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    Medical treatments

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    • Acne treatments

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    • Alternative medical treatments

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    • Treatment of Alzheimer's disease


    • Biological engineering

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    • Cancer treatments

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    • Medicinal use of cannabis

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    • Drugs

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    • Experimental medical treatments

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    • First aid

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    • Hypnotherapy

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    • Intravenous fluids

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    • Management of obesity

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    • Mechanical ventilation

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    • Nasal sprays

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    • Pre-exposure prophylaxis

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    • Medical procedures

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    • Psychiatric treatments

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    • Qigong

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    • Renal dialysis

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    • Therapy

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    • Toxicology treatments

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    • Treatment of sleep disorders

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    • Medical treatment stubs

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    • Abscopal effect

    • The abscopal effect is a phenomenon in the treatment of metastatic cancer where localized treatment of a tumor causes not only a shrinking of the treated tumor, but also a shrinking of tumors outside the scope of the localized treatment. R.H. Mole proposed the term “abscopal” (‘ab’ - away from, †... Read »


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    • Addiction medicine

    • Addiction medicine is a medical specialty that deals with the treatment of addiction. The specialty often crosses over into other areas, since various aspects of addiction fall within the fields of public health, psychology, social work, mental health counseling, psychiatry, and internal medicine, among others. Incorpo ... Read »


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    • Aguamiel

    • Aguamiel [aÉ£waˈmjel] (literally agua "water" miel "honey") is the sap of the Mexican maguey plant which is believed to have therapeutic qualities. The sap is found in abundance among the agave plants which grow among the ruins of the Teotihuacan civilization. Also called honeywater it has been used in Mexico as a ... Read »


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    • Alglucosidase alfa

    • Alglucosidase alfa

      Alglucosidase alfa (Lumizyme, Myozyme, Genzyme) is an enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) orphan drug for treatment of Pompe disease (Glycogen storage disease type II), a rare lysosomal storage disorder (LSD). Chemically speaking, the drug is an analog of the enzyme that is deficient in patients affected by Pompe disease, ... Read »


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    • Alternative uses for placenta

    • The placenta is an organ which links the fetus to the mother in mammals for the transfer of oxygen and nutrients to the fetus and fetal waste products to the mother. Many species of mammals consume their placentas. Placentas are consumed in some human cultures. This may be for nutrition but often it has a cultural sign ... Read »


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    • Alzheimer's disease research


    • Anthrax immune globulin

    • Anthrax immune globulin, tradename Anthrasil, is a human immune globulin that is used in combination with antibiotics to treat anthrax. It was developed by Cangene and purchased in 2011 by the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA) under Project Bioshield. On 24 March 2015 it was granted approva ... Read »


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    • Antiseptic lavage

    • Antiseptic lavage is a means of washing, especially of a hollow organ, such as the stomach or lower bowel, with repeated injections of warm water mixed with an antiseptic or antifungal solution. Antiseptic lavages are commonly used as a treatment to pericoronitis of wisdom teeth. ... Read »


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    • Apheresis


    • Aquapheresis

    • Aquapheresis is a medical technology designed to remove excess salt and water from the body safely, predictably, and effectively from patients suffering from a condition called fluid overload. It removes the excess salt and water and helps to restore a patient’s proper fluid balance, which is called euvolemia. ... Read »


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    • Arthrocentesis

    • Arthrocentesis (Greek: arthros, a joint + kentēsis, puncture) is the clinical procedure of using a syringe to collect synovial fluid from a joint capsule. It is also known as joint aspiration. Arthrocentesis is used in the diagnosis of gout, arthritis, and synovial infections such as septic arthritis. ... Read »


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    • Ashley Treatment

    • The Ashley Treatment refers to a controversial set of medical procedures undergone by a Seattle child, "Ashley X". Ashley, born in 1997, has severe developmental disabilities due to static encephalopathy of unknown etiology; she is assumed to be at an infant level mentally and physically. The treatment included growth ... Read »


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    • Athletic taping

    • Athletic taping is the process of applying tape directly to the skin in order to maintain a stable position of bones and muscles during athletic activity. It is a procedure that uses tape, attached to the skin, to physically keep in place muscles or bones at a certain position. This reduces pain and aids recovery. Tapi ... Read »


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    • Autologous blood injection

    • Autologous Blood Injection (ABI), also known as Autologous Conditioned Plasma (ACP) Injection is a medical procedure popularized circa 2000, whereby a patient's blood is injected into an area of the body for the purposes of healing. ABI is most commonly used to treat degeneration of tendons, which may occur in associa ... Read »


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    • Banding (medical)

    • Banding is a medical procedure which uses elastic bands for constriction. Banding may be used to tie off blood vessels in order to stop bleeding, as in the treatment of bleeding esophageal varices. The band restricts blood flow to the ligated tissue, so that it eventually dies and sloughs away from the supporting tissu ... Read »


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    • Bathroom privileges

    • Bathroom privileges refers to the rules or the possibility of the use of a toilet. Most commonly, the term is used in the following settings: ... Read »


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    • Bcr-Abl tyrosine-kinase inhibitor

    • Bcr-Abl tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKI) are the first-line therapy for most patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). More than 90% of CML cases are caused by a chromosomal abnormality that results in the formation of a so-called Philadelphia chromosome. This abnormality was discovered by Peter Nowell in 1960 ... Read »


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    • Bed rest

    • Bed rest

      Bed rest, also referred to as the rest-cure, is a medical treatment in which a person lies in bed for most of some period of time to try to cure an illness. Bed rest refers to voluntarily lying in bed as a treatment, and not being confined to bed because of a health impairment which physically prevents leaving bed. The ... Read »


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    • Bioartificial liver device

    • The first bioartificial liver device was developed by Dr. Kenneth Matsumara and was named an invention of the year by Time magazine in 2001. Liver cells obtained from an animal were used instead of developing a piece of equipment for each function of the liver. The structure and function of the first device resembl ... Read »


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    • Bloodletting

    • Bloodletting (or blood-letting) is the withdrawal of blood from a patient to cure or prevent illness and disease. Bloodletting was based on an ancient system of medicine in which blood and other bodily fluids were regarded as "humors" that had to remain in proper balance to maintain health. It is claimed to have been t ... Read »


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    • Catholicon (electuary)

    • In pre-modern medicine, catholicon was a soft electuary, so called as being supposedly universal in its curative and prophylactic abilities (see panacea); or a purger of all humours. Different authors have given different recipes for catholicon. That called Catholicon Nicholai was the most common in use; it consisted ... Read »


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    • Cauterization

    • Cauterization (or cauterisation, or cautery) is a medical practice or technique of burning a part of a body to remove or close off a part of it. It destroys some tissue in an attempt to mitigate bleeding and damage, remove an undesired growth, or minimize other potential medical harm, such as infections when antibiotic ... Read »


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    • Cefaly

    • Neurostimulation is the purposeful modulation of the nervous system's activity using invasive (e.g. microelectrodes) or non-invasive means (e.g. transcranial magnetic stimulation or transcranial electric stimulation, tES, such as tDCS or transcranial alternating current stimulation, tACS). Neurostimulation usually refe ... Read »


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    • Celacade

    • Celacade is a non-pharmacological treatment also known as Immune Modulation Therapy (IMT), developed by the Canadian-based biotherapeutics company Vasogen, for treatment of chronic heart failure and peripheral artery disease. At the World Congress of Cardiology in September 2006 the Advanced Chronic Heart Failure Clin ... Read »


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    • Chemoprophylaxis

    • Chemoprevention (also Chemoprophylaxis) refers to the administration of a medication for the purpose of preventing disease or infection.Antibiotics, for example, may be administered to patients with disorders of immune system function to prevent bacterial infections (particularly opportunistic infection). Antibiotics m ... Read »


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    • Chest wall oscillation

    • Chest wall oscillation is when devices are used for clearing excess mucus from lung airways (bronchi and bronchioles). It is principally used in the treatment of cystic fibrosis, but is gaining use in the treatment of other diseases, such as bronchiectasis, COPD, cerebral palsy and muscular dystrophy, in which excessiv ... Read »


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    • Chondroprotection

    • A chondroprotective compound is a specific compound or chemical that delays progressive joint space narrowing characteristic of arthritis and improves the biomechanics of articular joints by protecting chondrocytes. These agents perform various functions, such as: Chondroprotective agents can include both endogenous a ... Read »


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    • Chronotherapy (sleep phase)

    • In chronotherapy, an attempt is made to move bedtime and rising time later and later each day, around the clock, until a person is sleeping on a normal schedule. This treatment can be used by people with delayed sleep phase disorder who generally cannot reset their circadian rhythm by moving their bedtime and rising ti ... Read »


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    • CLaCS

    • CLaCS (Cryo-Laser and Cryo-Sclerotherapy) is a way to treat leg vein lesions by combining transdermal laser effect and injection sclerotherapy, all under skin cooling (Cryo - cold air blown onto the skin at -20C). The laser causes a selective photothermolysis damaging the vein wall. The vein's lumen gets smaller. On a ... Read »


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    • Clinical uses of mesenchymal stem cells

    • Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are being used by researchers in the fields of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering, to artificially reconstruct human tissue which has been previously damaged. Mesenchymal stem cells have the capacity to become any type of fully developed cell, which can contribute to replac ... Read »


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    • Combination therapy

    • Combination therapy or polytherapy is therapy that uses more than one medication or modality (versus monotherapy, which is any therapy taken alone). Typically, these terms refer to using multiple therapies to treat a single disease, and often all the therapies are pharmaceutical (although it can also involve non-medica ... Read »


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    • Comedo extraction

    • Comedo extraction is a widely used method of treatment for acne vulgaris. A dermatologist or cosmetologist may extract blackheads (open comedones) using gentle pressure around the pore opening, and whiteheads (closed comedones) by incision with a large needle or a blade. If performed skillfully, this treatment may be ... Read »


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    • Confection of hyacinth

    • In pre-modern medicine, the confection of hyacinth had nearly the same virtues with that of alkermes; but, beside that, was frequently used as an astringent. It consisted of nearly triple the number of drugs; of which the precious stone, called hyacinth, was the base. The other chief ingredients were red coral, bole ar ... Read »


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    • Coronectomy

    • Coronectomy is a medical process used to prevent damage to the alveolar nerve during extraction of the wisdom teeth. The process is used when removal of the whole tooth would damage the nerve, as sometimes the root and nerve are intertwined, and removing the tooth could cause temporary or permanent numbness to that sid ... Read »


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    • Cranial electrotherapy stimulation

    • Cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) is a form of non-invasive brain stimulation that applies a small, pulsed electric current across a person's head with the intention of treating a variety of conditions such as anxiety, depression and insomnia. CES has been suggested as a possible treatment for headaches, fibromy ... Read »


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    • Craterization

    • Craterization is an old medical procedure in which doctors would drill holes into people's heads to remove a foreign mass (i.e., a tumor). It gets its name from the crater-like holes it leaves behind. ... Read »


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    • Culdoscopy

    • Sagittal section of the lower part of a female trunk, right segment. (Pouch of Douglas labeled at bottom right.)
      ICD-9-CM 70.22 MeSH D003464
    • Culdoscopy

      Culdoscopy is an endoscopic procedure performed to examine the rectouterine pouch and pelvic viscera by the introduction of a culdoscope through the posterior vaginal wall. The word culdoscopy (and culdoscope) is derived from the term cul-de-sac, which means literally in French "bottom of a sac", and refers to the rect ... Read »


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    • Cyanoacrylate

    • Cyanoacrylates are a family of strong fast-acting adhesives with industrial, medical, and household uses. Cyanoacrylate adhesives have a short shelf life if not used, about one year from manufacture if unopened, one month once opened. They have some minor toxicity. Cyanoacrylates include methyl 2-cyanoacrylate, ethyl- ... Read »


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    • Debridement

    • Debridement

      Debridement /dᵻˈbriːdmənt/ is the medical removal of dead, damaged, or infected tissue to improve the healing potential of the remaining healthy tissue. Removal may be surgical, mechanical, chemical, autolytic (self-digestion), and by maggot therapy, where certain species of live maggots selectively eat o ... Read »


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    • Magnesium and depression

    • Tentative data indicate that oral magnesium supplementation may help prevent or improve depression. Although there appears to be sufficient evidence to implicate inadequate dietary Mg as contributing to the cause of MD; independent clinical trials are needed to confirm the efficacy of Mg in treating MD. ... Read »


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    • Dermabrasion

    • Dermabrasion is a type of surgical skin planing, typically performed in a professional medical setting by a dermatologist or plastic surgeon trained specifically in this procedure. Dermabrasion has been practiced for many years (before the advent of lasers) and involves the controlled deeper abrasion (wearing away) o ... Read »


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    • Diaphragm pacing

    • Diaphragm pacing, also known as phrenic nerve pacing (and even earlier as electrophrenic respiration), is the rhythmic application of electrical impulses to the diaphragm to provide ventilatory support for respiratory failure or sleep apnea. Historically, this has been accomplished through the electrical stimulation of ... Read »


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    • DOTS (Directly Observed Treatment, Short-Course)

    • DOTS (directly observed treatment, short-course), also known as TB-DOTS, is the name given to the tuberculosis control strategy recommended by the World Health Organization. According to WHO, "The most cost-effective way to stop the spread of TB in communities with a high incidence is by curing it. The best curative me ... Read »


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    • Dopamine therapy

    • Dopamine therapy is the regulation of levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine through the use of either agonists, or antagonists; and has been used in the treatment of disorders characterized by a dopamine imbalance. Dopamine replacement therapy (DRT) is an effective treatment for patients suffering from decreased leve ... Read »


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    • Dry-powder inhaler

    • A dry-powder inhaler (DPI) is a device that delivers medication to the lungs in the form of a dry powder. DPIs are commonly used to treat respiratory diseases such as asthma, bronchitis, emphysema and COPD although DPIs (such as inhalable insulin Afrezza) have also been used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. DPIs ... Read »


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    • Ebola virus disease treatment research

    • Ebola virus disease (research) or simply Ebola, is a disease that affects humans and other primates caused by ebolaviruses; there is no cure or specific treatment that is currently approved, treatment is primarily supportive in nature. In March 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) reported a major Ebola outbreak ... Read »


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    • EBOO

    • EBOO or Extracorporeal Blood Oxygenation and Ozonation is a hemofiltration-like procedure developed and reported in 2005 as being used in the medical department at the University of Siena in Italy. ... Read »


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    • Electrical muscle stimulation

    • Electrical muscle stimulation (EMS), also known as neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) or electromyostimulation, is the elicitation of muscle contraction using electric impulses. EMS has received increasing attention in the last few years because of its potential to serve as a strength training tool for healthy ... Read »


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    • Electroanalgesia

    • Electroanalgesia is a form of analgesia, or pain relief, that uses electricity to ease pain. Electrical devices can be internal or external, at the site of pain (local) or delocalized throughout the whole body. It works by interfering with the electric currents of pain signals, inhibiting them from reaching the brain a ... Read »


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    • Electronic prescribing

    • Electronic prescribing or e-prescribing (e-Rx) is the computer-based electronic generation, transmission and filling of a medical prescription, taking the place of paper and faxed prescriptions. E-prescribing allows a physician, pharmacist, nurse practitioner, or physician assistant to electronically transmit a new pre ... Read »


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    • Electrotherapeutics

    • Electrotherapeutics is a general term for the use of electricity in therapeutics, i.e. in the alleviation and cure of disease. It is used as a treatment, like electroconvulsive therapy and TENS. In the technical working of medical electrolysis the most minute precautions are required. The solution of the drug must be ... Read »


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    • Electrotherapy

    • Electrotherapy

      Electrotherapy is the use of electrical energy as a medical treatment. In medicine, the term electrotherapy can apply to a variety of treatments, including the use of electrical devices such as deep brain stimulators for neurological disease. The term has also been applied specifically to the use of electric current to ... Read »


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    • Electuary


    • Endoscopic nasopharyngectomy

    • Endoscopic nasopharyngectomy is a form of endoscopic surgery to treat nasopharyngeal carcinoma common in parts of Asia. This type of cancer is commonly treated with radiation therapy and chemotherapy, but endoscopic operation offers an alternative treatment especially when the radiation therapy fails. ... Read »


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    • Epidural steroid injection

    • Epidural steroid injection (ESI) is a technique for relieving pain from spinal stenosis and spinal disc herniation. Using a needle, corticosteroids and a local anesthetic are injected into the epidural space around the spinal cord and spinal nerves. The anesthetic gives short-term relief, and the corticosteroids give l ... Read »


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    • ExAblate

    • Exablate is a family of non-invasive medical devices manufactured by Insightec, a company headquartered in Haifa, Israel with regional offices in USA (Dallas, Texas), China, Japan and Europe. The Exablate and Exablate Neuro use MRI-guided Focused Ultrasound (MRgFUS) technology, which combines focused ultrasound with Ma ... Read »


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    • Expiratory apnea

    • Expiratory apnea is a voluntary condition performed by a patient during a doctor's examination. By breathing out and then holding one's breath, it gets easier for the doctor to perform an auscultation of the heart with a stethoscope. ... Read »


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    • Extracorporeal shockwave therapy

    • Extracorporeal shockwave therapy

      Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) is a treatment used in physical therapy, orthopedics, urology and cardiology. The shock waves are abrupt, high amplitude pulses of mechanical energy, similar to soundwaves, generated by an electromagnetic coil or a spark in water. Similar technology using focused higher energies ... Read »


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    • Facet joint injection

    • Facet joint injections are used to alleviate symptoms of facet joint syndrome. The procedure typically takes 15–20 minutes, and usually uses local anesthetic. Using modern X-ray technology, multiple x-ray snapshots are taken during the procedure to ensure that the needle and injected agents are being directed int ... Read »


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    • Flea treatments

    • Flea treatments are procedures used to treat flea infestations in human or animal populations. They may treat both the itching caused by bites and may remove or kill the fleas themselves. The itching associated with flea bites can be treated with anti-itch creams, usually antihistamines or hydrocortisone.Calamine ... Read »


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    • Fluid replacement

    • Fluid replacement or fluid resuscitation is the medical practice of replenishing bodily fluid lost through sweating, bleeding, fluid shifts or other pathologic processes. Fluids can be replaced with oral rehydration therapy (drinking), intravenous therapy, rectally such as with a Murphy drip, or by hypodermoclysis, the ... Read »


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    • Frenkel exercises

    • Frenkel exercises are a set of exercises developed by Professor Heinrich Sebastian Frenkel to treat ataxia, in particular cerebellar ataxia. They are a system of slow repetitious exercises. They increase in difficulty over the time of the program. The patient watches his hand or arm movements (for example) and correct ... Read »


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    • Gene therapy for osteoarthritis

    • Gene transfer strategies for medical management of the Osteoarthritis have attracted the attention of scientists due to the complex pathology of this chronic disease. Unlike other pharmacological treatments, gene therapy targets the disease process rather than the symptoms. Passing from parents to children, genes ... Read »


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    • Glossopharyngeal breathing

    • Glossopharyngeal breathing (GPB, glossopharyngeal insufflation, buccal pumping, or frog breathing) is a means of pistoning air into the lungs to volumes greater than can be achieved by the person's breathing muscles (greater than maximum inspiratory capacity). The technique involves the use of the glottis to add to an ... Read »


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    • Graded exercise therapy

    • Graded exercise therapy (GET) is physical activity that starts very slowly and gradually increases over time. This approach is used as part of a treatment plan for chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) or myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) and certain other conditions. This method avoids the extremes of the "push-crash" cycle of ... Read »


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    • Growth attenuation

    • Growth attenuation is an elective medical treatment which involves administering estrogen to cause closure of the epiphyses of the bones (Epiphyseal plates), resulting in a reduced adult height. Since the 1960s this treatment has been performed primarily on children growing toward an adult height considered unacceptabl ... Read »


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    • Harris flush

    • A Harris flush is a type of enema aimed to evacuate flatus from a patient who has undergone surgery. It differs from other enemas in that it is not retained by the patient but removed shortly after insertion. It is also intended to remove flatus as opposed to other enemas, which are principally to remove stool. A tube ... Read »


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    • Heating pad

    • A heating pad is a pad used for warming of parts of the body in order to manage pain. Localized application of heat causes the blood vessels in that area to dilate, enhancing perfusion to the targeted tissue. Types of heating pads include electrical, chemical and hot water bottles. Electric pads usually operate fr ... Read »


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    • Heliox

    • Heliox is a breathing gas composed of a mixture of helium (He) and oxygen (O2). Heliox is a medical treatment for patients with difficulty breathing. The mixture generates less resistance than atmospheric air when passing through the airways of the lungs, and thus requires less effort by a patient to breathe in and ou ... Read »


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    • Hemofiltration

    • Hemofiltration

      In medicine, hemofiltration, also haemofiltration, is a renal replacement therapy which is used in the intensive care setting. It is usually used to treat acute kidney injury (AKI), but may be of benefit in multiple organ dysfunction syndrome or sepsis. During hemofiltration, a patient's blood is passed through a set o ... Read »


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    • Hepatitis B immune globulin

    • Hepatitis B immune globulin

      Hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) is a human immune globulin that is used to prevent the development of hepatitis B. HBIG is indicated as a postexposure prophylaxis for people at risk to develop hepatitis B because they have been recently exposed to body fluids of individuals who have hepatitis B. This includes b ... Read »


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    • Heptavalent botulism antitoxin

    • The Heptavalent Botulism AntiToxin – HBAT, made by Cangene Corporation – is a licensed, commercially available botulism anti-toxin that effectively neutralizes all seven known botulinum nerve toxin serotypes (types A, B, C, D, E, F and G). It is indicated for sporadic cases of life-threatening botulis ... Read »


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    • Heroic measure

    • In medicine, heroic treatment or course of therapy is one which possesses a high risk of causing further damage to a patient's health, but is undertaken as a last resort with the understanding that any lesser treatment will surely result in failure. Heroic measures are often taken in cases of grave injury or illness, ... Read »


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    • Holoclar

    • Limbal stem cells (also called corneal epithelial stem cells) are stem cells located in the basal epithelial layer of the corneal limbus. Characteristics of limbal stem include slow turnover rate, high proliferative potential, clonogenicity, multipotency, expression of stem cell markers, and the ability to regenerate t ... Read »


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    • Hormone therapy

    • Hormone therapy or hormonal therapy is the use of hormones in medical treatment. Treatment with hormone antagonists may also be referred to as hormonal therapy or antihormone therapy. The most general classes of hormone therapy are oncologic hormone therapy and hormone replacement therapy, of which there are various ki ... Read »


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    • Hot water bottle

    • A hot water bottle is a container filled with hot water and sealed with a stopper, used to provide warmth, typically while in bed, but also for the application of heat to a specific part of the body. Containers for warmth in bed were in use as early as the 16th century. The earliest versions contained hot coals fr ... Read »


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    • Hybrid operating room

    • A hybrid operating room is a surgical theatre that is equipped with advanced medical imaging devices such as fixed C-Arms, CT scanners or MRI scanners. These imaging devices enable minimally-invasive surgery, which is less traumatic for the patient. Minimally invasive means that the surgeon does not need to cut the pat ... Read »


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    • Hydrodilatation

    • Hydrodilatation or hydraulic arthrographic capsular distension or distension arthrography is a medical treatment for adhesive capsulitis of shoulder. The treatment is applied by a radiologist assisted by a radiographer. Contrast medium, a local anaesthetic and cortisone are injected into the joint. Then up to 40ml of s ... Read »


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    • Hydrogogue

    • Hydrogogue refers to a substance that promotes watery evacuation of bowels. Fumaric acid salts can be used as hydrogogue cathartics. ... Read »


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    • Hyperbaric medicine

    • Hyperbaric medicine

      Hyperbaric medicine is medical treatment in which an ambient pressure greater than sea level atmospheric pressure is a necessary component. The treatment comprises hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT), the medical use of oxygen at an ambient pressure higher than atmospheric pressure, and therapeutic recompression for decom ... Read »


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    • Hyperbaric treatment schedules

    • Hyperbaric treatment schedules or hyperbaric treatment tables, are planned sequences of events in chronological order for hyperbaric pressure exposures specifying the pressure profile over time and the breathing gas to be used during specified periods, for medical treatment. Hyperbaric therapy is based on exposure to p ... Read »


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    • Hyperimmune globulin

    • Hyperimmune globulin is similar to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) except that it is prepared from the plasma of donors with high titers of antibody against a specific organism or antigen. Some agents against which hyperimmune globulins are available include hepatitis B, rabies, tetanus toxin, varicella-zoster, etc. ... Read »


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    • Hypnosis

    • Hypnosis is a state of human consciousness involving focused attention and reduced peripheral awareness and an enhanced capacity to respond to suggestion. The term may also refer to an art, skill, or act of inducing hypnosis. Theories explaining what occurs during hypnosis fall into two groups. Altered state theories ... Read »


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    • Hypnotherapy

    • Hypnotherapy is an alternative curative healing method that is used to create subconscious change in a patient in the form of new responses, thoughts, attitudes, behaviours or feelings. It is undertaken with a subject in hypnosis. A person who is hypnotized displays certain unusual behavior characteristics and propens ... Read »


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    • Hypodermoclysis

    • Hypodermoclysis, which can also be called interstitial infusion or subcutaneous infusion, is the subcutaneous administration of fluids to the body. This would often be in the form of a saline or glucose solution. Hypodermoclysis can be used where a slow rate of fluid uptake is required compared to intravenous infusion ... Read »


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    • Hypothermia therapy for neonatal encephalopathy

    • Brain hypothermia, induced by cooling a baby to around 33 °C for three days after birth, is a treatment for hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. It has recently been proven to be the only medical intervention which reduces brain damage, and improves an infant's chance of survival and reduced disability. Hypoxic ische ... Read »


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    • Ice pack

    • An ice pack or gel pack is a portable plastic sac filled with water, or refrigerant gel or liquid. For use the contents are frozen in a freezer. Both ice and other non-toxic refrigerants (mostly water) can absorb a considerable amount of heat before they warm above 0 °C, due to the high latent heat of fusion of w ... Read »


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    • Immunoglobulin therapy

    • Immunoglobulin therapy, also known as normal human immunoglobulin (NHIG), is the use of a mixture of antibodies (immunoglobulins) to treat a number of health conditions. These conditions include primary immunodeficiency, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, Kawasaki di ... Read »


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    • Immunosuppression

    • Immunosuppression

      Immunosuppression is a reduction of the activation or efficacy of the immune system. Some portions of the immune system itself have immunosuppressive effects on other parts of the immune system, and immunosuppression may occur as an adverse reaction to treatment of other conditions. In general, deliberately induced im ... Read »


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    • Immunotherapy

    • Immunotherapy is the "treatment of disease by inducing, enhancing, or suppressing an immune response". Immunotherapies designed to elicit or amplify an immune response are classified as activation immunotherapies, while immunotherapies that reduce or suppress are classified as suppression immunotherapies. Immunomodula ... Read »


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    • Injection lipolysis

    • Injection lipolysis is a controversial cosmetic procedure in which drug mixtures are injected into patients with the goal of destroying fat cells. This practice, using drugs generally based on phosphatidylcholine and deoxycholate (PCDC), evolved from the initial intravenous use of those drug formulations to treat blood ... Read »


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    • Intermittent hypoxia

    • Intermittent hypoxia (also known as episodic hypoxia) is an intervention in which a person or animal undergoes alternating periods of normoxia and hypoxia. Normoxia is defined as exposure to oxygen levels normally found in earth's atmosphere (~21% O2) and hypoxia as any oxygen levels lower than those of normoxia. Norma ... Read »


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    • Intermittent vacuum therapy

    • The Intermittent Vacuum Therapy (IVT) is a treatment conducted in case of venous and arterial issues as well as in rehabilitation (after sports injuries and vascular complaints). With the aid of normal and low pressure, it should enable to control venous reflux, enhance lymphatic flow and improve blood flow in peripher ... Read »


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    • Interprofessional education

    • Interprofessional education (also known as inter-professional education or “IPE”) refers to occasions when students from two or more professions in health and social care learn together during all or part of their professional training with the object of cultivating collaborative practice for providing client ... Read »


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    • Interventionism (medicine)

    • Interventionism, when discussing the practice of medicine, is generally a derogatory term used by critics of a medical model in which patients are viewed as passive recipients receiving external treatments provided by the physician that have the effect of prolonging life, or at least of providing a subjective sense of ... Read »


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    • Intramuscular injection

    • Intramuscular (also IM or im) injection is the injection of a substance directly into a muscle. In medicine, it is one of several alternative methods for the administration of medications (see route of administration). Muscles have larger and more blood vessels than subcutaneous tissue and injections here usually have ... Read »


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    • Intraosseous infusion

    • Intraosseous infusion

      Intraosseous infusion (IO) is the process of injecting directly into the marrow of a bone to provide a non-collapsible entry point into the systemic venous system. This technique is used to provide fluids and medication when intravenous access is not available or not feasible. A comparison of intravenous (IV), intra ... Read »


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    • Intraperitoneal injection

    • Intraperitoneal injection or IP injection is the injection of a substance into the peritoneum (body cavity). It is more often applied to animals than to humans. In general, it is preferred when large amounts of blood replacement fluids are needed or when low blood pressure or other problems prevent the use of a suitabl ... Read »


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    • Intrathecal administration

    • Intrathecal administration

      Intrathecal administration is a route of administration for drugs via an injection into the spinal canal, or into the subarachnoid space so that it reaches the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and is useful in spinal anaesthesia, chemotherapy, or pain management applications. This route is also used to introduce drugs that fi ... Read »


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    • Intravenous therapy

    • Intravenous therapy

      Intravenous therapy is the infusion of liquid substances directly into a vein. Intravenous (IV) means "within vein". Intravenous infusions are commonly referred to as drips. The intravenous route is the fastest way to deliver fluids and medications throughout the body. Intravenous therapy may be used for fluid administ ... Read »


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    • Intravitreal administration

    • Intravitreal is a route of administration of a drug or other substance, in which the substance is delivered into the eye. Intravitreal administration of drugs is used to treat various conditions of the eye. The following methods are known. ... Read »


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    • Isocentric technique

    • An isocentric technique is where all beams used in a radiation treatment have a common focus point, a.k.a. the isocenter. Isocentric techniques require less patient repositioning as multiple field arrangements can be delivered with gantry and collimator movements, reducing treatment times. The idealized intersecti ... Read »


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    • Knee taping

    • Knee taping (also known as patellar taping) is a procedure performed by physiotherapists or physicians to alleviate the symptoms of patellofemoral pain. Though knee taping has been shown to offer short-term pain relief, its long-term efficacy is confounded by several studies. The mechanism of action by which it allevia ... Read »


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    • Kraamzorg

    • Kraamzorg is a medical service in the Netherlands where postnatal care is provided to a new mother and her baby in the initial eight to 10 days immediately after birth. This support comes in the form of a qualified maternity nurse or health care professional, kraamverzorgster, who comes to the home in order to provide ... Read »


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    • Laparoscopic surgery

    • Laparoscopic surgery

      Laparoscopic surgery, also called minimally invasive surgery (MIS), bandaid surgery, or keyhole surgery, is a modern surgical technique in which operations are performed far from their location through small incisions (usually 0.5–1.5 cm) elsewhere in the body. There are a number of advantages to the patient w ... Read »


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    • Laser blended vision

    • Laser Blended Vision is a sophisticated laser eye treatment which is used to treat presbyopia (ageing eyes) (progressive loss of the ability to focus on nearby objects) or other age-related eye conditions. It can be used to help people that simply need reading glasses, and also those who have started to need bifocal or ... Read »


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    • Lateral electrical surface stimulation

    • Lateral electrical surface stimulation is a neuromuscular stimulation treatment for idiopathic scoliosis. It is also known as the LESS treatment, and was invented by Dr. Jens Axelgaard in 1976. It is a non-invasive scoliosis treatment that utilizes electrical muscle stimulation, which is also known as neurostimulation ... Read »


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    • LDL apheresis

    • In medicine, LDL apheresis is a form of apheresis, resembling dialysis, to eliminate the cholesterol-containing particle low-density lipoprotein (LDL) from the bloodstream. It is used in diseases featuring high LDL, such as the rare homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia, when the heterozygous form does not resp ... Read »


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    • Leiden accumulator

    • The Leiden accumulator, created in 1745 was the first device that produced electric shock for medical purposes. Electricity was known to the Greeks, but it was after the Charterhouse schoolteacher Stephen Gray electrified a boy, probably one of his pupils, in 1730 that experimentation with electricity became popular a ... Read »


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    • Leukapheresis

    • Leukapheresis is a laboratory procedure in which white blood cells are separated from a sample of blood. It is a specific type of apheresis, the more general term for separating out one particular constituent of blood and returning the remainder to the circulation. Leukapheresis may be performed to decrease a very hig ... Read »


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    • Leukocyte apheresis

    • Leukocyte apheresis is a medical device therapy (selective granulocyte/monocyte adsorptive {GMA} apheresis; GMDN code: 47306) for the treatment of inflammation of the colon. It works by removing from the blood a group of white blood cells called activated leukocytes that play a key role in the inflammatory stages of ul ... Read »


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    • LILFU

    • LILFU stands for low intensity, low frequency ultrasound. It is a new technique devised by the team of William J. Tyler from Arizona State University to manipulate neuronal circuits using transcranial pulsed ultrasound. This could make the need of invasive (surgical) neuromodulation for some treatments and therapies un ... Read »


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    • Lipotomy

    • Lipotomy is a lipodissolution technique of aesthetic medicine which aims at dissolving undesirable greasy clusters without the use of harsh techniques or surgery. A PubMed search conducted in August 2011 failed to identify any clinical trials that have evaluated the efficacy and safety of lipotomy. Towards the end of ... Read »


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    • List of therapies

    • This is a list of types of medical therapy, including forms of traditional medicine, alternative medicine, and quackery. For psychotherapies and other behavioral and psychological intervention methods, see list of psychotherapies. ... Read »


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    • Liver support systems

    • Liver support systems are therapeutic devices to assist in performing the functions of the liver in persons with liver damage. The primary functions of the liver include removing toxic substances from the blood, manufacturing blood proteins, storing energy in the form of glycogen, and secreting bile. The that perform ... Read »


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    • Low level laser therapy

    • Low level laser therapy

      Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is a form of alternative medicine that applies low-level (low-power) lasers or light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to the surface or orifices of the body. Whereas "high-power" lasers are used in laser medicine to cut or destroy tissue, low-power lasers are claimed to relieve pain or to stimulate ... Read »


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    • Maggot therapy

    • Maggot therapy

      Maggot therapy is a type of biotherapy involving the introduction of live, disinfected maggots (fly larvae) into the non-healing skin and soft tissue wound(s) of a human or animal for the purpose of cleaning out the necrotic (dead) tissue within a wound (debridement) and disinfection. There is evidence that maggot the ... Read »


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    • Maintenance therapy

    • Maintenance therapy is a medical therapy that is designed to help a primary treatment succeed. For example, maintenance chemotherapy may be given to people who have a cancer in remission in an attempt to prevent a relapse. This form of treatment is also a common approach for the management of many incurable, chronic di ... Read »


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    • Malotilate

    • Malotilate

      Malotilate (INN) is a drug used in the treatment of liver disease. It has been shown to facilitate liver regeneration in rats. ... Read »


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    • Managed access program

    • Managed Access Program (MAP) is an umbrella term used when defining an ethical solutions-based approach to provision of unapproved medicines for patients with unmet medical needs, typical of the following scenarios when drugs: A variety of terms are used to describe these programs including: These regulatory programs ... Read »


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    • Management of scoliosis

    • The management of scoliosis is complex and is determined by the severity of the curvature and skeletal maturity, which together help predict the likelihood of progression. The conventional options for children and adolescents are: For adults, treatment usually focuses on relieving any pain: Treatment for idiopathic s ... Read »


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    • Management of strabismus

    • The management of strabismus may include the use of drugs or surgery to correct the strabismus. Strabismus is a misalignment of the eyes and may also result in amblyopia (lazy eye) or impairments of binocular vision. Agents used include paralytic agents such as botox used on extraocular muscles, topical autonomic nerv ... Read »


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    • Medical gas therapy

    • Medical gas therapy has been used in medicine since the use of oxygen therapy. Nitric oxide — Nitric oxide is a gas that is inhaled. It works by relaxing smooth muscle to widen (dilate) blood vessels, especially in the lungs.Nitric oxide is used together with a mechanical ventilator to treat respiratory failure i ... Read »


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    • Medical nutrition therapy

    • Medical nutrition therapy (MNT) is a therapeutic approach to treating medical conditions and their associated symptoms via the use of a specifically tailored diet devised and monitored by a medical doctor physician, registered dietitian,or professional nutritionist. The diet is based upon the patient's medical record, ... Read »


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    • Medical procedure

    • A medical procedure is a course of action intended to achieve a result in the delivery of healthcare. A medical procedure with the intention of determining, measuring, or diagnosing a patient condition or parameter is also called a medical test. Other common kinds of procedures are therapeutic (i.e., intended to treat ... Read »


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    • Megavitamin therapy

    • Megavitamin therapy is the use of large doses of vitamins, often many times greater than the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) in the attempt to prevent or treat diseases. Megavitamin therapy is typically used in alternative medicine by practitioners who call their approach "orthomolecular medicine", but also used in ... Read »


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    • Management of multiple sclerosis

    • Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease that affects the central nervous system (CNS). Several therapies for it exist, although there is no known cure. The most common initial course of the disease is the relapsing-remitting subtype, which is characterized by unpredictable attacks (rela ... Read »


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    • Multiple sclerosis research

    • Research in multiple sclerosis may find new pathways to interact with the disease, improve function, curtail attacks, or limit the progression of the underlying disease. Many treatments already in clinical trials involve drugs that are used in other diseases or medications that have not been designed specifically for m ... Read »


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    • Mydicar

    • Mydicar is a genetically targeted enzyme replacement therapy being studied for use in patients with severe heart failure. It is designed to increase the level of SERCA2a, a sarcoplasmic endoplasmic reticulum calcium (Ca2+) ATPase found in the membrane of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). The SERCA2a gene is delivered to ... Read »


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    • Myringoplasty

    • Myringoplasty is the closure of the perforation of pars tensa of the tympanic membrane. When myringoplasty is combined with ossicular reconstruction, it is called tympanoplasty. The operation is performed with the patient supine and face turned to one side. The graft material most commonly used for the surgery is tempo ... Read »


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    • Nasal administration

    • Nasal administration is a route of administration in which drugs are insufflated through the nose. It can be a form of either topical administration or systemic administration, as the drugs thus locally delivered can go on to have either purely local or systemic effects. Nasal sprays are locally acting drugs such as de ... Read »


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    • Nasal spray

    • Nasal sprays are used as local treatments for conditions such as nasal congestion and allergic rhinitis. In some situations, nasal delivery route is preferred because it provides an agreeable alternative to injection or pills. Substances can be assimilated extremely quickly and directly through the nose. Many pharmaceu ... Read »


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    • Nasogastric intubation

    • Nasogastric intubation

      Nasogastric intubation is a medical process involving the insertion of a plastic tube (nasogastric tube or NG tube) through the nose, past the throat, and down into the stomach. Orogastric intubation is a similar process involving the insertion of a plastic tube (orogastric tube) through the mouth. As a sump tube wher ... Read »


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    • NDR Method

    • The NDR Method is a registered trademark with the US Patent and Trademark Office for the non-surgical medical treatment of spinal discs. The NDR Method was developed by Dr. Eric M. Shapiro, D.C. of Charlotte, North Carolina, USA. The treatment is only for use with patients whose medical histories and advanced radiologi ... Read »


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    • Negative-pressure wound therapy

    • Negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is a therapeutic technique using a vacuum dressing to promote healing in acute or chronic wounds and enhance healing of second and third degree burns. The therapy involves the controlled application of sub-atmospheric pressure to the local wound environment, using a sealed wound d ... Read »


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    • Nerve induction

    • Nerve induction is a theoretical method of creating a sensation by stimulation of the sensory nerves rather than by actual stimulus. The concept is mentioned in the 1965 science fiction novel Dune by Frank Herbert as a method to inflict pain with no actual injury. No known real-life analogues of such a device current ... Read »


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    • Neuroreflexotherapy

    • Neuroreflexotherapy (NRT) is a type of alternative medicine treatment used for some cases of low back pain (LBP). Small pieces of metal are placed just under the surface of the skin in the ear and back, and are intended to interrupt the neural pain processes. Tentative evidence supports its use. A 2005 Cochrane re ... Read »


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    • Optoelectronic plethysmography

    • Optoelectronic plethysmography (OEP) is a method to evaluate ventilation through an external measurement of the chest wall surface motion. A number of small reflective markers are placed on the thoraco-abdominal surface by hypoallergenic adhesive tape. A system for human motion analysis measures the three-dimensional ... Read »


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    • Oral pressure therapy

    • Oral pressure therapy (OPT) is a treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) that uses negative pressure in the mouth to shift the soft palate and tongue forward. The negative pressure is created by a bedside console connected by a small tube to a mouthpiece worn inside the mouth during sleep. The device is successful ... Read »


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    • Oral rehydration therapy

    • Oral rehydration therapy

      Oral rehydration therapy (ORT) is a type of fluid replacement used to prevent and treat dehydration, especially that due to diarrhea. It involves drinking water with modest amounts of sugar and salts. Oral rehydration therapy can also be given by a nasogastric tube. Therapy should routinely include the use of zinc supp ... Read »


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    • Oxygen therapy

    • Oxygen therapy

      Oxygen therapy, also known as supplemental oxygen, is the use of oxygen as a medical treatment. This can include for low blood oxygen, carbon monoxide toxicity, cluster headaches, and to maintain enough oxygen while inhaled anesthetics are given. Long term oxygen is often useful in people with chronically low oxygen su ... Read »


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    • OxySure

    • OxySure Therapeutics, Inc. is a medical technology company that creates specialty respiratory and medical solutions. Its technology is patented in the US, South Africa and Australia, with patents pending in multiple other countries. Julian T. Ross founded the company as OxySure Systems in 2004 and serves as its CEO. T ... Read »


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    • Papworth method

    • The Papworth method is a specific diaphragmatic breathing technique that was developed in the 1960s. The technique emphasises nose breathing and the development of a breathing pattern to suit current activity. It also involves relaxation exercises that, in concert with the breathing technique, have been purported to ai ... Read »


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    • Management of Parkinson's disease


    • Pastille

    • Pastille

      A pastille is a type of sweet or medicinal pill made of a thick liquid that has been solidified and is meant to be consumed by light chewing and allowing it to dissolve in the mouth. They are also used to describe certain forms of incense. A pastille is also known as a "troche", or a medicated lozenge that dissolves l ... Read »


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    • Patient safety

    • Patient safety is a discipline that emphasizes safety in health care through the prevention, reduction, reporting, and analysis of medical error that often leads to adverse effects. The frequency and magnitude of avoidable adverse events experienced by patients was not well known until the 1990s, when multiple countrie ... Read »


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    • Pentastarch

    • Pentastarch is a subgroup of hydroxyethyl starch, with five hydroxyethyl groups out of each 11 hydroxyls, giving it approximately 50% hydroxyethylation. This compares with tetrastarch at 40% and hetastarch at 70% hydroxyethylation, respectively. It is sold under the name Pentaspan and used for fluid resuscitation. It ... Read »


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    • Peritoneal dialysis

    • Diagram of peritoneal dialysis
      ICD-9-CM 54.98
    • Peritoneal dialysis

      Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a type of dialysis that uses the peritoneum in a person's abdomen as the membrane through which fluid and dissolved substances are exchanged with the blood. It is used to remove excess fluid, correct electrolyte problems, and removed toxins in those with kidney failure. Peritoneal dialysis h ... Read »


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    • Photoablation

    • Photoablation is the use of light or lasers to destroy tissues. The excimer laser of deep ultra-violet light is mainly used in Photoablation. The wavelength of laser used in photoablation is approximately 200 nm. Photoablation is mainly used in corrective eye surgery procedures such as LASIK and LASEK. In fact, ... Read »


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    • Photopheresis

    • In medicine, photopheresis (aka extracorporeal photopheresis or ECP) is a form of apheresis and photodynamic therapy in which blood is treated with a photosensitizing agent and subsequently irradiated with specified wavelengths of light to achieve an effect. Specifically, buffy coat (WBC + platelets) is separated from ... Read »


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    • Photothermal therapy

    • Photothermal therapy (PTT) refers to efforts to use electromagnetic radiation (most often in infrared wavelengths) for the treatment of various medical conditions, including cancer. This approach is an extension of photodynamic therapy, in which a photosensitizer is excited with specific band light. This activation bri ... Read »


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    • Pink lady (medicine)

    • In medicine, pink lady is a term used for a drug cocktail used to treat gastroesophageal reflux. It usually consists of an antacid and the anaesthetic lidocaine. Some variants contain an anticholinergic. The name of the preparation comes from its colour – pink. Pink ladies often relieve symptoms for gastro-esopha ... Read »


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    • Plasmapheresis

    • Plasmapheresis

      Plasmapheresis (from the Greek πλάσμα—plasma, something molded, and ἀφαίρεσις—aphairesis, taking away) is the removal, treatment, and return or exchange of blood plasma or components thereof from and to the blood circulation. It is thus an extracorporeal therapy ... Read »


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    • Pneumotherapy

    • Pneumotherapy is the medical use of compressed or rarefied gases, and was at one time used to treat people suffering from pneumothorax (lung collapse). It may still be used as a treatment for atelectasis (alveolar collapse). ... Read »


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    • Post-exposure prophylaxis

    • Post-exposure prophylaxis, also known as post-exposure prevention (PEP), is any preventive medical treatment started after exposure to a pathogen (such as a disease-causing virus), in order to prevent the infection from occurring. PEP is commonly and very effectively used to prevent the outbreak of rabies after a ... Read »


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    • Poultice

    • A poultice, also called cataplasm, is a soft moist mass, often heated and medicated, that is spread on cloth over the skin to treat an aching, inflamed, or painful part of the body. It can be used on wounds such as cuts. Poultice may also refer to a porous solid filled with solvent used to remove stains from porous st ... Read »


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    • Pre-exposure prophylaxis

    • Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is the preemptive use of drugs to prevent disease in people who have not yet been exposed to the disease-causing agent. In particular, the term is used to refer to the use of antiviral drugs that attack the lifecycle of the HIV virus as a strategy for the prevention of HIV/AIDS. PrEP is ... Read »


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    • Procaine blockade

    • Procaine blockade is a medical treatment, where procaine solution affects the peripheral nervous system. Procaine blockade was developed by Aleksandr Vasilyevich Vishnevsky in 1929. There are lumbar, jugular, sacral, extremity and short neural blockades used. ... Read »


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    • Prophylactic cranial irradiation

    • Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) or prophylactic cranial radiotherapy (PCRT) is a technique used to combat the occurrence of metastasis to the brain in highly aggressive cancers that commonly metastasize to brain, most notably small-cell lung cancer. Radiation therapy is commonly used to treat known tumor occurre ... Read »


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    • Proteases (medical and related uses)

    • Proteases (also sometimes referred to as proteolytic enzymes or peptidases) are in use, or have been proposed or tried, for a number of purposes related to medicine or surgery. Some preparations involving protease have undergone successful clinical trials and have regulatory authorization; and some further ones have sh ... Read »


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    • Protein replacement therapy

    • Protein replacement therapy is a medical treatment that supplements or replaces a protein in patients in whom that particular protein is deficient or absent. ... Read »


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    • Pulmonary rehabilitation

    • Pulmonary rehabilitation, also known as respiratory rehabilitation, is an important part of the management and health maintenance of people with chronic respiratory disease who remain symptomatic or continue to have decreased function despite standard medical treatment. It is a broad therapeutic concept. It is defined ... Read »


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    • Pumpable ice technology

    • Pumpable ice (PI) technology is a technology to produce fluids or secondary refrigerants, also called coolants, with the viscosity of water or jelly and the cooling capacity of ice. Pumpable ice is typically a slurry of ice crystals or particles ranging from 5 to 10,000 micrometers (1 cm) in diameter and transported ... Read »


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    • Quaternary prevention

    • The quaternary prevention, concept coined by the Belgian general practitioner Marc Jamoulle, are the actions taken to identify a patient at risk of overmedicalisation, to protect them from new medical invasion, and to suggest interventions which are ethically acceptable. Quaternary prevention is the set of health acti ... Read »


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    • Reflex locomotion

    • Reflex locomotion, usually referred to as the Vojta method, is the technique for the treatment of physical and mental impairment in humans. It was discovered by Václav Vojta. Based on studies of treatments for spastic children for muscular disorders in the 1950s, a number of reflex points were identified which can ... Read »


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    • Relax-A-Cizor

    • Electrical muscle stimulation (EMS), also known as neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) or electromyostimulation, is the elicitation of muscle contraction using electric impulses. EMS has received an increasing amount of attention in the last few years for many reasons: it can be utilized as a strength training ... Read »


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    • Respimat

    • Respimat, commonly referred to as Respimat SMI (SMI indicates "Soft Mist Inhaler") is an advanced drug delivery device in comparison to MDIs (metered-dose inhalers) or DPIs (dry powder inhalers) used for the treatment of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other respiratory conditions. Its develo ... Read »


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    • Revalenta arabica

    • Revalenta Arabica, or Ervalenta, is a name given to a preparation which was sold in the 18th century as an empirical diet for patients, extraordinary restorative virtues being attributed to it. The product that was mass-marketed was, in reality, only a preparation of the common lentil, its first name being formed for ... Read »


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    • RICE (medicine)

    • RICE is a mnemonic for four elements of treatment for soft tissue injuries – an acronym for Rest, Ice, Compression and Elevation. The mnemonic was introduced by Gabe Mirkin in Sportsmedicine Book () in year 1978. However, he has since recanted his support for the regimen. On March 16, 2014, he wrote "Coaches have ... Read »


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    • Salvage therapy

    • Salvage therapy, also known as rescue therapy, is a form of therapy given after an ailment does not respond to standard therapy. The most common diseases that require salvage therapy are HIV and various cancers. The term is not clearly defined; it is used both to mean a second attempt and a final attempt. Salvage thera ... Read »


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    • SCAR-Fc

    • sCAR-Fc (Soluble Receptor Analogue) is an experimental prophylactic treatment against coxsackievirus B3 (CVB) infections. Coxsackievirus B3 can cause cardiac damage, eventually resulting in a weakened and enlarged heart that is termed dilated cardiomyopathy. While many other treatments inhibit viral proliferation in my ... Read »


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    • Self-Injurious Behavior Inhibiting System

    • The Self-Injurious Behavior Inhibiting System (SIBIS) is an apparatus designed to reduce self-injurious behavior (SIB) directed at the head, such as banging the head against walls and other objects or hitting oneself in the head. Invented by Dr. Robert E. Fischell, Glen H. Fountain, and Charles M. Blackburn in 1984, th ... Read »


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    • Self-administration

    • Self-administration is, in its medical sense, the process of a subject administering a pharmacological substance to him-, her-, or itself. A clinical example of this is the subcutaneous "self-injection" of insulin by a diabetic patient. In animal experimentation, self-administration is a form of operant conditioning w ... Read »


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    • Semper rehydration solution

    • Semper rehydration solution is a mixture used for the management of dehydration. Each liter of Semper rehydration solution contains 189 mmol glucose, 40 mmol Na+, 35 mmol Cl−, 20 mmol K+ and 25 mmol HCO3−. ... Read »


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    • Single-port laparoscopy

    • Single-port laparoscopy (SPL), also known as single-port access surgery (SPA), single-port incisionless conventional equipment-utilizing surgery (SPICES), single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS), Single-access endoscopic surgery (SAES), laparo-endoscopic single-site surgery (LESS), natural-orifice transumbilical su ... Read »


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    • Skunk oil

    • Skunk oil is an oil that is obtained from the two lateral glands that run the length of a skunk's back. Skunks store fat in these glands for use during hibernation or semi-hibernation in warmer climates. Skunk oil has minimal odor. Skunk oil was used by the Native Americans as a healing balm or liniment. When rend ... Read »


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    • Slendertone

    • Electrical muscle stimulation (EMS), also known as neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) or electromyostimulation, is the elicitation of muscle contraction using electric impulses. EMS has received increasing attention in the last few years because of its potential to serve as a strength training tool for healthy ... Read »


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    • Smile surgery

    • Smile surgery or smile reconstruction is a surgical procedure that restores the smile for people with facial nerve paralysis. Facial nerve paralysis is a relatively common condition with a yearly incidence of 0.25% leading to function loss of the mimic muscles. The facial nerve gives off several branches in the face. I ... Read »


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    • Somnoplasty

    • Somnoplasty (composed of the Latin root somnus, meaning sleep, and the Greek word plastia, meaning molding or formation) is a medical treatment approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat three conditions: habitual snoring, chronic nasal obstruction, and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) using radiofrequenc ... Read »


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    • Stem-cell therapy

    • Stem-cell therapy is the use of stem cells to treat or prevent a disease or condition. Bone marrow transplant is the most widely used stem-cell therapy, but some therapies derived from umbilical cord blood are also in use. Research is underway to develop various sources for stem cells, and to apply stem-cell treatment ... Read »


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    • Strimvelis

    • Strimvelis is the first ex-vivo stem cell gene therapy to treat patients with a very rare disease called ADA-SCID (Severe Combined Immunodeficiency due to Adenosine Deaminase deficiency), a rare disorder caused by the absence of an essential protein called adenosine deaminase (ADA), which is required for the production ... Read »


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    • Sustained Acoustic Medicine

    • Therapeutic ultrasound refers generally to any type of ultrasonic procedure that uses ultrasound for therapeutic benefit. This includes HIFU, lithotripsy, targeted ultrasound drug delivery, trans-dermal ultrasound drug delivery, ultrasound hemostasis, cancer therapy, and ultrasound assisted thrombolysis It may use focu ... Read »


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    • Tamagozake

    • Tamagozake (卵酒 or 玉子酒?) is a drink consisting of heated sake, sugar and a raw egg. It translates as "egg sake", being made of the kanji 卵 tamago (egg) and 酒 sake. Tamagozake is a traditional home remedy for the common cold in Japan, however there is no medical proof of its effica ... Read »


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    • Tamponade

    • Tamponade is the closure or blockage (as of a wound or body cavity) by or as if by a tampon, especially to stop bleeding. Tamponade is a useful method of stopping a hemorrhage. This can be achieved by applying an absorbent dressing directly into a wound, thereby absorbing excess blood and creating a blockage, or by app ... Read »


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    • Telepsychiatry

    • Telepsychiatry is the application of telemedicine to the specialty field of psychiatry. The term typically describes the delivery of psychiatric assessment and care through telecommunications technology, usually videoconferencing. Telepsychiatry services can be offered through intermediary companies that partner with f ... Read »


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    • Therapeutic effect

    • A therapeutic effect is a consequence of a medical treatment of any kind, the results of which are judged to be desirable and beneficial. This is true whether the result was expected, unexpected, or even an unintended consequence of the treatment. An adverse effect, on the other hand, is a harmful and undesired effect. ... Read »


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    • Targeted temperature management

    • Targeted temperature management (TTM) previously known as therapeutic hypothermia or protective hypothermia is active treatment that tries to achieve and maintain a specific body temperature in a person for a specific duration of time in an effort to improve health outcomes during recovery after a period of stopped blo ... Read »


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    • Therapeutic irrigation

    • In medicine, therapeutic irrigation or lavage (/ləˈvɑːʒ/ lə-VAHZH or /ˈlæváµ»dʒ/ LAV-ij) is cleaning or rinsing. Specific types include: ... Read »


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    • Thickened fluids

    • Thickened fluids and thickened drinks are often used for people with dysphagia, a disorder of swallowing function. The thicker consistency makes it less likely that an individual will aspirate while they are drinking. Individuals with difficulty swallowing may find liquids cause coughing, spluttering or even choking an ... Read »


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    • Time delay toxin activation

    • Time Delay Toxin Activation (TDTA) belongs to a class of chemotherapy drugs known as High Specificity Anticancer Agents. This is a process for manufacturing and administering chemotherapy drugs in a nontoxic, proto-drug form. Then, after a time delay to allow for concentration in the target cancer or invasive tissues o ... Read »


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    • Tobacco smoke enema

    • The tobacco smoke enema, an insufflation of tobacco smoke into the rectum by enema, was a medical treatment employed by European physicians for a range of ailments. Tobacco was recognised as a medicine soon after it was first imported from the New World, and tobacco smoke was used by western medical practitioners as a ... Read »


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    • Tolerogenic therapy

    • Tolerogenic therapy aims to induce immune tolerance where there is pathological or undesirable activation of the normal immune response. This can occur, for example, when an allogeneic transplantation patient develops an immune reaction to donor antigens, or when the body responds inappropriately to self antigens impli ... Read »


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    • Tracheal intubation

    • Tracheal intubation

      Tracheal intubation, usually simply referred to as intubation, is the placement of a flexible plastic tube into the trachea (windpipe) to maintain an open airway or to serve as a conduit through which to administer certain drugs. It is frequently performed in critically injured, ill, or anesthetized patients to facilit ... Read »


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    • Traction splint

    • A traction splint most commonly refers to a splinting device that uses straps attaching over the pelvis or hip as an anchor, a metal rod(s) to mimic normal bone stability and limb length, and a mechanical device to apply traction (used in an attempt to reduce pain, realign the limb, and minimize vascular and neurologic ... Read »


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    • Transcranial direct-current stimulation

    • Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a form of neurostimulation that uses constant, low current delivered to the brain area of interest via electrodes on the scalp. It was originally developed to help patients with brain injuries or psychiatric conditions like major depressive disorder. tDCS appears to hav ... Read »


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    • Transdermal continuous oxygen therapy

    • Transdermal Continuous Oxygen Therapy (TCOT, also known as Transdermal Continuous Oxygen Wound Therapy) is a wound closure technique for chronic and acute wounds which blankets a wound in oxygen on a 24-hour basis until the wound heals. Unlike hyperbaric oxygen treatment for chronic wounds, oxygen treatment used in thi ... Read »


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    • Transdermal

    • Transdermal is a route of administration wherein active ingredients are delivered across the skin for systemic distribution. Examples include transdermal patches used for medicine delivery, and transdermal implants used for medical or aesthetic purposes. Although the skin is a large and logical target for drug del ... Read »


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    • Transillumination

    • Transillumination is the technique of sample illumination by transmission of light through the sample. Transillumination is used in a variety of methods of imaging. In microscopy transillumination refers to the illumination of a sample by transmitted light. In its most basic form it generates a bright field image, ... Read »


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    • Transmediastinal gunshot wound

    • A transmediastinal gunshot wound (TMGSW) is a penetrating injury to a person's thorax in which a bullet enters the mediastinum, possibly damaging some of the major structures in this area. Hemodynamic instability has been reported in approximately fifty percent of cases with a mortality rate ranging from twenty to fort ... Read »


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    • Transoral robotic surgery

    • TransOral Robotic Surgery (TORS) is a modern surgical technique used to treat tumors of the mouth and throat via direct access through the mouth. TransOral Robotic Sleep Apnea (TORSA) surgery utilizes the same approach to open the upper airway of patients with obstructive sleep apnea. In TORS and TORSA procedures, the ... Read »


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  • What Else?

    • Medical treatments

Extras