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    Midwifery

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    • Birth control

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    • Midwives

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Midwives


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    • Midwifery organizations

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    • Midwifery

    • Midwifery

      Midwifery, as known as obstetrics, is a health science and health profession that deals with pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period (including care of the newborn), besides sexual and reproductive health of women throughout their lives. In many countries, midwifery is a medical profession (special for its ind ... Read »


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    • Adaptation to extrauterine life

    • At the end of pregnancy, the fetus must take the journey of childbirth to leave the reproductive female mother. Upon its entry to the air-breathing world, the newborn must begin to adjust to life outside the uterus. Perfusing its body by breathing independently instead of utilizing placental oxygen delivered via t ... Read »


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    • Advanced Life Support in Obstetrics

    • Advanced Life Support in Obstetrics (ALSO) is a program that was developed by the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP). This course helps physicians, certified nurse midwives (CNM), OBGYN Registered Nurses, and other health care providers involved in potential emergencies in perinatal care of mothers. This cour ... Read »


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    • Advanced maternal age

    • Advanced maternal age, in a broad sense, is the instance of a woman being of an older age at a stage of reproduction, although there are various definitions of specific age and stage of reproduction. It is a result of female childbearing postponement. The variability in definitions regarding age is in part explained by ... Read »


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    • Alexandria Regional Center for Women's Health and Development


    • All My Babies

    • All My Babies: A Midwife's Own Story is a 1953 educational film produced and directed by George C. Stoney which was used to educate midwives in the Southern United States. It was produced by the Georgia Department of Public Health, and written by Stoney. The film follows Mary Francis Hill Coley (1900–66), an Afric ... Read »


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    • Alpha-fetoprotein

    • Alpha-fetoprotein

      3MRK 174 11576 ENSG00000081051 ENSMUSG00000054932 P02771 P02772 NM_001134 NM_007423 NP_001125 NP_031449.3NP_031449 Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, α-fetoprotein; also sometimes called alpha-1-fetoprotein, alpha-fetoglobulin, or alpha fetal protein) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AFP gene. The AFP g ... Read »


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    • Amniotic fluid

    • Amniotic fluid

      The amniotic fluid, commonly called a pregnant woman's water or waters (Latin liquor amnii), is the protective liquid contained by the amniotic sac of a pregnant female. This fluid serves as a cushion for the growing fetus, but also serves to facilitate the exchange of nutrients, water, and biochemical products between ... Read »


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    • Amniotic sac

    • Amniotic sac

      The amniotic sac, commonly called the bag of waters, sometimes the membranes, is the sac in which the fetus develops in amniotes. It is a thin but tough transparent pair of membranes that hold a developing embryo (and later fetus) until shortly before birth. The inner of these fetal membranes, the amnion, encloses the ... Read »


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    • Anterior shoulder

    • Anterior shoulder in obstetrics refers to that shoulder of the fetus that faces the pubic symphysis of the mother during delivery. Depending upon the original position of the fetus, either the left or the right shoulder can be the anterior shoulder. It is known as the anterior shoulder as it faces the anterior of the m ... Read »


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    • Asynclitic birth

    • An asynclitic birth or asynclitism refers to the position of a baby in the uterus such that the head of the baby is presenting first and is tilted to the shoulder, causing the fetal head to no longer be in line with the birth canal. Asynclitic presentation is significantly different from a shoulder presentation, in whi ... Read »


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    • Auxiliary nurse midwife

    • Auxiliary nurse midwife, commonly known as ANM, is a village-level female health worker in India who is known as the first contact person between the community and the health services. ANMs are regarded as the grass-roots workers in the health organisation pyramid. Their services are considered important to provide saf ... Read »


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    • Babinden

    • Babinden

      8 January (21 January according to the Gregorian calendar) in Bulgaria and Serbia Babinden (Bulgarian: Бабинден, Russian: Бабьи каши, Бабий день the Day of the baba or the Day of the midwife) is a traditional Bulgarian feast, celebrated on 8 ... Read »


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    • Back labor

    • Back labor (less commonly called posterior labor) is a term referring to sensations of pain or discomfort that occur in the lower back, just above the tailbone, to a mother during childbirth. Back labor may be noted when the baby is face up in the birth canal (occiput posterior), and not face down, so that the back of ... Read »


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    • Bangladesh Institute of Child and Mother Health

    • The Bangladesh Institute of Child and Mother Health (ICMH) is a research institute that seeks to improve the children and mother's health sector in Bangladesh. It situated in Matuail, Dhaka. It operates under the Bangladesh government's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MOHFW) and was established in 1992, funded j ... Read »


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    • Birth attendant

    • A birth attendant, also known as "skilled birth attendant" ("SBA"), is a midwife, physician, obstetrician, nurse, or other health care professional who provides basic and emergency health care services to women and their newborns during pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period. Birth attendants are trained to be ... Read »


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    • Birth control

    • Birth control

      Birth control, also known as contraception and fertility control, is a method or device used to prevent pregnancy. Birth control has been used since ancient times, but effective and safe methods of birth control only became available in the 20th century. Planning, making available, and using birth control is called fam ... Read »


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    • Birth Story: Ina May Gaskin and the Farm Midwives

    • Birth Story: Ina May Gaskin and the Farm Midwives is a 2012 documentary film about Ina May Gaskin directed by Sara Lamm and Mary Wigmore. The documentary shows Gaskin and others practicing home birth at a commune. Today as nearly one third of all US babies are born via C-section; the struggle is to protect their midwi ... Read »


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    • Birth weight

    • Birth weight is the body weight of a baby at its birth. The average birth weight in babies of European heritage is 3.5 kilograms (7.7 lb), though the range of normal is between 2.5 kilograms (5.5 lb) and 5 kilograms (11 lb) (all but 5% of newborns will fall into this range). Babies of south Asian and Chinese h ... Read »


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    • Birthing center

    • A birthing center or centre is a healthcare facility, staffed by nurse-midwives, midwives and/or obstetricians, for mothers in labor, who may be assisted by doulas and coaches. By attending the laboring mother, the doulas can assist the midwives and make the birth easier. The midwives monitor the labor, and well-being ... Read »


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    • Birthing chair

    • A birthing chair, also known as a birth chair, is a device that is shaped to assist a person in the physiological upright posture during childbirth. The birthing chair is intended to provide balance and support to mothers giving birth. The early birthing chairs varied between having three or four legs, though three le ... Read »


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    • Bishop score

    • Bishop score, also Bishop's score, also known as cervix score is a pre-labor scoring system to assist in predicting whether induction of labor will be required. It has also been used to assess the odds of spontaneous preterm delivery. The Bishop Score was developed by Dr. Edward Bishop and was published in August 1964. ... Read »


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    • Bloody show

    • Bloody show is the passage of a small amount of blood or blood-tinged mucus through the vagina near the end of pregnancy. It can occur just before labor or in early labor as the cervix changes shape, freeing mucus and blood that occupied the cervical glands or cervical os. Bloody show is a relatively common feature of ... Read »


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    • Boston Association for Childbirth Education

    • The Boston Association for Childbirth Education (BACE) was established in 1953 by students of Jean Whiffen. BACE was one of the first American organizations focused on natural childbirth and maternal-based obstetrical care, and in 1962 sponsored the first breastfeeding support group in New England. BACE's founders wer ... Read »


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    • Bradley method of natural childbirth

    • The Bradley method of natural childbirth (also known as "husband-coached childbirth") is a method of natural childbirth developed in 1947 by Robert A. Bradley, M.D. (1917–1998) and popularized by his book Husband-Coached Childbirth, first published in 1965. The Bradley method emphasizes that birth is a natural pro ... Read »


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    • Breast milk

    • Breast milk is the milk produced by the breasts (or mammary glands) of a human female to feed a child. Milk is the primary source of nutrition for newborns before they are able to eat and digest other foods; older infants and toddlers may continue to be breastfed, either exclusively or in combination with other foods f ... Read »


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    • Breastfeeding

    • Breastfeeding, also known as nursing, is the feeding of babies and young children with milk from a woman's breast. Health professionals recommend that breastfeeding begin within the first hour of a baby's life and continue as often and as much as the baby wants. During the first few weeks of life babies may nurse rough ... Read »


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    • Breastfeeding and HIV

    • Breastfeeding by HIV-infected mothers raises concerns of transmission of HIV to the child. Varying factors, such as the viral load in the mother’s milk, contribute to the difficulty in creating breastfeeding recommendations for HIV-positive mothers. It is also possible for the infant to be infected with HIV throug ... Read »


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    • Breastfeeding promotion

    • Breastfeeding promotion refers to coordinated activities and policies to promote health among women, newborns and infants through breastfeeding. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends infants should be exclusively breastfed for the first six months of life to achieve optimal health and development, followed by ... Read »


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    • Breech birth

    • Breech birth

      A breech birth occurs when a baby is born bottom first instead of head first. Around 3-5% of pregnant women at term (37–40 weeks pregnant) will have a breech baby. Most babies in the breech position are born by a caesarean section because it is seen as safer than being born vaginally. As most breech babies are d ... Read »


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    • John Burns (surgeon)

    • John Burns FRS, (13 November 1775 – 18 June 1850) was a Scottish surgeon. He was the eldest son of Rev. John Burns, who was the minister of the Barony Church until his death. Burns became a visiting surgeon at Glasgow Royal Infirmary and the proprietor of the College Street medical school. He was suspected in ro ... Read »


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    • Caul

    • A caul or cowl (Latin: Caput galeatum, literally, "helmeted head") is a piece of membrane that can cover a newborn's head and face. Birth with a caul is rare, occurring in fewer than 1 in 80,000 births. The caul is harmless and is immediately removed by the physician or midwife upon delivery of the child. The "en-caul ... Read »


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    • Cephalic presentation

    • Cephalic presentation

      A cephalic presentation or head presentation or head-first presentation is a situation at childbirth where the fetus is in a longitudinal lie and the head enters the pelvis first; the most common form of cephalic presentation is the vertex presentation where the occiput is the leading part (the part that first enters t ... Read »


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    • Certified nurse midwife

    • Certified nurse midwife (CNM)

      In the United States, a certified nurse midwife (CNM) is an advanced practice registered nurse in nurse midwifery, the care of women across their lifespan, including pregnancy and the postpartum period, and well woman care and birth control. Certified nurse midwives are exceptionally recognized by the International Con ... Read »


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    • Cervical dilation

    • Cervical dilation (or cervical dilatation) is the opening of the cervix, the entrance to the uterus, during childbirth, miscarriage, induced abortion, or gynecological surgery. Cervical dilation may occur naturally, or may be induced by surgical or medical means. In the later stages of pregnancy, the cervix may al ... Read »


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    • Cervical effacement

    • Cervical effacement (also called cervical ripening) refers to a thinning of the cervix. It is a component of the Bishop score. It can be expressed as a percentage. Prior to effacement, the cervix is like a long bottleneck, usually about four centimeters in length. Throughout pregnancy, the cervix is tightly closed an ... Read »


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    • Cervical mucus plug

    • A cervical mucus plug (operculum) is a plug that fills and seals the cervical canal during pregnancy. It is formed by a small amount of cervical mucus. The mucus plug acts as a protective barrier by deterring the passage of bacteria into the uterus, and contains a variety of antimicrobial agents, including immunoglobu ... Read »


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    • Chadwick's sign


    • Childbirth

    • Childbirth

      Childbirth, also known as labour and delivery, is the ending of a pregnancy by one or more babies leaving a woman's uterus. In 2015 there were about 135 million births globally. About 15 million were born before 37 weeks of gestation, while between 3 and 12% were born after 42 weeks. In the developed world most deliver ... Read »


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    • Childbirth Connection

    • Childbirth Connection, formerly known as the Maternity Center Association, is an American national nonprofit organization that works to improve the quality of maternity care through research, education, advocacy, and policy. Childbirth Connection promotes safe, effective evidence-based maternity care and is a voice for ... Read »


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    • Childbirth in Nepal

    • This article provides a background on Nepal as a whole, with a focus on the nation’s childbearing and birthing practices. While modern Western medicine has disseminated across the country to varying degrees, different regions in Nepal continue to practice obstetric and newborn care according to traditional beliefs ... Read »


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    • Childbirth positions

    • The term childbirth positions (or "maternal birthing position") refers to the physical postures the pregnant mother may assume during the process of childbirth. They may also be referred to as delivery positions or labor positions. In addition to the lithotomy position, still commonly used by many obstetricians, other ... Read »


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    • Choice USA

    • URGE is a reproductive rights and justice non-profit organization in the United States based in Washington, D.C. It is youth-led, with a focus on pro-choice movements. URGE changed its name in July 2014 and was formerly called Choice USA. In a statement on its website, the group said the name change reflected work it w ... Read »


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    • Crown-rump length

    • Crown-rump length (CRL) is the measurement of the length of human embryos and fetuses from the top of the head (crown) to the bottom of the buttocks (rump). It is typically determined from ultrasound imagery and can be used to estimate gestational age. The embryo and fetus float in the amniotic fluid inside the ut ... Read »


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    • William Cumin (obstetrician)

    • William Cumin (died 17 January 1854) was Regius Professor of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at the University of Glasgow between 1834 and 1840. He was the son of Patrick Cumin (died 27 October 1820), Professor of Oriental Languages at the University of Glasgow, and his wife Rachael Baird. The Scottish philosopher David Hu ... Read »


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    • Daybreak in Udi

    • Daybreak in Udi is a 1949 British documentary film directed by Terry Bishop about cultural changes in Udi, Enugu. It won the Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature. It is 1949, and colonial Nigeria is undergoing an identity crisis. There is a clash between the progressive, educated elements of society - those ... Read »


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    • Decidua

    • Decidua

      Decidua is the term for the uterine lining (endometrium) during a pregnancy, which forms the maternal part of the placenta. It is formed under the influence of progesterone and forms highly characteristic cells. The word comes from the Latin deciduus, meaning falling off or shedding. After ovulation, in placental ... Read »


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    • Direct-entry midwife

    • A direct-entry midwife, also known as a lay midwife, is an uncertified or unlicensed midwife who gained experience through self-study or apprenticeships instead through formal education. These midwives are also known for being "more natural and less intervention oriented." In other words, midwives don't employ meth ... Read »


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    • Domestic violence and pregnancy

    • Pregnancy when coupled with domestic violence is a form of intimate partner violence (IPV) where health risks may be amplified. Abuse during pregnancy, whether physical, verbal or emotional, produces many adverse physical and psychological effects for both the mother and fetus. Domestic violence during pregnancy is cat ... Read »


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    • Doppler fetal monitor

    • Doppler fetal monitor or Baby Heartbeat Monitors is a handheld ultrasound baby heartbeat monitor used to hear an embryo or fetus' heartbeat. Originally intended for use by health care professionals, despite this, Fetal Doppler devices have become extremely popular for personal use. Invented in 1958 by Dr. Edward ... Read »


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    • Doula

    • A doula (/ˈduːlə/), also known as a birth companion or post-birth supporter, is a nonmedical person who assists a person before, during, or after childbirth, as well as her spouse and family, by providing physical assistance and emotional support. The provision of continuous support during labour is associated ... Read »


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    • Echogenic intracardiac focus

    • Echogenic intracardiac focus (EIF) is a small bright spot seen in the baby’s heart on an ultrasound exam. This is thought to represent mineralization, or small deposits of calcium, in the muscle of the heart. EIFs are found in about 3–5% of normal pregnancies and cause no health problems. EIFs themselves hav ... Read »


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    • Family planning

    • Family planning is the practice of controlling the number of children in a family and the intervals between their births, particularly by means of artificial contraception or voluntary sterilization. Because "family" is included in the concept's name, consideration of a couple's desire to bear children, in the context ... Read »


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    • Female genital mutilation

    • Female genital mutilation

      Source: UNICEF, February 2016 Source: UNICEF, February 2016 Female genital mutilation (FGM), also known as female genital cutting and female circumcision, is the ritual removal of some or all of the external female genitalia. The practice is found in Africa, Asia and the Middle East, and within communities from count ... Read »


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    • Female sexual arousal disorder

    • Female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) is a disorder characterized by a persistent or recurrent inability to attain sexual arousal or to maintain arousal until the completion of a sexual activity. The diagnosis can also refer to an inadequate lubrication-swelling response normally present during arousal and sexual activ ... Read »


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    • Feminine psychology

    • Feminine psychology is an approach to psychology that focuses on issues concerning gender, female human identity, and the issues that women face throughout their lives especially social,economic, and political issues. One dynamic outlined by feminine psychologists is the balancing act that women partake in between ... Read »


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    • Ferguson reflex

    • The Ferguson reflex is the name given to the neuroendocrine reflex comprising the self-sustaining cycle of uterine contractions initiated by pressure at the cervix or vaginal walls. It is an example of positive feedback in biology. The Ferguson reflex occurs in mammals. Upon application of pressure to the internal end ... Read »


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    • Fetal distress

    • In medicine (obstetrics), the term fetal distress refers to the presence of signs in a pregnant woman—before or during childbirth—that suggest that the fetus may not be well. Because of its lack of precision, the term is eschewed in modern American obstetrics. Generally it is preferable to describe speci ... Read »


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    • Fetal head

    • The fetal head, from an obstetrical viewpoint, and in particular its size, is important because an essential feature of labor is the adaptation between the fetal head and the maternal bony pelvis. Only a comparatively small part of the head at term is represented by the face. The rest of the head is composed of the fir ... Read »


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    • Folk healer

    • A folk healer is an unlicensed person who practices the art of healing using traditional practices, herbal remedies and even the power of suggestion. A folk healer may be a highly trained person who pursues their specialties, learning by study, observation and imitation. In some cultures a healer might be considered to ... Read »


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    • Forced pregnancy

    • Forced pregnancy is the practice of forcing a woman to become pregnant, often as part of a forced marriage, or as part of a programme of breeding slaves, or as part of a programme of genocide. When a forced pregnancy leads to reproduction, it is a form of reproductive coercion. The practices of bride kidnapping an ... Read »


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    • The Forgotten Frontier

    • The Forgotten Frontier (1931) is a documentary film about the Frontier Nursing Service, nurses on horseback, who traveled the back roads of the Appalachian Mountains of eastern Kentucky. It was directed by Mary Marvin Breckinridge, and featured her cousin, Mary Breckinridge, who was a nurse-midwife and founded the Fron ... Read »


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    • Fundal height

    • Fundal height, or McDonald's rule, is a measure of the size of the uterus used to assess fetal growth and development during pregnancy. It is measured from the top of the mother's uterus to the top of the mother's pubic symphysis. Fundal height, when expressed in centimeters, roughly corresponds to gestational age in w ... Read »


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    • List of mammalian gestation durations


    • Gestational age

    • Gestational age (or menstrual age) is a measure of the age of a pregnancy where the origin from woman's last normal menstrual period (LMP), or the corresponding age as estimated by other methods. Such methods include adding 14 days to a known duration since fertilization (as is possible in in vitro fertilization), or ... Read »


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    • Vivette Glover

    • Vivette Glover (born 1942) is a British Professor of Perinatal Psychobiology at Imperial College London. She studies the effects of stress in pregnancy on the development of the fetus and child. Her first degree was in Biochemistry at Oxford University, and she did her PhD in neurochemistry at University College London ... Read »


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    • Goodell's sign


    • Gurgle

    • Gurgle.com is a British pregnancy and parenting website owned by high-street parenting store Mothercare. Founded by Tom Wright, Gurgle launched as a joint venture between Mothercare and Fleming Media, a family backed investment company, in October 2007. Mothercare bought Fleming Media out to become outright owner of Gu ... Read »


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    • Barbara Harper

    • Barbara Harper (born June 25, 1952) is a US childbirth and maternity reform activist, author, educator and internationally recognized expert on the use of warm water immersion for labor and birth. The Oregonian newspaper once referred to Harper as "the Billy Graham of waterbirth" when they described her "missionary" s ... Read »


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    • Having a Great Birth in Australia

    • Having a Great Birth in Australia

      Having a Great Birth in Australia is the second book from Australian writer David Vernon. The book is an edited anthology of birth experiences, that demonstrate that birth can be a positive, life-affirming event, and that it need not, with the right support, be the trauma that the media often suggests childbirth is. T ... Read »


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    • Health Care for Women International

    • Health Care for Women International is a monthly peer-reviewed healthcare journal covering health care and related topics that concern women around the globe. It is the official journal for Women's Health Issues and it is published by Taylor & Francis. Its editor-in-chief is Eleanor Krassen Covan (University of North ... Read »


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    • Hegar's sign


    • HIV and pregnancy

    • Women diagnosed with HIV/AIDS may transmit the infection to their child during pregnancy. The infection may spread during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding. However, the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV may be reduced by the use of HIV medications known as antiretroviral therapy (ART). These medication ... Read »


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    • Home birth

    • A home birth in developed countries is an attended or an unattended childbirth in a non-clinical setting, typically using natural childbirth methods, that takes place in a residence rather than in a hospital or a birth centre, and usually attended by a midwife or lay attendant with experience in managing home births. H ... Read »


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    • Implantation (human embryo)

    • In humans, implantation is the very early stage of pregnancy at which the conceptus adheres to the wall of the uterus. At this stage of prenatal development, the conceptus is a . It is by this adhesion that the fetus receives oxygen and nutrients from the mother to be able to grow. In humans, implantation of a fertili ... Read »


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    • International Midwives' Day


    • Ixchel

    • Ixchel or Ix Chel (Mayan: [iʃˈt͡ʃel]) is the 16th-century name of the aged jaguar goddess of midwifery and medicine in ancient Maya culture. She corresponds, more or less, to Yoalticitl "Our Grandmother the Nocturnal Physician", an Aztec earth goddess inhabiting the sweatbath, and is related to another ... Read »


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    • Kick chart

    • A kick chart is a form or graph used by a pregnant woman in the later stages to record the activity of her fetus. If too few kicks are felt within a specified time (usually 12 hours) this could indicate a problem. A frequent question posed by midwives is how "many times has the baby kicked in the last twelve hours?" T ... Read »


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    • Sheila Kitzinger

    • Sheila Helena Elizabeth Kitzinger MBE (29 March 1929 – 11 April 2015) was a British natural childbirth activist and author on childbirth and pregnancy. Kitzinger was born in Taunton, Somerset. She was a social anthropologist specialising in pregnancy, childbirth and the parenting of babies and young children. Alt ... Read »


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    • Lactation consultant

    • A lactation consultant is an allied health professional who specializes in the clinical management of breastfeeding. Lactation consultants commonly work in hospitals, physician or midwife practices, public health programs, and private practice. They are certified through the International Board of Lactation Consultant ... Read »


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    • Lactivism

    • Lactivism (a portmanteau of "lactation" and "activism") is the advocacy of breastfeeding. Supporters, referred to as "lactivists", seek to promote the health benefits of breastfeeding over formula-feeding and to ensure that nursing mothers are not discriminated against. One form that lactivism can take is the staging ... Read »


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    • Ladin's sign


    • Late preterm infant

    • Late preterm infants are infants born at a gestational age between  34 0⁄7 weeks and  36 6⁄7 weeks. They have higher morbidity and mortality rates than term infants (gestational age ≥37 weeks) due to their relative physiologic and metabolic immaturity, even though they are often the size ... Read »


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    • Ronnie Lichtman

    • Ronnie Sue Lichtman, CNM., LM, PhD, FACNM (born February 10, 1950) is a midwife, educator, writer and advocate for women's health. She has published widely for both lay and professional audiences. The Chair of the Midwifery Education Program at The State University of New York (SUNY) Downstate Medical Center in New Yor ... Read »


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    • Live birth (human)

    • In human reproduction, a live birth occurs when a fetus, whatever its gestational age, exits the maternal body and subsequently shows any sign of life, such as voluntary movement, heartbeat, or pulsation of the umbilical cord, for however brief a time and regardless of whether the umbilical cord or placenta are intact. ... Read »


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    • Lochia

    • In the field of obstetrics, lochia is the vaginal discharge after giving birth (puerperium) containing blood, mucus, and uterine tissue. Lochia discharge typically continues for 4 to 6 weeks after childbirth, which is known as the postpartum period. It is sterile for the first 2 to 3 days, but not so by the third or f ... Read »


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    • Malinas score

    • The Malinas score is an evaluation that allows to determine whether a pregnant woman is about to give birth. It was invented by Yves Malinas (French physician, died 20 January 1997). It is mainly used in case of unexpected prehospital cases: the score indicates if it is possible to transport the pregnant woman or if i ... Read »


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    • Maternal and Newborn Health in Ethiopia Partnership – MaNHEP


    • Maternal bond

    • A maternal bond is the relationship between a mother and her child. While typically associated with pregnancy and childbirth, a maternal bond may also develop in cases where the child is unrelated, such as an adoption. Both physical and emotional factors influence the mother-child bonding process. In separation anxiet ... Read »


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    • Maternal death

    • Maternal death is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as "the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental or incidental ... Read »


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    • Maternal health

    • Maternal health is the health of women during pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period. It encompasses the health care dimensions of family planning, preconception, prenatal, and postnatal care in order to ensure a positive and fulfilling experience in most cases and reduce maternal morbidity and mortality in o ... Read »


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    • Maternal health in Angola

    • Maternal health in Angola is a very complicated issue. In the Sub-Saharan region of Africa where Angola is located, poor maternal health has been an ongoing problem contributing to the decreased level of health in the population in the early 21st century. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), maternal heal ... Read »


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    • Maternal health in Rwanda

    • The main aspects of Maternal Health are Prenatal care, post-natal care, family planning and preconception. The RBF scheme in Rwanda has led to massive improvement in the prenatal care in various provinces of the country. Institutional Delivery helps to reduce infant mortality rate. According to UNICEF, institutio ... Read »


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    • Maternal Health Task Force

    • Launched in 2008 with funding from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the Maternal Health Task Force (MHTF) is a global project focused on improving maternal health through better coordination, communication, and facilitation between existing maternal health organizations, as well as with experts in related fields. T ... Read »


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    • Maternal near miss

    • A maternal near miss (MNM) is an event in which a pregnant woman comes close to maternal death, but does not die – a "near-miss". Traditionally, the analysis of maternal deaths has been the criteria of choice for evaluating women's health and the quality of obstetric care. Due to the success of modern medicine suc ... Read »


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    • Maternal physiological changes in pregnancy

    • Maternal physiological changes in pregnancy are the normal adaptations that a woman undergoes during pregnancy to better accommodate the embryo or fetus. They are physiological changes, that is, they are entirely normal, and include cardiovascular, hematologic, metabolic, renal and respiratory changes that become very ... Read »


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    • Maternity home

    • A maternity home is a service provided to pregnant women who lack a stable home environment (or any home). Maternity homes were previously known as homes for unwed mothers, and are occasionally still referred to as such. The Salvation Army opened its first "home for unwed mothers" in 1886. Other examples include Bethan ... Read »


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    • John Maubray

    • John Maubray (1700–1732) was a Scottish physician, who practised in London as an early teacher of midwives. He wrote a book called "The Female Physician" published in 1724, and became chairman of the Charitable Corporation. As a member of a group of London-based man midwives he was a follower of the ideas of the ... Read »


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    • Men's role in childbirth


    • Menopause

    • Menopause

      Menopause, also known as the climacteric, is the time in most women's lives when menstrual periods stop permanently, and they are no longer able to bear children. Menopause typically occurs between 49 and 52 years of age. Medical professionals often define menopause as having occurred when a woman has not had any vagin ... Read »


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    • Menstrual cycle

    • The menstrual cycle is the regular natural change that occurs in the female reproductive system (specifically the uterus and ovaries) that makes pregnancy possible. The cycle is required for the production of ovocytes, and for the preparation of the uterus for pregnancy. Up to 80% of women report having some symptoms d ... Read »


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    • Menstruation

    • Menstruation, also known as a period or monthly, is the regular discharge of blood and mucosal tissue from the inner lining of the uterus through the vagina. The first period usually begins between twelve and fifteen years of age, a point in time known as menarche. However, periods may occasionally start as young as ei ... Read »


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    • Midwife

    • Midwife

      A midwife is a professional in midwifery, specializing in pregnancy, childbirth, postpartum, women's sexual and reproductive health (including annual gynecological exams, family planning, menopausal care and others), and newborn care. They are also educated and trained to recognise the variations of normal progress of ... Read »


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    • Midwifery in Maya society

    • Midwifery is a women's profession that assists women from pregnancy to newborn care. Midwifery also has the religious role. Midwives are believed in Maya society to be assigned their profession from God through signs and visions. In ancient myths Maya goddess of midwifery is called Ixchel. Childbirth is the final ... Read »


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    • Midwifery in the Middle Ages


    • Midwives Act 1902

    • The Midwives Act 1902 (2 Edw. VII c. 17) was an Act of Parliament of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, given the royal assent on 31 July 1902, in force from 1 April 1903, and repealed in 1951. It regulated the profession of midwifery, requiring certification for midwives and providing a penalty for any woman pract ... Read »


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    • Monthly nurse

    • A Monthly Nurse was a woman who, in 18th and 19th century England, looked after a mother, and her baby also, for the first few weeks after birth. From far back in time the delivery of children and care of the mothers was a profession often handed down from mother to daughter, with the daughter spending many years as t ... Read »


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    • Morning sickness

    • Morning sickness, also called nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP), is a symptom of pregnancy that involves nausea or vomiting. Despite the name, nausea or vomiting can occur at any time during the day. Typically these symptoms occur between the 4th and 16th week of pregnancy. About 10% of women still have symptoms a ... Read »


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    • Mysteries of Montreal

    • Charlotte Führer (1834 – November 5, 1907) was a German author and midwife/"doctress". She was born in Hanover, Germany in 1834 as Johanne Louise Charlotte Heise, to Evangelical Lutheran parents; her father was a general in the Hanoverian army. At the age of 17, she married Ferdinand Adolph Fuhrer, who she re ... Read »


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    • Naegele's rule


    • National Childbirth Trust

    • The National Childbirth Trust (NCT) is a UK-based charity with registered charity number 801395. The National Childbirth Trust is a charity offering information and support in pregnancy, childbirth and early parenthood. The National Childbirth Trust, originally called The Natural Childbirth Trust, was founded in ... Read »


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    • Natural childbirth

    • Natural childbirth is childbirth without routine medical interventions, particularly anesthesia. Natural childbirth arose in opposition to the techno-medical model of childbirth that has recently gained popularity in industrialized societies. Natural childbirth attempts to minimize medical intervention, particularly th ... Read »


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    • Neonatal heel prick

    • The neonatal heel prick or Guthrie test is a screening test done on newborns. It consists of making a pinprick puncture in one heel of the newborn and soaking the blood into pre-printed collection cards known as Guthrie cards. The classical Guthrie test is named after Robert Guthrie, an American bacteriologist and phy ... Read »


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    • New Space for Women's Health


    • Nuchal cord

    • A nuchal cord occurs when the umbilical cord becomes wrapped around the fetal neck 360 degrees. Nuchal cords are common, with prevalence rates of 6% to 37%. Up to half of nuchal cords resolve before delivery. In 1962, J. Selwyn Crawford MD from the British Research Council defined a nuchal cord as one that is wrap ... Read »


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    • Obstetric Flying Squad

    • An Obstetric Flying Squad is a form of medical retrieval team that is composed of an obstetrician, anaesthetist, midwife and other healthcare personnel who are on-call to attend to mothers with major obstetric complications occurring in the community. The idea of having an Obstetric Flying Squad was suggested by Profe ... Read »


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    • Obstructed labour

    • Obstructed labour

      Obstructed labour, also known as labour dystocia, is when, even though the uterus is contracting normally, the baby does not exit the pelvis during childbirth due to being physically blocked. Complications for the baby include not getting enough oxygen which may result in death. It increases the risk of the mother gett ... Read »


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    • Michel Odent

    • Michel Odent is a French obstetrician and childbirth specialist. Born in a French village in 1930, Odent studied medicine in Paris and was educated as a surgeon in the 1950s. He has been presented in Lancet as “one of the last real general surgeons”. In charge of the surgical and maternity units of the ... Read »


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    • Ovulation

    • Ovulation

      Ovulation is the release of egg from the ovaries. In humans, this event occurs when the de Graaf's follicles rupture and release the secondary oocyte ovarian cells. After ovulation, during the luteal phase, the egg will be available to be fertilized by sperm. In addition, the uterine lining (endometrium) is thickened t ... Read »


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    • Parental obesity

    • Maternal obesity refers to obesity (often including being overweight) of a woman during pregnancy. Parental obesity refers to obesity of either parent during pregnancy. Maternal obesity has a significant impact on maternal metabolism and offspring development.Insulin resistance, glucose homeostasis, fat oxidation and ... Read »


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    • Partogram

    • A partogram or partograph is a composite graphical record of key data (maternal and fetal) during labour entered against time on a single sheet of paper. Relevant measurements might include statistics such as cervical dilation, fetal heart rate, duration of labour and vital signs. It is intended to provide an accurate ... Read »


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    • Pelvic girdle pain

    • Pregnancy-related pelvic girdle pain (abbreviated PGP) causes pain, instability and limitation of mobility and functioning in any of the three pelvic joints. PGP is a pregnancy discomfort that has a long history of recognition, mentioned by Hippocrates and later described in medical literature by Snelling. The affecti ... Read »


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    • Perinatal mortality

    • Perinatal mortality

      Perinatal mortality (PNM), also perinatal death, refers to the death of a fetus or neonate and is the basis to calculate the perinatal mortality rate. Variations in the precise definition of the perinatal mortality exist specifically concerning the issue of inclusion or exclusion of early fetal and late neonatal fatali ... Read »


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    • Perineal massage

    • Antenatal perineal massage (APM) or birth canal widening (BCW) is the massage of a pregnant woman's perineum around the opening to the vagina, performed anywhere in the 4 to 6 weeks before childbirth and usually on 4-6 separate occasions. The practice aims to more gently mimic the massaging action of a baby's head on t ... Read »


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    • Perineal tear

    • Perineal tear

      In obstetrics, a perineal tear is a spontaneous (unintended) laceration of the skin and other soft tissue structures which, in women, separate the vagina from the anus. Perineal tears mainly occur in women as a result of vaginal childbirth, which strains the perineum. Tears vary widely in severity. The majority are sup ... Read »


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    • Perineometer

    • A Kegel perineometer or vaginal manometer is an instrument for measuring the strength of voluntary contractions of the pelvic floor muscles. Arnold Kegel (1894–1981) was the gynecologist who invented the Kegel Perineometer (used for measuring vaginal air pressure) and Kegel exercises (squeezing of the muscles of t ... Read »


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    • Period of viability

    • The period of viability refers (traditionally) to the period after the twenty-eighth week, or more recently the twenty-fourth week, of gestation when a human fetus is capable of living outside of the womb. Whether the fetus is in the period of viability has legal ramifications as far as the fetus' rights of protection ... Read »


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    • Pinard horn

    • A Pinard horn is a tool used to listen the heart rate of a fetus during pregnancy. It is a type of stethoscope, formerly called a "fetoscope", but the term is still sometimes associated with the Pinard stethoscope. The horn is often made of wood or metal and is hollow. It is about 8 inches long. It functions similarly ... Read »


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    • Piskacek's sign


    • Placental expulsion

    • Placental expulsion (also called afterbirth) occurs when the placenta comes out of the birth canal after childbirth. The period from just after the baby is expelled until just after the placenta is expelled is called the third stage of labor. The third stage of labor can be managed actively with several standard proce ... Read »


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    • Position (obstetrics)

    • In obstetrics, position is the orientation of the fetus in the womb, identified by the location of the presenting part of the fetus relative to the pelvis of the mother. Conventionally, it is the position assumed by the fetus before the process of birth, as the fetus assumes various positions and postures during the co ... Read »


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    • Posterior shoulder

    • Posterior shoulder in obstetrics refers to the shoulder of the fetus other than the anterior shoulder. Thus, the posterior shoulder faces the rectum of the mother during delivery. Whether left or the right shoulder becomes the posterior shoulder is dependent upon the original position of the fetus. It is known as the p ... Read »


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    • Postmenopausal confusion

    • Postmenopausal confusion is a symptom of menopause; women face problems with cognition during and after menopause due to hormonal imbalances. Estrogen affects the serotonergic, cholinergic, dopaminergic, and noradrenergic systems, all of which are key to maintaining regular functioning in both survival and cogniti ... Read »


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    • Postpartum period

    • A postpartum period or postnatal period is the period beginning immediately after the birth of a child and extending for about six weeks. Less frequently used are the terms puerperium or puerperal period. The World Health Organization (WHO) describes the postnatal period as the most critical and yet the most neglected ... Read »


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    • Pre-conception counseling

    • Pre-conception counseling (also called pre-conceptual counseling) is a meeting with a health-care professional (generally a physician or midwife) by a woman before attempting to become pregnant. It generally includes a pre-conception risk assessment for any potential complications of pregnancy as well as modifications ... Read »


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    • Pre-conception counseling in the United States

    • Pre-conception counseling in the United States allows for optimization of US prenatal care. Pre-conception counseling is a meeting with a health-care professional (generally a physician or midwife) by a woman before attempting to become pregnant. It generally includes a pre-conception risk assessment for any potential ... Read »


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    • Pre-labor

    • Pre-labor, also called "prodromal labor", consists of the early signs before labor starts. It is the body's preparation for real labor. Prodromal labor has been misnamed as “false labor." Prodromal labor begins much as traditional labor but does not progress to the birth of the baby. Not everyone feels this stage ... Read »


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    • Pregnancy

    • Pregnancy

      Pregnancy, also known as gravidity or gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman. A multiple pregnancy involves more than one offspring, such as with twins. Pregnancy can occur by sexual intercourse or assisted reproductive technology. Childbirth typically occurs around 40 week ... Read »


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    • Pregnancy test

    • Pregnancy test

      A pregnancy test attempts to determine whether a woman is pregnant. Markers that indicate pregnancy are found in urine and blood, and pregnancy tests require sampling one of these substances. The first of these markers to be discovered, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), was discovered in 1930 to be produced by the sy ... Read »


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    • Pregnant patients' rights


    • Prenatal care

    • Prenatal care

      Prenatal care, also known as antenatal care is a type of preventive healthcare with the goal of providing regular check-ups that allow doctors or midwives to treat and prevent potential health problems throughout the course of the pregnancy while promoting healthy lifestyles that benefit both mother and child. During c ... Read »


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    • Prenatal development

    • Prenatal development is the process in which an embryo and later fetus develops during gestation. Prenatal development starts with fertilization the first stage in embryogenesis which continues in fetal development until birth. In human pregnancy, prenatal development, also known as antenatal development, is the devel ... Read »


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    • Prenatal diagnosis

    • Prenatal diagnosis and prenatal screening are aspects of prenatal care that focus on detecting anatomic and physiologic problems with the zygote, embryo, or fetus as early as possible, either before gestation even starts (as in preimplantation genetic diagnosis) or as early in gestation as practicable. They use medical ... Read »


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    • Prenatal nutrition

    • Nutrition and weight management before and during pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.Prenatal nutrition addresses nutrient ... Read »


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    • Prenatal stress

    • Prenatal stress (or prenatal maternal stress) is exposure of an expectant mother to stress, which can be caused by stressful life events or by environmental hardships. The resulting changes to the mother's hormonal and immune system may harm the fetus's (and after birth, the infant's) immune function and brain developm ... Read »


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    • Presentation (obstetrics)

    • In obstetrics, the presentation of a fetus about to be born refers to which anatomical part of the fetus is leading, that is, is closest to the pelvic inlet of the birth canal. According to the leading part, this is identified as a cephalic, breech, or shoulder presentation. A malpresentation is any presentation other ... Read »


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    • Prevalence of birth control

    • Globally approximately 45% of those who are married and able to have children use contraception. As of 2007, IUDs were used by about 17% of women of child bearing age in developing countries and 9% in developed countries or more than 180 million women worldwide. Avoiding sex when fertile is used by about 3.6% of wom ... Read »


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    • Prolonged labour

    • Prolonged labour is when the total duration of childbirth is greater than 24 hours. There are two main types, one when the latent phase of labour is greater than 8 hours and the other when the active phase of labour is greater than 12 hours. The cause can be due to: poor uterine contractions, the baby's position or si ... Read »


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    • Pyelectasis

    • Pyelectasis is a dilation of the renal pelvis. It is a relatively common ultrasound finding in fetuses and is three times more common in male fetuses. In most cases pyelectasis resolves normally, having no ill effects on the baby. The significance of pyelectasis in fetuses is not clear. It was thought to be a marker fo ... Read »


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    • Quickening

    • In pregnancy terms, quickening is the moment in pregnancy when the pregnant woman starts to feel or perceive fetal movements in the uterus. The first natural sensation of quickening may feel like a light tapping, or the fluttering of a butterfly. These sensations eventually become stronger and more regular as the ... Read »


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    • Reproductive health

    • Within the framework of the World Health Organization's (WHO) definition of health as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, reproductive health, or sexual health/hygiene, addresses the reproductive processes, functions and system at all stages of ... Read »


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    • Reproductive justice

    • A term originally coined in the United States by organizations that promote the rights of Native women and women of color, reproductive justice is a concept that links reproductive rights with social justice. The reproductive justice movement arose in the late 1980s as an attempt by these organizations to expand the rh ... Read »


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    • Reproductive rights

    • Reproductive rights are legal rights and freedoms relating to reproduction and reproductive health that vary amongst countries around the world. The World Health Organization defines reproductive rights as follows: Reproductive rights rest on the recognition of the basic right of all couples and individuals to decide ... Read »


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    • Reproductive system disease

    • A reproductive system disease is any disease of the reproductive system. Reproductive tract infection (RTI) areinfections that affect the reproductive tract, which is part of the Reproductive System. For females, reproductive tract infections can be in either the upper reproductive tract (fallopian tubes, ovary an ... Read »


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    • Retained placenta

    • Retained placenta In humans, retained placenta is generally defined as a placenta that has not undergone placental expulsion within 30 minutes of the baby’s birth where the third stage of labor has been managed actively. Risks of retained placenta include hemorrhage and infection. After the placenta is deliv ... Read »


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    • Rooming-in

    • Rooming-in is the practice followed in hospitals and nursing homes where the baby's crib is kept by the side of the mother's bed. This arrangement gives an opportunity for the mother and father to know their baby. The bond between the parent and the child is well established in roomed-in babies. There is a better chanc ... Read »


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    • Eucharius Rösslin


    • Rupture of membranes

    • Rupture of membranes (ROM) or amniorrhexis is a term used during pregnancy to describe a rupture of the amniotic sac. Normally, it occurs spontaneously at full term either during or at the beginning of labor. Rupture of the membranes is known colloquially as "breaking the water" or as one's "water breaking." A prematur ... Read »


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    • Safe sex

    • Safe sex is sexual activity engaged in by people who have taken precautions to protect themselves against sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as HIV. It is also referred to as safer sex or protected sex, while unsafe or unprotected sex is sexual activity engaged in without precautions, especially forgoing condo ... Read »


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    • Sex after pregnancy

    • Sex after pregnancy is often delayed for several weeks or months, and may be difficult and painful for women. Injury to the perineum or surgical cuts (episiotomy) to the vagina during childbirth can cause sexual dysfunction. Sexual activity other than sexual intercourse is possible sooner, but some women experience a p ... Read »


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    • Sex education

    • Sex education

      Sex education is instruction on issues relating to human sexuality, including emotional relations and responsibilities, human sexual anatomy, sexual activity, sexual reproduction, age of consent, reproductive health, reproductive rights, safe sex, birth control and sexual abstinence. Sex education that covers all of th ... Read »


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    • Sexual activity during pregnancy

    • Most pregnant women can engage in sexual activity during pregnancy throughout gravidity. Most research suggests that, during pregnancy, sexual desire and frequency of sexual relations decrease. In context of this overall decrease in desire, some studies indicate a second-trimester increase, preceding a decrease. H ... Read »


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    • Sexual dysfunction

    • Sexual dysfunction (or sexual malfunction or sexual disorder) is difficulty experienced by an individual or a couple during any stage of a normal sexual activity, including physical pleasure, desire, preference, arousal or orgasm. According to the DSM-5, sexual dysfunction requires a person to feel extreme distress and ... Read »


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    • Sexually transmitted infection

    • Sexually transmitted infection

      Sexually transmitted infections (STI), also referred to as sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and venereal diseases (VD), are infections that are commonly spread by sex, especially vaginal intercourse, anal sex and oral sex. Most STIs initially do not cause symptoms. This results in a greater risk of passing the disea ... Read »


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    • Shoulder presentation

    • Shoulder presentation

      A shoulder presentation refers to a malpresentation at childbirth where the baby is in a transverse lie (its vertebral column is perpendicular to that of the mother), thus the leading part (the part that enters first the birth canal) is an arm, shoulder, or the trunk. While a baby can be delivered vaginally when either ... Read »


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    • Sisterhood method

    • The Sisterhood Method is a household survey to estimate maternal deaths, which includes a series of four questions. The Sisterhood Method is one method recommended by the WHO. Although maternal deaths are a major problem in developing countries, high quality data are rare. Yet, numbers are needed for planning in order ... Read »


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    • Spalding's sign


    • Stillbirth

    • Stillbirth

      Stillbirth is typically defined as fetal death at or after 20 to 28 weeks of pregnancy. It results in a baby born without signs of life. A stillbirth can result in the feeling of guilt in the mother. The term is in contrast to miscarriage which is an early pregnancy loss and live birth where the baby is born alive, eve ... Read »


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    • Friedrich Gabriel Sulzer

    • Friedrich Gabriel Sulzer (10 October 1749 – 14 December 1830) was a German physician from Gotha, Thuringia. Sulzer had a large collection of minerals and published also new results from new species. In 1791, Sulzer published together with Johann Friedrich Blumenbach their results on a new mineral he had acquired. ... Read »


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    • Susceptibility and severity of infections in pregnancy

    • In pregnancy, there is an increased susceptibility and/or severity of several infectious diseases. There are several potential risk factors or causes to this increased risk: Pregnant women are more severely affected by influenza, hepatitis E, herpes simplex and malaria. The evidence is more limited for coccidioid ... Read »


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    • Teenage pregnancy

    • Teenage pregnancy

      Teenage pregnancy is pregnancy in females under the age of 20. A female can become pregnant from sexual intercourse after she has begun to ovulate which can be before her first menstrual period (menarche), but usually occurs after the onset of her periods. In well-nourished females, menarche usually takes place around ... Read »


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    • Therapeutic abortion

    • Therapeutic abortion is abortion induced following a diagnosis of medical necessity. Such abortions are carried out in order to avoid the risk of substantial harm to the mother. In many countries therapeutical abortion is legal, including some where induced abortion is illegal. According to Robert E. Cooke, the wo ... Read »


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    • Traditional birth attendant

    • A traditional birth attendant (TBA), also known as a traditional midwife, community midwife or lay midwife, is a pregnancy and childbirth care provider. Traditional birth attendants provide the majority of primary maternity care in many developing countries, and may function within specific communities in developed cou ... Read »


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    • Unintended pregnancy

    • Unintended pregnancies are pregnancies that are mistimed, unplanned or unwanted at the time of conception. Unintended pregnancies may also result from rape, incest or various other forms of forced or unwanted sex. Vaginal sexual activity without the use of contraception through choice or coercion is the predominant ca ... Read »


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    • Uterine contraction

    • A uterine contraction is a muscle contraction of the uterine smooth muscle. The uterus frequently contracts throughout the entire menstrual cycle, and these contractions have been termed endometrial waves or contractile waves. These appear to involve only the sub-endometrial layer of the myometrium. In the early f ... Read »


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    • Uterine tachysystole

    • Uterine tachysystole is a condition of excessively frequent uterine contractions during pregnancy. Because contraction counts are often measured over periods of ten minutes but averaged over periods of thirty minutes, there can be slight differences in how the cutoff is calculated. Generally it is defined as more freq ... Read »


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    • Delivery after previous Caesarean section

    • In case of a previous Caesarean section a subsequent pregnancy can be planned beforehand to be delivered by either of the following two main methods: Both have higher risks than a vaginal birth with no previous caesarean section. There are many issues which affect the decision for planned vaginal or planned abdominal ... Read »


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    • Vaginal tightening

    • Vaginal tightening is the tightening of the pelvic muscles to achieve or maintain the right degree of elasticity of the pelvic floor muscles. These muscles must be able to contract to maintain continence, and to relax allowing for urination and bowel movements, and for sexual intercourse as well as for giving birth. T ... Read »


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    • Vaginismus

    • Vaginismus

      Vaginismus, sometimes called vaginism and genito-pelvic pain disorder, is a condition that affects a woman's ability to engage in vaginal penetration, including sexual intercourse, manual penetration, insertion of tampons or menstrual cups, and the penetration involved in gynecological examinations (pap tests). This is ... Read »


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    • Barbara Vernon

    • Barbara Vernon, PhD., is an Australian maternity activist and a government lobbyist who seeks to improve provisions for maternity services, and in particular she advocates for the use of midwives.Born in New South Wales she moved to Canberra in the mid-1970s. She earned an Honours Degree in Political Science at the Aus ... Read »


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    • David Vernon (writer)

    • David Vernon (born 1965 in Canberra, Australia) is an Australian writer and publisher. He has published several books relating to scepticism and childbirth. Vernon is the only son of Michael Vernon and Jeanette Vernon. He established two businesses while at University, Whiahwe Waiting Services that provided cateri ... Read »


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    • Von Braun-Fernwald's sign


    • Vulva disease

    • A vulva disease is a particular abnormal, pathological condition that affects part or all of the vulva. Several pathologies are defined. Some can be prevented by vulvovaginal health maintenance. Vulvar cancer accounts for about 5% of all gynecological cancers and typically affects women in later life. Five year su ... Read »


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    • Water birth

    • Water birth is childbirth that occurs in water. Proponents believe water birth results in a more relaxed, less painful experience that promotes a midwife-led model of care. Critics argue that the safety of water birth has not been scientifically proven and that a wide range of adverse neonatal outcomes have been docume ... Read »


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    • Well-woman examination

    • A well woman examination is an exam offered to women to review elements of their reproductive health. It is recommended once a year for most women. The exam includes a breast examination, a pelvic examination and a pap smear but may also include other procedures. Hospitals employ strict policies relating to the provisi ... Read »


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    • Women & Health


    • Women's health in Ethiopia


    • Women's health in India


    • Women's medicine in antiquity


    • Women's reproductive health in Russia


    • Women's reproductive health in the United States


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  • What Else?

    • Midwifery

Extras