or ingredient primarily in fine dining restaurants. Fine dining chefs use microgreens to enhance the beauty, taste and freshness of their dishes with their delicate textures and distinctive flavors. Smaller than “baby greens, ... Read »


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    • Micronutrient

    • Micronutrients are nutrients required by organisms throughout life in small quantities to orchestrate a range of physiological functions. For people, they include dietary trace minerals in amounts generally less than 100 milligrams per day, as opposed to macrominerals, which are required in larger quantities. The micro ... Read »


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    • Micronutrient Initiative

    • The Micronutrient Initiative (MI) is an international not for profit agency based in Canada that works to eliminate vitamin and mineral deficiencies in developing countries. Although often only required by the body in very small amounts, vitamin and minerals – also known as micronutrients – support an array o ... Read »


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    • Monounsaturated fat

    • In biochemistry and nutrition, monounsaturated fatty acids (abbreviated MUFAs, or more plainly monounsaturated fats) are fatty acids that have one double bond in the fatty acid chain with all of the remainder carbon atoms being single-bonded. By contrast, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have more than one double bo ... Read »


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    • MRC Human Nutrition Research

    • MRC Human Nutrition Research

      MRC Human Nutrition Research is the largest research institute in the UK for human nutrition, and is based in Cambridge. In 1998 MRC Human Nutrition Research (HNR) was formed as a result of the restructuring of the Dunn Human Nutrition Unit following the resignation of Professor Roger Whitehead. The Medical Resear ... Read »


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    • National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad

    • National Institute of Nutrition

      The National Institute of Nutrition (NIN) is an Indian Public health, Biotechnology and Translational research center located in Hyderabad, India. The institute is one of the oldest research centers in India, and the largest center, under the Indian Council of Medical Research, located in the vicinity of Osmania Univer ... Read »


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    • Nesfatin-1

    • Nesfatin-1 is a neuropeptide produced in the hypothalamus of mammals. It participates in the regulation of hunger and fat storage. Increased nesfatin-1 in the hypothalamus contributes to diminished hunger, a 'sense of fullness', and a potential loss of body fat and weight. A study of metabolic effects of nesfatin-1 in ... Read »


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    • Network for Capacity Development in Nutrition

    • The UN System Standing Committee on Nutrition (SCN), established a set of working groups (WG) on Capacity Development (CD) in close collaboration with the United Nations University (UNU). The Network had one initial meeting in 2005 and five meetings between 2006 and 2010; results are published in scientific journal ... Read »


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    • Nutraceutical

    • A Nutraceutical is a pharmaceutical-grade and standardized nutrient. Nutraceuticals are regulated by FDA under the authority of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. Nutraceuticals are treated differently in different jurisdictions. Under Canadian law, a nutraceutical can either be marketed as a food or as a ... Read »


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    • Nutrient density

    • Nutrient density identifies the proportion of nutrients in foods, with terms such as nutrient rich and micronutrient dense referring to similar properties. Several different national and international standards have been developed and are in use (see Nutritional rating systems). According to the World Health Organ ... Read »


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    • Nutrient enema

    • A nutrient enema, also known as feeding per rectum, rectal alimentation, or rectal feeding, is an enema administered with the intent of providing nutrition when normal eating is not possible. Although this treatment is ancient, dating back at least to Galen and a common technique in 19th century medicine, nutrient enem ... Read »


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    • Nutrient profiling

    • Nutrient profiling, also nutritional profiling, is the science of classifying or ranking foods by their nutritional composition in order to promote health and prevent disease. A common use of nutrient profiling is in the creation of nutritional rating systems to help consumers identify nutritious food. ... Read »


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    • Nutrient sensing

    • Nutrient sensing is a cell's ability to recognize and respond to fuel substrates such as glucose. Each type of fuel used by the cell requires an alternate pathway of utilization and accessory molecules. In order to conserve resources a cell will only produce molecules that it needs at the time. The level and type of fu ... Read »


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    • Nutrient systems

    • Nutrient Systems (nutrient premixes) integrate functional ingredients from vitamins, minerals, amino acids, nucleotides, and nutraceuticals. These mixes are very cost-saving and beneficial to manufacturers, researchers and developers in the food and pharmaceutical industries worldwide. This is a booming business and is ... Read »


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    • Nutriepigenomics

    • Nutriepigenomics is the study of food nutrients and their effects on human health through epigenetic modifications. There is now considerable evidence that nutritional imbalances during gestation and lactation are linked to non-communicable diseases, such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, and ... Read »


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    • Nutrigenetics

    • Nutrigenetics aims to identify how genetic variation affects response to nutrients. This knowledge can be applied to optimise health, and prevent or treat diseases. The ultimate aim of nutrigenetics is to offer people personalized nutrition based on their genetic makeup. Due to naturally occurring mutations humans ... Read »


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    • Nutrigenomics

    • Nutrigenomics is a branch of nutritional genomics and is the study of the effects of foods and food constituents on gene expression. This means that nutrigenomics is research focusing on identifying and understanding molecular-level interaction between nutrients and other dietary bioactives with the genome. Nutrigenomi ... Read »


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    • Nutriomics

    • Nutriomics is an omics study for nutrition and energy metabolism related genes and proteins. Nutriomics is a new field where traditional nutrition researchers adopt genomics technology such as large scale microarray analysis with food intake. ... Read »


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    • Nutrition analysis

    • Nutrition analysis refers to the process of determining the nutritional content of foods and food products. The process can be performed through a variety of certified methods. Traditionally, food companies would send food samples to laboratories for physical testing. Typical analysis includes: Moisture (water) by ... Read »


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    • Nutrition and cognition

    • Food is conventionally regarded as a means to provide energy and building material within the body. Recently, the ability of food to prevent and protect against diseases has started to become recognized, mainly in relation to the effects of nutrients on molecular processes within the body. Certain cells require particu ... Read »


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    • Nutrition and HIV/AIDS


    • Nutrition and pregnancy

    • Nutrition and pregnancy refers to the nutrient intake, and dietary planning that is undertaken before, during and after pregnancy. Nutrition of the fetus begins at conception. For this reason, the nutrition of the mother is important from before conception (probably several months before) as well as throughout pregnanc ... Read »


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    • Nutrition Education

    • Nutrition Education is any combination of educational strategies, accompanied by environmental supports, designed to facilitate voluntary adoption of food choices and other food- and nutrition-related behaviors conducive to health and well-being. Nutrition education is delivered through multiple venues and involves act ... Read »


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    • Nutrition facts label

    • The nutrition facts label (also known as the nutrition information panel, and other slight variations) is a label required on most packaged food in many countries. Most countries also release overall nutrition guides for general educational purposes. In some cases, the guides are based on different dietary targets for ... Read »


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    • Nutrition in Classical Antiquity

    • Antiquity is referred to as the time period before the Middle Ages which began around 500A.D. The major civilizations are those of the Mediterranean region, ancient Greece, ancient Rome, and southwest Asia. Nutrition consisted of simple fresh whole foods that were either locally grown or transported from neighboring to ... Read »


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    • Nutrition physiology

    • Nutrition physiology deals with different types of food and their effects on the metabolism. One topic of nutrition physiology is vitamin loss of frozen foods. Another topic is the calculation of required calories per day and what sort of food should best be avoided for a healthy lifestyle. This can be looked at as the ... Read »


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    • Nutrition psychology

    • Nutrition psychology (NP) is the psychological study of how cognitive choices, such as meal decisions, influence nutrition, psychological health, and overall health. Nutrition psychology seeks to understand the relationship between nutritional behavior and mental health/well-being. NP is a sub-field of psychology and m ... Read »


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    • Nutrition scale

    • A Nutrition scale is a weighing instrument that output precise nutritional information for foods or liquids. Most scales calculate calories, carbohydrates, and fats, with more sophisticated scales calculating additional nutrients such as Vitamin K, potassium, magnesium, and sodium. Scales often use USDA information on ... Read »


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    • Nutrition transition

    • Nutrition transition is the shift in dietary consumption and energy expenditure that coincides with economic, demographic, and epidemiological changes. Specifically the term is used for the transition of developing countries from traditional diets high in cereal and fiber to more Western pattern diets high in sugars, f ... Read »


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    • Nutritional anthropology

    • Nutritional anthropology is the interplay between human biology, economic systems, nutritional status and food security, and how changes in the former affect the latter. If economic and environmental changes in a community affect access to food, food security, and dietary health, then this interplay between culture and ... Read »


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    • Nutritional epidemiology

    • Nutritional epidemiology is a relatively new field of medical research that studies the relationship between nutrition and health. Diet and physical activity are difficult to measure accurately, which may partly explain why nutrition has received less attention than other risk factors for disease in epidemiology. ... Read »


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    • Nutritional gatekeeper

    • Nutritional gatekeeper has been used to refer to the person in a household who typically makes the purchasing and preparation decisions related to food. Nutritional gatekeepers can be a parent, grandparent, sibling, or caregiver. Traditionally a role played by women, today the role of nutritional gatekeeper is not part ... Read »


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    • Nutritional genomics

    • Nutritional genomics is a science studying the relationship between human genome, nutrition and health. It can be divided into two disciplines: 97% of the genes known to be associated with human diseases result in monogenic diseases, i.e. a mutation in one gene is sufficient to cause the disease. Modifying the di ... Read »


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    • Nutritional losses due to food processing

    • Typical Maximum Nutrient Losses (as compared to raw food) ... Read »


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    • Nutritional neuroscience

    • Nutritional neuroscience is the scientific discipline that studies the effects various components of the diet such as minerals, vitamins, protein, carbohydrates, fats, dietary supplements, synthetic hormones, and food additives have on neurochemistry, neurobiology, behavior, and cognition. Recent research on nutrition ... Read »


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    • Nutritional rating systems

    • Nutritional rating systems are methods of ranking or rating food products or food categories to communicate the nutritional value of food in a simplified manner to a target audience. Rating systems are developed by governments, nonprofit organizations, or private institutions and companies. The methods may use point s ... Read »


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    • Nutritionism

    • Nutritionism is an alleged paradigm that assumes that it is the scientifically identified nutrients in foods that determine the value of individual food stuffs in the diet. In other words, it is the idea that the nutritional value of a food is the sum of all its individual nutrients, vitamins, and other components. Ano ... Read »


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    • Obesity

    • Obesity

      Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health. People are generally considered obese when their body mass index (BMI), a measurement obtained by dividing a person's weight by the square of the person's height, is over 70022941995000000 ... Read »


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    • Obesogen

    • Obesogens are foreign chemical compounds that disrupt normal development and balance of lipid metabolism, which in some cases, can lead to obesity. Obesogens may be functionally defined as chemicals that inappropriately alter lipid homeostasis and fat storage, change metabolic setpoints, disrupt energy balance or modif ... Read »


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    • Oligosaccharide

    • An oligosaccharide (from the Greek olígos, "a few", and σάκχαρ sácchar, "sugar") is a saccharide polymer containing a small number (typically two to ten) of simple sugars (monosaccharides). Oligosaccharides can have many functions including cell recognition and cell binding. For example, glycol ... Read »


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    • Organic feeding disorders

    • Organic feeding disorders are created when there are changes in an organism which directly or indirectly affect the organism's need to survive, or the need for nourishment. For example, when someone becomes ill, their body is naturally not as hungry as it was before. This can also occur if a person's food intake is red ... Read »


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    • Overall Nutritional Quality Index

    • The Overall Nutritional Quality Index is a nutritional rating system developed at the Yale-Griffin Prevention Research Center. It assigns foods a score between 1 and 100 to reflect the overall nutrition provided relative to the calories consumed. The system has been marketed commercially as NuVal, and some consumer foo ... Read »


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    • Overnutrition

    • Overnutrition or hyperalimentation is a form of malnutrition in which the intake of nutrients is oversupplied. The amount of nutrients exceeds the amount required for normal growth, development, and metabolism. The term can also refer to: For mineral excess, see: Overnutrition may also refers to greater food consump ... Read »


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    • Oxygen radical absorbance capacity

    • Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) is a method of measuring antioxidant capacities in biological samples in vitro. A wide variety of foods have been tested using this method, with certain spices, berries and legumes rated highly in extensive tables once published by the United States Department of Agriculture ( ... Read »


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    • Parasitic nutrition

    • Parasitic nutrition is a mode of heterotrophic nutrition where an organism (known as a parasite) lives on the body surface or inside the body of another type of organism (known as a host). The parasite obtains nutrition directly from the body of the host. Since these parasites derive their nourishment from their host, ... Read »


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    • Parenteral nutrition

    • Parenteral nutrition

      Parenteral nutrition (PN) is the feeding of a person intravenously, bypassing the usual process of eating and digestion. The person receives nutritional formulae that contain nutrients such as glucose, salts, amino acids, lipids and added vitamins and dietary minerals. It is called total parenteral nutrition (TPN) or t ... Read »


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    • Peonidin

    • Peonidin

      Peonidin is an O-methylated anthocyanidin derived from Cyanidin, and a primary plant pigment. Peonidin gives purplish-red hues to flowers such as the peony, from which it takes its name, and roses. It is also present in some blue flowers, such as the morning glory. Like most anthocyanidins, it is pH sensitive, and cha ... Read »


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    • Peptide YY

    • Peptide YY

      2L60, 2DEZ, 2DF0 5697 217212 ENSG00000131096 ENSMUSG00000017311 P10082 Q9EPS2 NM_004160 NM_145435NM_001346771 NP_004151 NP_663410.1NP_001333700NP_663410 Peptide YY (PYY) also known as peptide tyrosine tyrosine or pancreatic peptide YY3-36 is a peptide that in humans is encoded by the PYY gene. Peptide YY is ... Read »


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    • Phosphatidylserine

    • Phosphatidylserine

      Phosphatidylserine (abbreviated Ptd-L-Ser or PS) is a phospholipid and is a component of the cell membrane. It plays a key role in cell cycle signaling, specifically in relationship to apoptosis. Phosphatidylserine is a phospholipid (more specifically a glycerophospholipid). It consists of two fatty acids attached ... Read »


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    • Phytic acid

    • Phytic acid

      Phytic acid (known as inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6), inositol polyphosphate, or phytate when in salt form), discovered in 1903, a saturated cyclic acid, is the principal storage form of phosphorus in many plant tissues, especially bran and seeds. It can be found in cereals and grains. Catabolites of phytic acid are ... Read »


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    • Phytoestrogens

    • Phytoestrogens are plant-derived xenoestrogens (see estrogen) not generated within the endocrine system but consumed by eating phytoestrogenic plants. Also called "dietary estrogens", they are a diverse group of naturally occurring nonsteroidal plant compounds that, because of their structural similarity with estradiol ... Read »


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    • Polyunsaturated fat

    • Polyunsaturated fats are lipids in which the constituent hydrocarbon chain possesses two or more carbon–carbon double bonds. Polyunsaturated fat can be found mostly in nuts, seeds, fish, algae, leafy greens, and krill. "Unsaturated" refers to the fact that the molecules contain less than the maximum amount of hydr ... Read »


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    • Polyunsaturated fatty acid

    • Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are fatty acids that contain more than one double bond in their backbone. This class includes many important compounds, such as essential fatty acids and those that give drying oils their characteristic property. Polyunsaturated fatty acids can be classified in various groups by the ... Read »


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    • Price-Pottenger Nutrition Foundation

    • The Price-Pottenger Nutrition Foundation (PPNF) is a U.S. 501(c)(3) non-profit organization established "to teach the public and professionals about foods, lifestyle habits, healing modalities, and environmental practices that can help people attain vibrant health." Founded in 1952, it was first known as the Weston ... Read »


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    • Protein (nutrient)

    • Proteins are essential nutrients for the human body. They are one of the building blocks of body tissue, and can also serve as a fuel source. As a fuel, proteins provide as much energy density as carbohydrates: 4 kcal (17 kJ) per gram; in contrast, lipids provide 9 kcal (37 kJ) per gram. The most important aspect and d ... Read »


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    • Protein combining

    • Protein combining (also protein complementing) is a dietary strategy for protein nutrition by using complementary sources to optimize biological value and increase the protein quality. Originally applied to for animal nutrition, since 1971 it has become a chemical critique of food values of vegetarian dishes. Pro ... Read »


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    • Protein digestibility

    • Protein digestibility is how well protein is digested. Along with amino acid score, protein digestibility determine the values for PDCAAS and DIAAS. ... Read »


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    • Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score

    • Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) is a method of evaluating the protein quality based on both the amino acid requirements of humans and their ability to digest it. The PDCAAS rating was adopted by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United ... Read »


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    • Protein dispersibility index

    • The Protein Dispersibility Index (PDI) is a means of comparing the solubility of a protein in water, and is widely used in the soybean product industry. A sample of the soybeans are ground, mixed with a specific quantity of water, and the two are then blended together at a specific rpm for a specific time. The resulti ... Read »


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    • Protein quality

    • Protein quality is the digestibility and quantity of essential amino acids for providing the proteins in correct ratios for human consumption. There are various methods that rank the quality of different types of protein, some of which are outdated and no longer in use, or not considered as useful as they once were tho ... Read »


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    • Proteinogenic amino acid

    • Proteinogenic amino acids are amino acids that are incorporated biosynthetically into proteins during translation. The word "proteinogenic" means "protein creating". Throughout known life, there are 22 genetically encoded (proteinogenic) amino acids, 20 in the standard genetic code and an additional 2 that can be incor ... Read »


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    • Proximate

    • Proximates are used in the analysis of biological materials as a decomposition of a human-consumable good into its major constituents. They are a good approximation of the contents of packaged comestible goods and serve as a cheap and easy verification of nutritional panels i.e. testing can be used to verify lots, but ... Read »


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    • Refeeding syndrome

    • Refeeding syndrome is a syndrome consisting of metabolic disturbances that occur as a result of reinstitution of nutrition to patients who are starved, severely malnourished or metabolically stressed due to severe illness. Any individual who has had negligible nutrient intake for consecutive days and/or is metabol ... Read »


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    • Reference Daily Intake

    • The Reference Daily Intake or Recommended Daily Intake (RDI) is the daily intake level of a nutrient that is considered to be sufficient to meet the requirements of 97–98% of healthy individuals in every demographic in the United States. While developed in USA it has been used in other countries though it is not u ... Read »


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    • Reference Intakes

    • Reference Intakes (RIs) are a means of communicating maximum recommended nutrient intake to the public. Reference Intakes replaced the term Guideline Daily Amount (GDA), although the principles behind both are the same. The major difference is that GDAs existed for men, women and children; there is only one set of RIs ... Read »


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    • Resting energy expenditure

    • Resting energy expenditure, abbreviated as REE, is the amount of energy, usually expressed in kcal (food calories), required for a 24-hour period by the body during resting conditions. It is closely related to, but not identical to, basal metabolic rate. Resting energy expenditure can be measured using indirect calori ... Read »


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    • Rowett Research Institute

    • The Rowett Institute for Nutrition and Health is a research centre for studies into food and nutrition, located in Aberdeen, Scotland. The institute was founded in 1913 when the University of Aberdeen and the North of Scotland College of Agriculture agreed that an "Institute for Research into Animal Nutrition" should ... Read »


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    • Salt and cardiovascular disease

    • Salt consumption has been intensely studied for its role in human physiology and impact on human health. In particular, excessive dietary salt consumption over an extended period of time has been associated with hypertension and cardiovascular disease, in addition to other adverse health effects. Common edible salt is ... Read »


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    • Salt equivalent

    • Salt equivalent is usually quoted on food nutrition information tables on food labels, and is a different way of defining sodium intake, noting that salt is chemically sodium chloride. To convert from sodium to the approximate salt equivalent, multiply sodium content by 2.5: mNaClmNa=mNa+mClmNa≈23u+35.5u23u=58.5 ... Read »


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    • Paul Saltman

    • Paul Saltman (11 April 1928 – 27 August 1999) was a Professor of Biology at the University of California, San Diego, for more than three decades, and an internationally renowned nutrition expert. He received a B.S. in chemistry (1949) and Ph.D. in biochemistry (1953) from the California Institute of Technology. He ... Read »


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    • Saprotrophic nutrition

    • Saprotrophic nutrition /sæprəˈtrɒfɪk, -proʊ-/ or lysotrophic nutrition is a process of chemoheterotrophic extracellular digestion involved in the processing of dead or decayed organic matter. It occurs in saprotrophs or heterotrophs, and is most often associated with fungi (for example Mucor) and soil ... Read »


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    • Saturated fat

    • A saturated fat is a type of fat in which the fatty acids all have single bonds. A fat is made of two kinds of smaller molecules: monoglyceride and fatty acids. Fats are made of long chains of carbon (C) atoms. Some carbon atoms are linked by single bonds (-C-C-) and others are linked by double bonds (-C=C-). Double b ... Read »


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    • Saturated fat and cardiovascular disease controversy

    • Whether saturated fat is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease is a question with numerous controversial views. Although most in the mainstream heart-health, government, and medical communities hold that saturated fat is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, some hold contrary beliefs. Medical, scientific, hear ... Read »


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    • Schofield equation

    • The Schofield Equation is a method of estimating the basal metabolic rate (BMR) of adult men and women published in 1985. This is the equation used by the WHO in their technical report series. The equation that is recommended to estimate BMR by the US Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics is the Mifflin-St. Jeor equation ... Read »


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    • Selenium in biology

    • Although it is toxic in large doses, selenium is an essential micronutrient for animals. In plants, it sometimes occurs in amounts toxic as forage, e.g. locoweed. Selenium is a component of the amino acids selenocysteine and selenomethionine. In humans, selenium is a trace element nutrient that functions as cofactor fo ... Read »


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    • Sensory-specific satiety

    • Sensory-specific satiety is a sensory hedonic phenomenon that refers to the declining satisfaction generated by the consumption of a certain type of food, and the consequent renewal in appetite resulting from the exposure to a new flavor or food. The phenomenon was first described in 1956 by the French physiologist Jac ... Read »


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    • Serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate


    • Sharecare

    • Sharecare

      Sharecare is a health and wellness engagement platform that provides consumers with personalized information, programs and resources to improve their health. It provides personalized information to the site's users based on their responses to the RealAge Test, the company's health risk assessment tool, and offers a cli ... Read »


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    • Sinalbin

    • Sinalbin

      Sinalbin is a glucosinolate found in the seeds of white mustard, Sinapis alba, and in many wild plant species. In contrast to mustard from black mustard (Brassica nigra) seeds which contain sinigrin, mustard from white mustard seeds has only a weakly pungent taste. Sinalbin is metabolised to form the mustard oil 4-hyd ... Read »


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  • What Else?

    • Nutrition

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