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    Music theory

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    • Musical analysis

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    • Music diagrams

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    • Musical form

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    • Harmony

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    • Music theory journals

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    • Music theory lists

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    • Mathematics of music

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Mathematics of music


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    • Melody

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Melody


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    • Microtonality

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Microtonality


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    • Music theory templates

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    • Philosophy of music

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    • Pitch (music)

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Pitch (music)


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    • Post-tonal music theory

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Post-tonal music theory


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    • Rhythm and meter

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Rhythm and meter


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    • Music semiology

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Music semiology


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    • Musical symmetry

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    • Musical techniques

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    • Music textbooks

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    • Music theorists

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    • Tonality

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    • Music theory stubs

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    • Music theory

    • Music theory is the study of the practices and possibilities of music. "The term is used in three main ways in music, though all three are interrelated. The first is what is otherwise called 'rudiments', currently taught as the elements of notation, of key signatures, of time signatures, of rhythmic notation, and so o ... Read »


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    • Aleatoric music

    • Aleatoric music (also aleatory music or chance music; from the Latin word alea, meaning "dice") is music in which some element of the composition is left to chance, and/or some primary element of a composed work's realization is left to the determination of its performer(s). The term is most often associated with proce ... Read »


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    • Algorithmic composition

    • Algorithmic composition is the technique of using algorithms to create music. Algorithms (or, at the very least, formal sets of rules) have been used to compose music for centuries; the procedures used to plot voice-leading in Western counterpoint, for example, can often be reduced to algorithmic determinacy. The term ... Read »


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    • Antiphonary of St. Benigne

    • The Antiphonary tonary missal of St. Benigne (also called Antiphonarium Codex Montpellier or Tonary of Saint-Bénigne of Dijon) was supposed to be written in the last years of the 10th century, when the Abbot William of Volpiano at St. Benignus of Dijon reformed the liturgy of several monasteries in Burgundy. The cha ... Read »


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    • Augmentation (music)

    • In Western music and music theory, the word augmentation (from Late Latin augmentare, to increase) has three distinct meanings. Augmentation is a compositional device where a melody, theme or motif is presented in longer note-values than were previously used. Augmentation is also the term for the proportional lengtheni ... Read »


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    • Chord-scale system

    • The chord-scale system is a method of matching, from a list of possible chords, a list of possible scales. The system has been widely used since the 1970s and is "generally accepted in the jazz world today". The system is an example of the difference between the treatment of dissonance in jazz and classical harmony: "C ... Read »


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    • Chromatic fourth

    • In music, a chromatic fourth, or passus duriusculus, is a melody or melodic fragment spanning a perfect fourth with all or almost all chromatic intervals filled in (chromatic line). The quintessential example is in D minor with the tonic and dominant notes as boundaries,  Play : The chromatic fourth was first ... Read »


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    • The Complexity of Songs

    • "The Complexity of Songs" was a journal article published by computer scientist Donald Knuth in 1977, as an in-joke about computational complexity theory. The article capitalizes on the tendency of popular songs to devolve from long and content-rich ballads to highly repetitive texts with little or no meaningful conten ... Read »


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    • A Composer's Guide to Game Music


    • Constant structure

    • In jazz, a constant structure is a chord progression consisting of three or more chords of the same type or quality. Popularized by pianists Bill Evans and Herbie Hancock, the combination of functional and nonfunctional chords provides cohesiveness while producing a free and shifting tonal center. For example, the pro ... Read »


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    • Descending tetrachord

    • In music theory, the descending tetrachord is a series of four notes from a scale, or tetrachord, arranged in order from highest to lowest, or descending order. For example, -♭-♭- , as created by the Andalusian cadence. The descending tetrachord may fill a perfect fourth or a chromatic fourth. ... Read »


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    • Diminution

    • In Western music and music theory, diminution (from Medieval Latin diminutio, alteration of Latin deminutio, decrease) has four distinct meanings. Diminution may be a form of embellishment in which a long note is divided into a series of shorter, usually melodic, values (also called "coloration"). Diminution may also b ... Read »


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    • Dissonant

    • A dissonant is a dissonant note in music theory of consonance and dissonance. One of the early composers known for use of dissonants was Monteverdi. The use of dissonants was also practiced by Moscheles and taught by Chopin. ... Read »


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    • A duplex theory of pitch perception

    • "A duplex theory of pitch perception" is a paper written by J.C.R. Licklider, and published during the year 1951. The word has the definition, having two parts, and in the specific context of systems of communication, for example computers, it is known to possess the meaning allowing the transmission of two signals mo ... Read »


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    • Elementa harmonica

    • Elementa harmonica is a treatise on the subject of musical scales by Aristoxenus, of which substantial amounts are extant. The work dates apparently to c.300 B.C. The work is known variously as Aristoxenou (or Aristoxenoy) Armonika (or Harmonika) Stoicheia i.e. Aristoxenou Armonika Stoicheia, Aristoxenou Harmonik ... Read »


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    • Euclidean rhythm

    • The Euclidean rhythm in music was discovered by Godfried Toussaint in 2004 and is described in a 2005 paper "The Euclidean Algorithm Generates Traditional Musical Rhythms". The greatest common divisor of two numbers is used rhythmically giving the number of beats and silences, generating almost all of the most importan ... Read »


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    • Fragmentation (music)

    • In music composition, fragmentation is the use of fragments or the "division of a musical idea (gesture, motive, theme, etc.) into segments." It is used in tonal and atonal music, and is a common method of localized development and closure. Fragmentation is related to Arnold Schoenberg's concept of liquidation, a comm ... Read »


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    • Generative theory of tonal music

    • A generative theory of tonal music (GTTM) is a theory of music conceived by American composer and music theorist Fred Lerdahl and American linguist Ray Jackendoff and presented in the 1983 book of the same title. It constitutes a "formal description of the musical intuitions of a listener who is experienced in a musica ... Read »


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    • Gordon music learning theory

    • Gordon Music Learning Theory is a model for music education based on Edwin Gordon's research on musical aptitude and achievement in the greater field of music learning theory. The theory is an explanation of music learning, based on audiation and students' individual musical differences. The theory uses the concepts of ... Read »


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    • Hedonic music consumption model

    • The hedonic music consumption model was created by music researchers Kathleen Lacher and Richard Mizeski in 1994. Their goal was to use this model to examine the responses that listening to rock music creates, and to find if these responses influenced the listener's intention to later purchase the music. The article be ... Read »


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    • How Music Works

    • How Music Works

      How Music Works is a non-fiction book by David Byrne, a musician, writer, and public figure best known for his work with the group Talking Heads. He discusses the form and influence of music in a non-linear narrative fashion, using a variety of experiences from his career to create something part autobiography and part ... Read »


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    • Kodály method


    • Melodic fission

    • In music cognition, melodic fission (also known as melodic or auditory streaming, or stream segregation), is a phenomenon in which one line of pitches (an auditory stream) is heard as two or more separate melodic lines. This occurs when a phrase contains groups of pitches at two or more distinct registers or with two o ... Read »


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    • Music learning theory

    • The field of music education contains a number of learning theories that specify how students learn music based on behavioral and cognitive psychology. While formal music education has roots going at least as far back as the Hebrews in Egypt or the ancient Greeks, challenges arose as music became more specialized ... Read »


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    • Musica enchiriadis

    • Musica enchiriadis is an anonymous musical treatise of the 9th century. It is the first surviving attempt to set up a system of rules for polyphony in western art music. The treatise was once attributed to Hucbald, but this is no longer accepted. Some historians once attributed it to Odo of Cluny (879-942). It has also ... Read »


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    • Musical argument

    • A musical argument is a means of creating tension through the relation of expressive content and musical form: Traditional dialectal music is representational: the musical form relates to an expressive content and is a means of creating a growing tension; this is what is usually called the musical argument. Experimen ... Read »


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    • Musical similarity

    • The notion of musical similarity is particularly complex because there are numerous dimensions of similarity. If similarity takes place between different fragments from one musical piece, a musical similarity implies a repetition of the first occurring fragment. As well, eventually, the similarity does not occur by dir ... Read »


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    • Musical tone

    • Traditionally in Western music, a musical tone is a steady periodic sound. A musical tone is characterized by its duration, pitch, intensity (or loudness), and timbre (or quality). The notes used in music can be more complex than musical tones, as they may include aperiodic aspects, such as attack transients, vibrato, ... Read »


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    • Nana (echos)

    • Phthora nana (Medieval Greek φθορά νανὰ) is one of the ten modes of the Hagiopolitan Octoechos consisting of 8 diatonic echoi and two additional phthorai. It is used in different traditions of Orthodox chant until today (→ Neobyzantine Octoechos). The name "nana" is taken from the syll ... Read »


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    • Nenano

    • Phthora nenano (Medieval Greek: φθορά νενανῶ, also νενανὼ) is the name of one of the two "extra" modes in the Byzantine Octoechos—an eight mode system, which was created during reforms of the Monastery Agios Sabas, near Jerusalem, and the Stoudiou-Monastery be ... Read »


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    • Neo-Riemannian theory

    • Neo-Riemannian theory is a loose collection of ideas present in the writings of music theorists such as David Lewin, Brian Hyer, Richard Cohn, and Henry Klumpenhouwer. What binds these ideas is a central commitment to relating harmonies directly to each other, without necessary reference to a tonic. Initially, those ha ... Read »


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    • Octave species

    • In early Greek music theory, an octave species (εἶδος τοῦ διὰ πασῶν, or σχῆμα τοῦ διὰ πασῶν) is a sequence of incomposite intervals (ditones, minor thirds, whole tones, semitones of various sizes, or quarter ... Read »


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    • Ohm's acoustic law


    • Polish School (music)

    • Polish School (also known as New Polish School) is a term that describes the music of several post-1945 Polish composers who share generational and stylistic similarities. Representatives include Tadeusz Baird, Henryk Górecki, Wojciech Kilar, Witold Lutosławski, Krzysztof Penderecki, and Kazimierz Serocki. Accord ... Read »


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    • Privileged pattern

    • In music a privileged pattern is a motive, figure, or chord which is repeated and transposed so that the transpositions form a recognizable pattern. The pattern of transposition may be either by a repeated interval, an interval cycle, or a stepwise line of whole tones and semitones. The pattern is said to be privileged ... Read »


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    • Pyknon

    • Pyknon, Greek: πυκνόν, sometimes also transliterated as pycnon (from Greek: πυκνός close, close-packed, crowded, condensed; Latin: spissus) in the music theory of Antiquity is a structural property of any tetrachord in which a composite of two smaller intervals is less than the remai ... Read »


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    • Retrograde (music)

    • A musical line which is the reverse of a previously or simultaneously stated line is said to be its retrograde or cancrizans ("walking backward", medieval Latin, from cancer, crab). An exact retrograde includes both the pitches and rhythms in reverse. An even more exact retrograde reverses the physical contour of the n ... Read »


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    • Sarana Chatushtai

    • Sarana Chatushtai is an experiment to obtain the correct physical configuration of Śruti swara arrangement to Shadja Grama Notes on veena (Sa, Ri, Ga, Ma, Pa, Dha, Ni corresponding to 4-3-2-4-4-3-2 totalling 22 Srutis in a Saptak). The experiment is described in Abhinavabharati, a commentary to Natya Shastra, as an ... Read »


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    • Scolica enchiriadis

    • Scolica enchiriadis is an anonymous ninth-century music theory treatise and commentary on its companion work, the Musica enchiriadis. These treatises were once attributed to Hucbald, but this is no longer accepted. The Scolica enchiriadis is written as a tripartite dialogue, and despite being a commentary on the Music ... Read »


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    • Slow movement (music)

    • A slow movement is a form in a multi-movement musical piece. Generally, the second movement of a piece will be written as a slow movement, although composers occasionally write other movements as a slow movement as well. The tempo of a slow movement can vary from largo to andante. It is usually in the dominant, subdomi ... Read »


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    • Society for Music Theory

    • The Society for Music Theory (SMT) is an American organisation devoted to the promotion of music theory as a scholarly and pedagogical discipline. It currently has a membership of over 1200, primarily in the United States. In the 1970s, few schools had dedicated music theory programs, many music theorists had been tra ... Read »


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    • Spiral array model

    • In music theory, the spiral array model is an extended type of pitch space. A mathematical model involving concentric helices (an "array of spirals"), it represents human perceptions of pitches, chords and keys in the same geometric space. It was proposed in 2000 by Prof. Elaine Chew in her MIT doctoral thesis Toward a ... Read »


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    • Syntagma Musicum

    • Syntagma Musicum is a book by the German musicologist Michael Praetorius, published in Wittenberg and Wolfenbüttel in three parts between 1614-1620. It is one of the most commonly used research sources for the music theory of the seventeenth century. The second work De Organographia illustrates and describes musical ... Read »


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    • Tension (music)

    • In music, tension is the anticipation music creates in a listener's mind for relaxation or release. For example, tension may be produced through reiteration, increase in dynamic level, gradual motion to a higher or lower pitch, or (partial) syncopations between consonance and dissonance. Experiments in music perceptio ... Read »


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    • Thummer keyboard

    • A Thummer is a proposed commercial musical instrument characterized by The Thummer was to be a type of jammer keyboard. Research suggests that the jammer's combination of thumb-controls and internal motion sensors could give more expressive potential than other polyphonic musical instruments such as the piano, guitar, ... Read »


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    • Tonality

    • Tonality is a musical system that arranges pitches or chords to induce a hierarchy of perceived relations, stabilities, and attractions. In this hierarchy, the individual pitch or triadic chord with the greatest stability is called the tonic. The root of the tonic chord is considered to be the key of a piece or song. T ... Read »


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    • Tonary

    • A tonary is a liturgical book in the Western Christian Church which lists by incipit various items of Gregorian chant according to the Gregorian mode (tonus) of their melodies within the eight-mode system. Tonaries often include Office antiphons, the mode of which determines the recitation formula for the accompanying ... Read »


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    • Transformational theory

    • Transformational theory is a branch of music theory David Lewin developed in the 1980s, and formally introduced in his 1987 work, Generalized Musical Intervals and Transformations. The theory—which models musical transformations as elements of a mathematical group—can be used to analyze both tonal and atonal ... Read »


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    • Treatise on Instrumentation

    • Grand traité d’instrumentation et d’orchestration modernes, abbreviated in English as the Treatise on Instrumentation (sometimes Treatise on Orchestration) is a technical study of Western musical instruments, written by Hector Berlioz. It was first published in 1844 after being serialised in many parts pri ... Read »


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    • Vogel's Tonnetz


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