Main

  • Medieval languages

    Medieval languages

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Medieval languages

    • Dalmatian language

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Dalmatian language


      Wikipedia
    • Old High German

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Old High German


      Wikipedia
    • Gothic language

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Gothic language


      Wikipedia
    • Medieval Greek language

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Medieval Greek language


      Wikipedia
    • Medieval literature by language

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Medieval literature by language


      Wikipedia
    • Middle Chinese

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Middle Chinese


      Wikipedia
    • Middle Dutch

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Middle Dutch


      Wikipedia
    • Middle English language

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Middle English language


      Wikipedia
    • Middle Persian

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Middle Persian


      Wikipedia
    • Norn language

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Norn language


      Wikipedia
    • Old Church Slavonic language

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Old Church Slavonic language


      Wikipedia
    • Old English language

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Old English language


      Wikipedia
    • Old French

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Old French


      Wikipedia
    • Old Irish

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Old Irish


      Wikipedia
    • Old Mandarin

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Old Mandarin


      Wikipedia
    • Old Norse

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Old Norse


      Wikipedia
    • Old Saxon

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Old Saxon


      Wikipedia
    • Ottoman Turkish language

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Ottoman Turkish language


      Wikipedia
    • Ahom language

    • The Ahom language is a nearly extinct Tai language spoken by the Ahom people who ruled the Brahmaputra river valley in the present day Indian state of Assam between the 13th and the 18th centuries. The language is classified in a Northwestern subgrouping of Southwestern Tai owing to close affinities with Shan, Khamti a ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Old Anatolian Turkish

    • Old Anatolian Turkish

      Old Anatolian Turkish (Modern Turkish: Eski Anadolu Türkçesi) is the stage in the history of the Turkish language spoken in Anatolia from the 11th to 15th centuries. It developed into Early Ottoman Turkish. It was written in the Arabic script. Unlike in later Ottoman Turkish, short-vowel diacritics were used. De ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Andalusian Arabic

    • Andalusian Arabic

      Andalusian Arabic, also known more usually as Andalusi Arabic or Spanish Arabic or Hispano-Arabic, was a variety or were varieties of the Arabic language spoken in Al-Andalus, the regions of the Iberian Peninsula (modern Spain and Portugal) under Muslim rule. It became an extinct language in Iberia after the expulsion ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Anglo-Norman language

    • Anglo-Norman, also known as Anglo-Norman French, is a linguistic variety of the langues d'oïl that was used in England and, to a lesser extent, elsewhere in the British Isles during the Anglo-Norman period. When William the Conqueror led the Norman conquest of England in 1066, he, his nobles, and many of his follow ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Apabhraṃśa


    • Classical Arabic

    • Classical Arabic

      Classical Arabic is the form of the Arabic language used in Umayyad and Abbasid literary texts from the 7th century AD to the 9th century AD. The orthography of the Qurʾān was not developed for the standardized form of Classical Arabic; rather, it shows the attempt on the part of writers to utilize a traditional ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Classical Armenian

    • Classical Armenian (Armenian: գրաբար, grabar, Western Armenian krapar, meaning "literary [language]"; also Old Armenian or Liturgical Armenian) is the oldest attested form of the Armenian language. It was first written down at the beginning of the 5th century, and all Armenian literature from then thr ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Bulgar language

    • Bulgar (also spelled Bolğar, Bulghar) is an extinct language which was spoken by the Bulgars. The name is derived from the Bulgars, a tribal association which established the Bulgar state, known as Old Great Bulgaria in the mid-7th century, giving rise to the Danubian Bulgaria by the 680s. While the language was ex ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Middle Burmese

    • Middle Burmese was a form of the Burmese language spoken from the 16th century to the 18th century. Its beginning roughly corresponds with the rise of the Taungoo Dynasty and its transition to Modern Burmese with the beginning of the Konbaung Dynasty. Its transition to Modern Burmese occurred in the 18th century. Middl ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Old Burmese

    • Old Burmese

      Old Burmese was an early form of the Burmese language, as attested in the stone inscriptions of Pagan, and is the oldest phase of Burmese linguistic history. The transition to Middle Burmese occurred in the 16th century. The transition to Middle Burmese included phonological changes (e.g. mergers of sound pairs that we ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Coptic language

    • Coptic or Coptic Egyptian (Bohairic: ϯⲙⲉⲧⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ti.met.rem.ən.khēmi and Sahidic: ⲧⲙⲛ̄ⲧⲣⲙ̄ⲛ̄ⲕⲏⲙⲉ t.mənt.rəm.ən.kēme) is the latest stage of the Egyptian language, a northern A ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Cuman language

    • Cuman (Kuman) was a Kipchak Turkic language spoken by the Cumans (Polovtsy, Folban, Vallany, Kun) and Kipchaks; the language was similar to the today's various languages of the Kipchak-Cuman branch. The Kipchak language/Cuman is documented in medieval works, including the Codex Cumanicus, and it was a literary language ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Cumbric

    • Cumbric was a variety of the Common Brittonic language spoken during the Early Middle Ages in the Hen Ogledd or "Old North" in what is now Northern England and southern Lowland Scotland. It was closely related to Old Welsh and the other Brittonic languages. Place name evidence suggests Cumbric speakers may have carried ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Curonian language

    • The Curonian language (German: Kurisch; Latvian: kurÅ¡u valoda; Lithuanian: kurÅ¡ių kalba), or Old Curonian, is a nearly unattested extinct language spoken by the Curonians, a Baltic tribe who inhabited the Courland Peninsula (now western Latvia) and the nearby Baltic shore. Curonian was a Baltic language; some ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Middle Dutch

    • Middle Dutch is a collective name for a number of closely related West Germanic dialects (whose ancestor was Old Dutch) spoken and written between 1150 and 1500. There was at that time as yet no overarching standard language but they were all mutually intelligible. During this period a rich Medieval Dutch literature de ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Old Dutch

    • In linguistics, Old Dutch or Old Low Franconian is the set of Franconian dialects (i.e. dialects that evolved from Frankish) spoken in the Low Countries during the Early Middle Ages, from around the 5th to the 12th century. Old Dutch is mostly recorded on fragmentary relics, and words have been reconstructed from Middl ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Old English

    • Old English

      Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc) or Anglo-Saxon is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages. It was brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers probably in the mid 5th century, and the first Old English literary wor ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Fingallian

    • Fingallian or the Fingal dialect is an extinct variety of English formerly spoken in Fingal, Ireland. It is thought to have been an offshoot of Middle English, which was brought to Ireland during the Norman invasion, and was extinct by the mid-19th century. Although little is known of Fingallian, it is thought to have ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Forth and Bargy dialect

    • The Forth and Bargy dialect, also known as Yola, is an extinct variety of English once spoken in the baronies of Forth and Bargy in County Wexford, Ireland. It is thought to have evolved from Middle English, which was brought to Ireland during the Norman invasion, beginning in 1169. As such, it was similar to the Finga ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Frankish language

    • Frankish (reconstructed Frankish: *Frenkisk), Old Franconian, or Old Frankish was the West Germanic language spoken by the Franks between the 4th and 8th century. The language itself is poorly attested, but it gave rise to numerous loanwords in Old French. Old Dutch is the term for the Old Franconian dialects spoken in ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Old French

    • Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French ancien français) was the Gallo-Romance dialect continuum spoken from the 9th century to the 14th century. In the 14th century, these dialects came to be collectively known as the langues d'oïl, contrasting with the langue d'oc or Occitan language in the sou ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Middle French

    • Middle French (French: moyen français) is a historical division of the French language that covers the period from the 14th to the early 17th centuries. It is a period of transition during which: The most important change found in Middle French is the complete disappearance of the noun declension system (alread ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Old Frisian

    • Old Frisian is a West Germanic language spoken between the 8th and 16th centuries in the area between the Rhine and Weser on the European North Sea coast. The Frisian settlers on the coast of South Jutland (today's Northern Friesland) also spoke Old Frisian but no medieval texts of this area are known. The language of ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Galician-Portuguese

    • Galician-Portuguese

      Galician-Portuguese (Galician: galego-portugués or galaico-portugués, Portuguese: galego-português or galaico-português), also known as Old Portuguese or Medieval Galician, was a West Iberian Romance language spoken in the Middle Ages, in the northwest area of the Iberian Peninsula. Alternatively, it can be ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Galindian language

    • Galindian is the poorly attested extinct language of the Galindians, thought to have been very similar to Old Prussian. There are no extant writings in Galindian. ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Galwegian Gaelic

    • Galwegian Gaelic (also known as Gallovidian Gaelic, Gallowegian Gaelic, or Galloway Gaelic) is an extinct dialect of the Gaelic language formerly spoken in southwest Scotland. It was spoken by the people of Galloway and Carrick until the early modern period. It was once spoken in Annandale and Strathnith. Little (excep ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Gothic language

    • Gothic is an extinct Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths. It is known primarily from the Codex Argenteus, a sixth-century copy of a fourth-century Bible translation, and is the only East Germanic language with a sizable text corpus. All others, including Burgundian and Vandalic, are known, if at all, only fr ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Guanche language

    • The Guanche language, also known as Amazigh, is an extinct Berber language that was spoken by the Guanches of the Canary Islands until the 17th century or possibly later. It died out as the Guanche ethnic group was assimilated into the dominant Spanish culture. The Guanche language is known today through sentences and ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Medieval Hebrew

    • Medieval Hebrew

      Medieval Hebrew was a literary and liturgical language that existed between the 4th and 18th century. It was not commonly used as a spoken language, but mainly in written form by rabbis, scholars and poets. Medieval Hebrew had many features that distinguished it from older forms of Hebrew. These affected grammar, synta ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Middle High German

    • Middle High German is the German language between 1050 and 1350. It is preceded by Old High German and followed by Early New High German. In some uses, the term covers a longer period, going up to 1500. The Middle Low German and Middle Dutch areas in the North are not covered by MHG. While there is no standard MHG, th ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Old Irish

    • Old Irish (Old Irish: Goídelc, Irish: Sean-Ghaeilge, Scottish Gaelic: an t-Seann Ghàidhlig, Manx: Shenn Yernish) (sometimes called Old Gaelic) is the name given to the oldest form of the Goidelic languages for which extensive written texts are extant. It was used from c. AD 600–900. The primary contemp ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Middle Irish

    • Middle Irish (sometimes called Middle Gaelic) is the Goidelic language which was spoken in Ireland, most of Scotland and the Isle of Man from the 10th to 12th centuries; it is therefore a contemporary of late Old English and early Middle English. The modern Goidelic languages—Irish, Scottish Gaelic and Manx—a ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Late Middle Japanese

    • Late Middle Japanese (中世日本語, chÅ«sei nihongo?) is a stage of the Japanese language following Early Middle Japanese and preceding Early Modern Japanese. It is a period of transition in which the language sheds many of its archaic features and becomes closer to its modern form. The period span ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Early Modern Japanese

    • Early Modern Japanese (近世日本語, kinsei nihongo) is a stage of the Japanese language following Middle Japanese and preceding Modern Japanese. It is a period of transition in which the language sheds many of its medieval characteristics and becomes closer to its modern form. The period spanned rou ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Judaeo-Aragonese

    • Judæo-Aragonese (Aragonese: Chodigo-Aragonés) was a Judæo-Romance language (a Jewish language derived from Aragonese), used by Spanish Jews in north-central Spain from the mid-8th century until the time of the Jewish expulsion from Spain, when it either merged with the various Judæo-Spanish dialects, or fel ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Karamanli Turkish

    • Karamanlı Turkish is both a form of written Turkish, and a dialect of Turkish spoken by the Karamanlides, a community of Turkish-speaking Orthodox Christians in Ottoman Turkey. While the official Ottoman Turkish was written in the Arabic script, the Karamanlides used the Greek alphabet for writing its form of Turkis ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Kawi language

    • Kawi (from Sanskrit: kavi, "poet") is a literary and prose language on the islands of Java, Bali, and Lombok, based on Old Javanese, a language with a sizable vocabulary of Sanskrit loanwords. Kawi is the ancestor language of modern Javanese. The name "kawi" is derived from the root ku, which in Sanskrit means “po ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Khazar language

    • Khazar, also known as Khazaric or Khazaris, was the dialect spoken by the Khazars, a group of semi-nomadic Turkic originating from Central Asia. There are few written records of the language, and it is regarded as extinct. Khazar was a Turkic language; however, there is a dispute among scholars as to which branch of th ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Khitan language

    • Khitan or Kitan ( in large script or in small, Khitai;Chinese: t , Qìdānyǔ), also known as Liao, is a now-extinct language once spoken by the Khitan people (4th to 13th century). It was the official language of the Liao dynasty (907–1125) and the Qara Khitai (1124–1218). Khitan appears to have b ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Khorezmian language (Turkic)

    • Khorezmian was a literary Turkic language of the Medieval Golden Horde of Central Asia and Eastern Europe. It was a preliminary stage of the Chagatay language, which would remain an important language of Central Asia until the 20th century. It was based on Old Turkic further to the east, though incorporating local Oghu ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Khwarezmian language

    • Khwarezmian (Khwarazmian, Khorezmian, Chorasmian) is an extinct East Iranian language closely related to Sogdian. The language was spoken in the area of Khwarezm (Chorasmia), centered in the lower Amu Darya south of the Aral Sea (the northern part of the modern Republic of Uzbekistan, and the adjacent areas of Turkmeni ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Knaanic language

    • Knaanic (also called Canaanic, Leshon Knaan, Judaeo-Czech) is an extinct West Slavic Jewish language, formerly spoken in the lands of the Western Slavs, notably the Czech lands, but also the lands of modern Poland, Lusatia and other Sorbian regions. It became extinct in the Late Middle Ages. The name comes from th ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Langues d'oïl


    • Medieval Latin

    • Medieval Latin

      Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily: as a medium of scholarly exchange; as the liturgical language of Chalcedonian Christianity and the Roman Catholic Church; and as a language of science, literature, law, and administration. Despite the clerical origin of many of its authors, mediev ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Renaissance Latin

    • Renaissance Latin

      Renaissance Latin is a name given to the distinctive form of Latin style developed during the European Renaissance of the fourteenth to fifteenth centuries, particularly by the Renaissance humanism movement. Ad fontes ("to the sources") was the general cry of the humanists, and as such their Latin style sought to ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Lombardic language

    • Lombardic or Langobardic is the extinct language of the Lombards (Langobardi), the Germanic-speaking people who settled in Italy in the 6th century. It was already rapidly declining by the 7th century because the invaders quickly adopted the Latin vernacular spoken by the local Roman population. Lombardic may have been ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Middle Low German

    • Middle Low German

      Middle Low German or Middle Saxon (ISO 639-3 code gml) is a language that is the descendant of Old Saxon and the ancestor of modern Low German. It served as the international lingua franca of the Hanseatic League. It was spoken from about 1100 to 1600. Middle Low German is a term used with varying degrees of inclu ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Maridi Arabic

    • Maridi Arabic was a possible Arabic pidgin apparently spoken in the upper Nile valley around 1000 CE. If legitimate, it would be the oldest record of a pidgin. It is known from just fifty words in an 11th-century text. In 1068, the Andalusian geographer AbÅ« Ê¿Ubayd al-BakrÄ« published the words of a traveler fr ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Merya language

    • The Volga Finns (sometimes referred to as Eastern Finns) are a historical group of indigenous peoples of Russia whose descendants include the Mari people, the Erzya and the Moksha Mordvins, as well as extinct Merya, Muromian and Meshchera people. The Permians are sometimes also grouped as Volga Finns. The modern repre ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Meshcherian language

    • The Volga Finns (sometimes referred to as Eastern Finns) are a historical group of indigenous peoples of Russia whose descendants include the Mari people, the Erzya and the Moksha Mordvins, as well as extinct Merya, Muromian and Meshchera people. The Permians are sometimes also grouped as Volga Finns. The modern repre ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Middle Indo-Aryan languages

    • Middle Indo-Aryan languages (Middle Indic languages, sometimes conflated with the Prakrits) is a historical group of languages of the Indo-Aryan family. Middle Indo-Aryan languages are the descendants of the Old Indo-Aryan languages similar to Vedic Sanskrit and the predecessors of the Modern Indo-Aryan languages such ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Middle Persian

    • Middle Persian is the Middle Iranian language or ethnolect of southwestern Iran that during the Sasanian Empire (224–654) became a prestige dialect and so came to be spoken in other regions of the empire as well. Middle Persian is classified as a Western Iranian language. It descends from Old Persian and is the li ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Mozarabic language

    • Mozarabic, more accurately Andalusi Romance, was a continuum of closely related Romance dialects spoken in the Muslim-controlled areas of the Iberian Peninsula, known as Al-Andalus. Mozarabic descends from Late Latin and early Romance dialects spoken in the Hispania from the 5th to the 8th centuries and was spoken unti ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Muromian language

    • The Volga Finns (sometimes referred to as Eastern Finns) are a historical group of indigenous peoples of Russia whose descendants include the Mari people, the Erzya and the Moksha Mordvins, as well as extinct Merya, Muromian and Meshchera people. The Permians are sometimes also grouped as Volga Finns. The modern repre ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Navarro-Aragonese

    • Navarro-Aragonese was a Romance language spoken south of the middle Pyrenees and in part of the Ebro River basin in the Middle Ages. The language extended over the County of Aragón, Sobrarbe, Ribagorza, the southern plains of Navarre on both banks of the Ebro including La Rioja and the eastern fringes of Navarre (Le ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Old Norman

    • Old Norman, also called Old Northern French or Old Norman French, was one of many langues d'oïl dialects. It was spoken throughout the region of what is now called Normandy and spread into England, Southern Italy, Sicily and the Levant. It is the ancestor of modern Norman, including the insular dialects (such as Jà ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Norn language

    • Norn language

      Norn is an extinct North Germanic language that was spoken in the Northern Isles (Orkney and Shetland) off the north coast of mainland Scotland and in Caithness in the far north of the Scottish mainland. After Orkney and Shetland were pledged to Scotland by Norway in 1468/69, it was gradually replaced by Scots. No ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Old Norse

    • Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements during about the 9th to 13th centuries. The Proto-Norse language developed into Old Norse by the 8th century, and Old Norse began to develop into the modern North Germanic languages in th ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Medieval Nordic Text Archive

    • Medieval Nordic Text Archive (Menota) is a network of leading Nordic archives, libraries and research departments working with medieval texts and manuscript facsimiles. The aim of Menota is to preserve and publish medieval texts in digital form and to adapt and develop encoding standards necessary for this work. Menot ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Old Norwegian

    • Old Norwegian (Norwegian: gammelnorsk, gam(m)alnorsk), also called Norwegian Norse is an early form of the Norwegian language that was spoken between the 11th and 14th century; it is a transitional stage between Old West Norse and Middle Norwegian, and also Old Norn and Old Faroese. Its distinction from Old West Norse ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Old Nubian language

    • Old Nubian language

      Old Nubian is an ancient variety of Nubian, attested in writing from the 8th to the 15th century (the most recent known text was written in 1485). It is ancestral to modern-day Nobiin and related to other Nubian languages such as Dongolawi. It was used throughout the medieval Christian kingdom of Makuria and its satell ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Old Occitan

    • Old Occitan (Modern Occitan: occitan ancian, Catalan: occità antic), also called Old Provençal, was the earliest form of the Occitano-Romance languages, as attested in writings dating from the eighth through the fourteenth centuries. Old Occitan generally includes Early and Old Occitan. Middle Occitan is sometime ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Old Catalan

    • Old Catalan was the Romance variety spoken in territories that spanned roughly the territories of the Principality of Catalonia, the Kingdom of Valencia, the Balearic Islands, and the city of Alghero in Sardinia; all of them then part of the Crown of Aragon. Old Catalan, classified as an Occitano Romance variety, is g ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Dana-i Menog Khrat

    • The Dana-i Menog-i khrat, (Persian:دانای مینوی خرد) or 'opinions of the spirit of wisdom', a Middle Persian book which was written about 8th century. It comprises the replies of that spirit to sixty-two inquiries, or groups of inquiries, made by a certain wise man regarding variou ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Middle Polish language

    • Middle Polish (Polish: język średniopolski) is the period in the history of the Polish language between the 16th and 18th centuries. It evolved from Old Polish, and gave rise to the Modern Polish. In 16th century, Polish poet Jan Kochanowski proposed a set of orthographic rules and an alphabet of 48 letters and ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Old Polish language

    • Old Polish langage (Polish: język staropolski) is the period in the history of the Polish language between the 9th and the 16th centuries, followed by the Middle Polish language. The Polish language started to change after the baptism of Poland, bringing in words from Latin such as kościół ("church", f ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Old Prussian language

    • Old Prussian language

      Old Prussian is an extinct Baltic language, once spoken by the Old Prussians, the indigenous peoples of Prussia (not to be confused with the later and much larger German state of the same name), now northeastern Poland and the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia. The language is called Old Prussian to avoid confusion with th ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Ruthenian language

    • Ruthenian (or Old Belarusian, Old Ukrainian, see other names) was the group of varieties of Eastern Slavonic spoken in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and later in the East Slavic territories of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. The written form is also called Chancery Slavonic by Lithuanian linguists. Scholars do ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Old Saxon

    • Old Saxon, also known as Old Low German, is a Germanic language and the earliest recorded form of Low German. It belongs to the West Germanic branch and is most closely related to the Anglo-Frisian languages. It is documented from the 8th century until the 12th century, when it evolved into Middle Low German. It was sp ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Early Scots

    • Early Scots was the emerging literary language of the Northern Middle English speaking parts of Scotland in the period before 1450. The northern forms of Middle English descended from Northumbrian Old English. During this period, speakers referred to the language as "English" (Inglis, Ynglis, and variants). Early exam ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Middle Scots

    • Middle Scots was the Anglic language of Lowland Scotland in the period from 1450 to 1700. By the end of the 15th century, its phonology, orthography, accidence, syntax and vocabulary had diverged markedly from Early Scots, which was virtually indistinguishable from early Northumbrian Middle English. Subsequently the or ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Selonian language

    • Selonian was a Baltic language spoken by the Eastern Baltic tribe of the Selonians, who until the 15th century lived in Selonia, a territory in South Eastern Latvia and North Eastern Lithuania. During the 13th–15th centuries, the Selonians lost their language after being assimilated by the Lithuanians. Traces of ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Semigallian language

    • Semigallian is an extinct language of the Baltic language sub-family of the Indo-European languages. It was spoken in the northern part of Lithuania and southern regions of Latvia in what is known as Semigallia. It is thought that it was extinct by the 16th century with the assimilation by the Latvians. Semigallian is ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Shauraseni language

    • A Dramatic Prakrit, Shauraseni was the chief language used in drama in northern medieval India. Most of the material in this language originates from the 3rd to 10th centuries, though it was probably a spoken vernacular around the 5th century BCE. Its descendants include the languages of the Hindi Belt, the Central Zon ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Old East Slavic

    • Old East Slavic, Old Russian, Old Rusian was a language used in the 10th–15th centuries by East Slavs in Kievan Rus' and states which evolved after the collapse of Kievan Rus'. Dialects of it were spoken, though not exclusively, in the area today occupied by Belarus, central and northern Ukraine, and parts of west ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Old Church Slavonic

    • Old Church Slavonic (pronunciation: /sləˈvɒnɪk/, /slæˈ-/), also known as Old Church Slavic (/ˈslɑːvɪk, ˈslæ-/; often abbreviated to OCS; self-name словѣ́ньскъ ѩꙁꙑ́къ, slověnÄ­skÅ­ językÅ­), was the first Slavic litera ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Old Spanish language

    • Old Spanish, also known as Old Castilian (Spanish: castellano antiguo, romance castellano) or Medieval Spanish (Spanish: español medieval), is an early form of the Spanish language that was spoken on the Iberian Peninsula from the 10th century until roughly the beginning of the 15th century, before a consonantal rea ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Sudovian language

    • Sudovian (also known as Jatvingian, Yatvingian, or Yotvingian) is an extinct western Baltic language of Northeastern Europe. Closely related to the Old Prussian language, it was formerly spoken southwest of the Nemunas river in what is now Lithuania, east of Galindia and north of Yotvingia, and by exiles in East Prussi ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Old Swedish

    • Old Swedish (Modern Swedish: fornsvenska) is the name for two separate versions of the Swedish language that were spoken in the Middle Ages: Early Old Swedish (Klassisk fornsvenska), spoken from around 1225 until 1375, and Late Old Swedish (Yngre fornsvenska), spoken from 1375 until 1526. Old Swedish developed from Ol ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Old Tagalog

    • Old Tagalog (Filipino: Lumang Tagalog; Baybayin: ᜎᜓᜋᜅ᜔ᜆᜄᜎᜓᜄ᜔, Pre-Kudlit: ᜎᜓᜋᜆᜄᜎᜓ ) is the earliest form of the Tagalog language and was the language of Central and Southern Luzon during the Classical period in Luzon. It is the la ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Tangut language

    • Tangut language

      Tangut (also XÄ«xià or Hsi-Hsia or Mi-nia) is an ancient northeastern Tibeto-Burman language once spoken in the Western Xia, also known as the Tangut Empire. It is classified by some linguists as a Qiangic language, which includes the Northern and Southern Qiang languages and the Rgyalrong languages, among others. ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Tiberian Hebrew

    • Tiberian Hebrew is the canonical pronunciation of the Hebrew Bible or Tanakh committed to writing by Masoretic scholars living in the Jewish community of Tiberias in ancient Judea c. 750–950 CE. They wrote in the form of Tiberian vocalization, which employed diacritics added to the Hebrew letters: vowel signs ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Classical Tibetan

    • Classical Tibetan refers to the language of any text written in Tibetic after the Old Tibetan period; though it extends from the 7th century until the modern day, it particularly refers to the language of early canonical texts translated from other languages, especially Sanskrit. The phonology implied by Classical Tibe ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Vandalic language

    • Vandalic was a Germanic language probably closely related to Gothic. The Vandals, Hasdingi and Silingi established themselves in Gallaecia (northern Portugal and Galicia) and in southern Spain, following other Germanic and non-Germanic peoples (Visigoths, Alans and Suebi) before moving to North Africa in 429. By t ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Old Welsh

    • Old Welsh (Welsh: Hen Gymraeg) is the label attached to the Welsh language from about 800 AD until the early 12th century when it developed into Middle Welsh. The preceding period, from the time Welsh became distinct from Common Brittonic around 550, has been called "Primitive" or "Archaic Welsh". Many poems and some ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Middle Welsh

    • Middle Welsh (Welsh: Cymraeg Canol) is the label attached to the Welsh language of the 12th to 14th centuries, of which much more remains than for any earlier period. This form of Welsh developed from Old Welsh. Middle Welsh is the language of nearly all surviving early manuscripts of the Mabinogion, although the ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Zarphatic language

    • Zarphatic or Judeo-French (Zarphatic: Tzarfatit) is an extinct Jewish language, formerly spoken among the French Jews of northern France and in parts of west-central Germany, such as Mainz, Frankfurt am Main, and Aachen. The word Zarphatic comes from the Hebrew name for France, Tzarfat (צרפת), the Bibl ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    Wikipedia
  • What Else?

    • Medieval languages

Extras