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  • Medical terminology

    Medical terminology

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    • Anatomical terminology

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    • Dermatologic terminology

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    • Diseases and disorders

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    • Fistulas

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    • French medical phrases

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    • Glossaries of medical terms

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    • Glossaries of medicine

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    • Latin medical phrases

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    • Lists of medical eponyms

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    • Medical slang

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    • Obsolete medical terms

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    • Psychiatric terminology

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    • Psychology terminology

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    • List of medical roots, suffixes and prefixes

    • This is a list of roots, suffixes, and prefixes used in medical terminology, their meanings, and their etymology. Most of them are combining forms in New Latin and hence international scientific vocabulary. There are a few general rules about how they combine. First, prefixes and suffixes, most of which are derived fro ... Read »


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    • Medical terminology

    • Medical terminology is language used to precisely describe the human body including its components, processes, conditions affecting it, and procedures performed upon in. It is to be used in the field of medicine. Notable aspects of medical terminology include the use of Latin terms and regular morphology, with the sam ... Read »


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    • Acholia

    • The acholia is the lack or absence of bile secretion.Acholia is an uncommon trouble of the biliary function in the liver; bile flow dissipates. Ancient Greek: a + chole (without bile). A condition in which little or no bile is secreted or the flow of bile into the digestive tract is obstructed. The acolia is a si ... Read »


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    • Active placebo

    • An active placebo is a placebo that produces noticeable side effects that may convince the person being treated that they are receiving a legitimate treatment, rather than an ineffective placebo. According to a 1965 paper, the term "concealed placebo" (German: Kaschiertes Placebo) was suggested in a 1959 paper publish ... Read »


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    • Acute (medicine)

    • In medicine, describing a disease as acute denotes that it is of short and, as a corollary of that, of recent . The quantitation of how much time constitutes "short" and "recent" varies by disease and by context, but the core denotation of "acute" is always qualitatively in contrast with "chronic", which denotes long- ... Read »


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    • Acute abdomen

    • An acute abdomen refers to a sudden, severe abdominal pain. It is in many cases a medical emergency, requiring urgent and specific diagnosis. Several causes need surgical treatment. The differential diagnoses of acute abdomen include but are not limited to: Acute abdomen is occasionally used synonymously with per ... Read »


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    • Acute pericarditis

    • Acute pericarditis

      Acute pericarditis is a type of pericarditis (inflammation of the sac surrounding the heart, the pericardium) usually lasting less than 6 weeks. It is by far the most common condition affecting the pericardium. Chest pain is one of the common symptoms of acute pericarditis. It is usually of sudden onset, occurring ... Read »


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    • Adherence management coaching

    • Adherence management coaching (AdM coaching) is an evidence-based applied behavioral approach for significantly improving patient adherence and reducing unplanned hospital readmissions. It is based on the research and work of Bob Wright, Aubrey Daniels and BF Skinner. AdM coaches identify patients at high risk for read ... Read »


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    • Adhesion (medicine)

    • Adhesion (medicine)

      Adhesions are fibrous bands that form between tissues and organs, often as a result of injury during surgery. They may be thought of as internal scar tissue that connects tissues not normally connected. While some adhesions do not cause problems, others can prevent muscle and other tissues and organs from moving f ... Read »


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    • Adiadochokinesia

    • Adiadochokinesia is a dyskinesia consisting of inability to perform the rapid alternating movements of diadochokinesia. Called also adiadochocinesia, adiadochokinesis, and adiadokokinesia. Compare with dysdiadochokinesia, which is an impairment of the ability to perform rapidly alternating movements. Taber's Cycloped ... Read »


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    • Admission note

    • An admission note is part of a medical record that documents the patient's status (including history and physical examination findings), reasons why the patient is being admitted for inpatient care to a hospital or other facility, and the initial instructions for that patient's care. Admission notes document the ... Read »


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    • Adrenergic storm

    • An adrenergic storm is a sudden and dramatic increase in serum levels of the catecholamines adrenalin and noradrenalin (also known as epinephrine and norepinephrine respectively), with a less significant increase in dopamine transmission. It is a life-threatening condition because of extreme tachycardia and hypertensio ... Read »


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    • Adventitiousness

    • Adventitious has various meanings in various disciplines and in general usage. Adventitious is from the Latin root advenire, meaning "to come to" and in English the meanings tend to have connections to "accidental/ casual occurrence", "arising from without; supervenient, accidental, casual". People sometimes speak of ... Read »


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    • Adverse effect

    • In medicine, an adverse effect is an undesired harmful effect resulting from a medication or other intervention such as surgery. An adverse effect may be termed a "side effect", when judged to be secondary to a main or therapeutic effect. If it results from an unsuitable or incorrect dosage or procedure, this is calle ... Read »


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    • Afferent

    • Afferent (from Latin, ad meaning "to" and ferre meaning "to carry") is an anatomical term meanings "conveying towards a center". It may refer to: ... Read »


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    • Age of onset

    • The age of onset is a medical term referring to the age at which an individual acquires, develops, or first experiences a condition or symptoms of a disease or disorder. For instance, the general age of onset for the spinal disease scoliosis is "10-15 years old," meaning that most people develop scoliosis when they are ... Read »


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    • Agenesis

    • In medicine, agenesis (/eɪˈdʒɛnəsəs/) refers to the failure of an organ to develop during embryonic growth and development due to the absence of primordial tissue. Many forms of agenesis are referred to by individual names, depending on the organ affected: Eye agenesis is a medical condition in which ... Read »


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    • Agnosia

    • Agnosia

      Agnosia is the inability to process sensory information. Often there is a loss of ability to recognize objects, persons, sounds, shapes, or smells while the specific sense is not defective nor is there any significant memory loss. It is usually associated with brain injury or neurological illness, particularly after da ... Read »


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    • Agonist

    • An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response. Whereas an agonist causes an action, an antagonist blocks the action of the agonist and an inverse agonist causes an action opposite to that of the agonist. Receptors can be activated by either endogenous ... Read »


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    • Allow natural death

    • Allow Natural Death (AND) is a medical term defining the use of life-extending measures such as cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). These orders emphasize patient comfort and pain management instead of life extension. Currently, American medical communities utilize “do not resuscitate,” (DNR) orders to defin ... Read »


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    • Anatomical terms of location

    • Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, including humans. All vertebrates (including humans) have the same basic body plan – they are strictly bilaterally symmetrical in early embryonic stages and largely bilaterally symmetrical in adulthood. That is, they have mi ... Read »


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    • Anginal equivalent

    • An anginal equivalent is a symptom such as shortness of breath (dyspnea), diaphoresis, extreme fatigue, or pain at a site other than the chest, occurring in a patient at high cardiac risk. Anginal equivalents are considered to be symptoms of myocardial ischemia. Anginal equivalents are considered to have the same impor ... Read »


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    • Anisomastia

    • Anisomastia is a medical condition in which there is a severe asymmetry or unequalness in the size of the breasts, generally related to a difference in volume. In other words, when one of the breasts is much larger than the other. In contrast to anisomastia, a slightly asymmetry of the breasts is common. Anisomastia ma ... Read »


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    • Anterior ramus of spinal nerve

    • Anterior ramus of spinal nerve

      The ventral ramus (pl. rami) (Latin for branch) (ventral ramus), is the anterior division of a spinal nerve. The ventral rami supply the antero-lateral parts of the trunk and the limbs. They are mainly larger than the dorsal rami. Shortly after a spinal nerve exits the intervertebral foramen, it branches into the dors ... Read »


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    • Aplasia

    • Aplasia (from Greek a (not, no); plasis (molding)) is defined in general as "defective development or congenital absence of an organ or tissue." In the field of hematology, the term refers to "incomplete, retarded, or defective development, or cessation of the usual regenerative process." ... Read »


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    • Arrested development

    • The term arrested development has had multiple meanings for over 200 years. In the field of medicine, the term "arrested development" was used, in 1835–1836, to mean a stoppage of physical development; the term continues to be used in the same way. Ernest Hemingway uses the term in The Sun Also Rises. On page 51, ... Read »


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    • Assessment and plan

    • The assessment and plan (abbreviated A/P" or A&P) is a component of an admission note. ... Read »


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    • Asymptomatic

    • In medicine, a disease is considered asymptomatic if a patient is a carrier for a disease or infection but experiences no symptoms. A condition might be asymptomatic if it fails to show the noticeable symptoms with which it is usually associated. Asymptomatic infections are also called subclinical infections. Other dis ... Read »


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    • Asynergy

    • Asynergy is defective or absent co-ordination between organs, muscles, limbs or joints, resulting in a loss in movement or speed. Asynergy is most likely to occur during complex movements, where several individual muscle contractions are needed to act in unison. Asynergy may be caused by cerebellar disorders. In severe ... Read »


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    • Atony

    • In medicine, atony (/ˈæˌtoʊ.ni/; also atonia) is a condition in which a muscle has lost its strength. It is frequently associated with the conditions atonic seizure, atonic colon, uterine atony, gastrointestinal atony (occurs postoperatively) and choreatic atonia. Atony can also refer to the paralyzed or e ... Read »


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    • Atresia

    • Atresia is a condition in which an orifice or passage in the body is (usually abnormally) closed or absent. Examples of atresia include: ... Read »


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    • Atypia

    • Atypia (from Greek, a + typos, without type; a condition of being irregular or nonstandard) is a pathologic term for a structural abnormality in a cell, i.e. it is used to describe atypical cells. It may or may not be a precancerous indication associated with later malignancy, but the level of appropriate concern is h ... Read »


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    • Auditory agnosia

    • Auditory agnosia is a form of agnosia that manifests itself primarily in the inability to recognize or differentiate between sounds. It is not a defect of the ear or "hearing", but a neurological inability of the brain to process sound meaning. It is a disruption of the "what" pathway in the brain. Persons with auditor ... Read »


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    • Aura (symptom)

    • Aura (symptom)

      An aura is a perceptual disturbance experienced by some with migraines or seizures before either the headache or seizure begins. It often manifests as the perception of a strange light, an unpleasant smell, or confusing thoughts or experiences. Some people experience aura without a subsequent migraine or seizure (see s ... Read »


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    • Autoagglutination

    • Autoagglutination represents clumping of an individual's red blood cells (RBCs or erythrocytes) by his or her own serum due to the RBCs being coated on their surface by antibodies. Autoagglutination is seen to occur in a type of immune mediated hemolytic anemia known as “cold antibody hemolytic anemia”. Here ... Read »


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    • Autoamputation

    • Autoamputation is the spontaneous detachment (amputation) of an appendage from the body. This is not to be confused with self-amputation. It is usually due to destruction of the blood vessels feeding an extremity such as the finger tips. Once the vessels are destroyed, the tissue is starved of oxygen and dies, which is ... Read »


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    • Autonomic dysreflexia

    • Autonomic dysreflexia (AD), also known as autonomic hyperreflexia, is a potentially life-threatening condition which can be considered a medical emergency requiring immediate attention. AD occurs most often in individuals with spinal cord injuries with spinal lesions above the T6 spinal cord level, although it has been ... Read »


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    • Axial line (dermatomes)

    • An axial line is the line between two adjacent dermatomes that are not represented by immediately adjacent spinal levels. Although dermatomes are shown to be discrete segments on dermatomal maps (like in the image opposite), they are in fact not; adjacent dermatomes overlap with one another. This is one of the reasons ... Read »


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    • Axon terminal

    • Structure of a typical neuron

      Axon terminals (also called synaptic boutons) are distal terminations of the branches of an axon. An axon nerve fiber is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that conducts electrical impulses (called "action potentials") away from the neuron's cell body, or soma, in order to transmit those impulses to ... Read »


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    • Azygos

    • Azygos (impar), from the Greek άζυξ, refers to a anatomical structure that is unpaired. This is relatively unusual, as most elements of anatomy reflect bilateral symmetry. Azygos may refer to: ... Read »


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    • B type inclusion

    • B-type inclusions, formerly known as Guarnieri bodies /É¡wɑːrˈnjɛri/ are cellular features found upon microscopic inspection of epithelial cells of individuals suspected of having poxvirus (e.g. smallpox or vaccinia). In cells stained with eosin, they appear as pink blobs in the cytoplasm of affected epit ... Read »


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    • Ballard Maturational Assessment

    • The Ballard Maturational Assessment, Ballard Score, or Ballard Scale is a commonly used technique of gestational age assessment. It assigns a score to various criteria, the sum of all of which is then extrapolated to the gestational age of the fetus. These criteria are divided into Physical and Neurological criteria. T ... Read »


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    • Barbotage

    • Barbotage is a medical procedure that involves the repeated injection and aspiration of a fluid. Examples of barbotage include a technique of injecting spinal anesthesia, obtaining cytology (such as from the bladder or urethra), and removing calcification from joints. ... Read »


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    • Baseline (medicine)

    • A baseline in medicine is information found at the beginning of a study or other initial known value which is used for comparison with later data. The concept of a baseline is essential to the daily practice of medicine in order to establish a relative rather than absolute meaning to data. The meaning of baseline in me ... Read »


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    • Benign tumor

    • Benign tumor

      A benign tumor is a mass of cells (tumor) that lacks the ability to invade neighboring tissue or metastasize. These characteristics are required for a tumor to be defined as cancerous and therefore benign tumors are non-cancerous. Also, benign tumors generally have a slower growth rate than malignant tumors and the tum ... Read »


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    • Benignity

    • Benignity (from Latin benignus "kind, good", itself deriving from bonus "good" and genus "origin") is any condition that is harmless in the long run. The opposite of benignity is malignity (or malignancy in Medical discourse). ... Read »


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    • Bethesda system

    • The Bethesda system (TBS) is a system for reporting cervical or vaginal cytologic diagnoses, used for reporting Pap smear results. It was introduced in 1988, and revised in 1991 and 2001. The name comes from the location (Bethesda, Maryland) of the conference that established the system. Additionally, the Bethesda Sy ... Read »


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    • Bethesda system for reporting thyroid cytopathology

    • The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology is a public reporting system of thyroid cytology. ... Read »


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    • Biliary microlithiasis

    • Biliary microlithiasis refers to the creation of small gallstones less than 3mm in diameter in the biliary duct or gallbladder. It has been suggested as a cause of postcholecystectomy syndrome, or PCS, the symptoms of which include: ... Read »


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    • Biliary pseudolithiasis

    • Biliary pseudolithiasis refers to an unusual complication of ceftriaxone where the drug complexes with calcium and mimics gallstones. It is reversed when ceftriaxone administration is stopped. It was first described in 1988 by Schaad et al. as "reversible ceftriaxone-associated biliary pseudolithiasis". ... Read »


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    • Biliary sludge

    • Biliary sludge

      Biliary sludge refers to a viscous mixture of small particles derived from bile. These sediments consist of cholesterol crystals, calcium salts, calcium bilirubinate, mucin, and other materials. The pathophysiology of biliary sludge formation is likely related to gallbladder dysmotility. It is presumed that becaus ... Read »


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    • Biotrauma

    • Although the term has occasionally been used in other ways, in medical literature biotrauma is usually defined as a severe inflammatory response produced in the lungs of patients who breathe by means of a mechanical ventilator for a long period of time. The term was coined in a 1998 paper by L. N. Tremblay and A. S. Sl ... Read »


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    • Bleb (medicine)

    • In medicine, a bleb is a blister (often hemispherical) filled with serous fluid. Blebs can form in a number of tissues due to different pathologies, including frostbitten tissues, and as a cause of spontaneous pneumothorax. In ophthalmology, blebs may be formed intentionally in the treatment of glaucoma. In such treat ... Read »


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    • Body fluid

    • Body fluid, bodily fluids or biofluids are liquids originating from inside the bodies of living people. They include fluids that are excreted or secreted from the body, and body water that normally is not. The dominating content of body fluids is body water. Approximately 60-65% of body water is contained within the c ... Read »


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    • Body image (medicine)

    • Body image is a medical term, often used in the context of describing a patient's cognitive perception of their own body. The medical concept began with the work of the Austrian neuropsychiatrist and psychoanalyst Paul Schilder whose masterpiece The Image and Appearance of the Human Body was first published in 1935. ... Read »


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    • Bogart–Bacall syndrome


    • Breast atrophy

    • Breast atrophy

      Breast atrophy is the normal or spontaneous atrophy or shrinkage of the breasts. Breast atrophy commonly occurs in women during menopause when estrogen levels decrease. It can also be caused by hypoestrogenism and/or hyperandrogenism in women in general, such as in antiestrogen treatment for breast cancer, in polycyst ... Read »


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    • Calcinosis

    • Calcinosis is the formation of calcium deposits in any soft tissue. The most common type of calcinosis is dystrophic calcification. This type of calcification can occur as a response to any soft tissue damage, including that involved in implantation of medical devices. Metastatic calcification involves a systemic ... Read »


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    • Calculus (medicine)

    • A calculus (plural calculi), often called a stone, is a concretion of material, usually mineral salts, that forms in an organ or duct of the body. Formation of calculi is known as lithiasis (/ˌlɪˈθaɪəsáµ»s/). Stones can cause a number of medical conditions. Some common principles (below) apply to ... Read »


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    • Cardiac shunt

    • A cardiac shunt is a pattern of blood flow in the heart that deviates from the normal circuit of the circulatory system. It may be described as right-left, left-right or bidirectional, or as systemic-to-pulmonary or pulmonary-to-systemic. The direction may be controlled by left and/or right heart pressure, a biological ... Read »


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    • Carnosity

    • A carnosity is a medical condition defined by any abnormal fleshy excrescence or tuberosity. Carnosity comes from the word carnose which means a buildup of flesh. The Carnosity disease started back in 1884 in Middle-Europe, it has led to more than 50,000 deaths worldwide ... Read »


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    • Carnoy's solution


    • Carpopedal spasm

    • A carpopedal spasm is a severely painful cramp of the muscles in the hands and feet. It may be caused by low blood calcium levels or by an infection called tetanus. ... Read »


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    • Case presentation

    • A case presentation is a formal communication between health care professionals (doctors, pharmacists, nurses, therapists, nutritionist etc.) regarding a patient's clinical information. Essential parts of a case presentation include: ... Read »


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    • Case report

    • In medicine, a case report is a detailed report of the symptoms, signs, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of an individual patient. Case reports may contain a demographic profile of the patient, but usually describe an unusual or novel occurrence. Some case reports also contain a literature review of other reported c ... Read »


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    • Catamnesis

    • Catamnesis is the follow-up history of a patient after they are discharged from treatment or a hospital. The history of a patient after the onset of a medical or psychiatric illness. The medical history of a patient following an illness; the follow-up history. The medical history of a patient from the onset of an illne ... Read »


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    • Cataphylaxis

    • Cataphylaxis is the deterioration of the natural defense system of the body due to an infection. ... Read »


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    • Cause of death

    • In law, medicine, and statistics, cause of death is a term which refers to an official determination of conditions resulting in a human's death. In modern times, such determinations usually become an essential data point of an official death certificate. In contemporary times and in most parts of the world, a caus ... Read »


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    • Death by natural causes

    • A death by natural causes, as recorded by coroners and on death certificates and associated documents, is one that is primarily attributed to an illness or an internal malfunction of the body not directly influenced by external forces. For example, a person dying from complications from influenza (an infection) or a he ... Read »


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    • Central venous pressure

    • Central venous pressure (CVP) is the blood pressure in the venae cavae, near the right atrium of the heart. CVP reflects the amount of blood returning to the heart and the ability of the heart to pump the blood back into the arterial system. CVP is often a good approximation of right atrial pressure (RAP), although the ... Read »


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    • Cerebral perfusion pressure

    • Cerebral perfusion pressure, or CPP, is the net pressure gradient causing cerebral blood flow to the brain (brain perfusion). It must be maintained within narrow limits because too little pressure could cause brain tissue to become ischemic (having inadequate blood flow), and too much could raise intracranial pressure ... Read »


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    • Cervical conization

    • Cervical conization (CPT codes 57520 (Cold Knife) and 57522 (Loop Excision)) refers to an excision of a cone-shaped sample of tissue from the mucous membrane of the cervix. Conization may be used either for diagnostic purposes as part of a biopsy, or for therapeutic purposes to remove pre-cancerous cells. Types includ ... Read »


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    • Cervical dislocation

    • Cervical dislocation is a common method of animal euthanasia, refers to a used in physical euthanasia of small animals by applying pressure to the neck and dislocating the spinal column from the skull or brain. The aim is to quickly separate the spinal cord from the brain so as to provide the animal with a fast and p ... Read »


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    • Chain of survival

    • The chain of survival refers to a series of actions that, properly executed, reduce the mortality associated with cardiac arrest. Like any chain, the chain of survival is only as strong as its weakest link. The four interdependent links in the chain of survival are early access, early CPR, early defibrillation, and ear ... Read »


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    • Cheesewiring

    • In medicine the term cheesewiring describes any process in which cells or intercellular matrix are dissected either by the material being pressed through a taut element (as seen in red blood cells in microangiopathic hemolysis), or by the tension of a taut element pulling through (as seen in the stitches of a corneal t ... Read »


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    • Chemoprophylaxis

    • Chemoprevention (also Chemoprophylaxis) refers to the administration of a medication for the purpose of preventing disease or infection.Antibiotics, for example, may be administered to patients with disorders of immune system function to prevent bacterial infections (particularly opportunistic infection). Antibiotics m ... Read »


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    • Chromatophobe

    • Chromatophobe is a general term used in Endocrinology to describe the cell stain type of the anterior pituitary hormone: the corticotroph cells which produce adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). It is described as such, as opposed to acidophil or basophil, due to its inability to hold a stain when compared to other ante ... Read »


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    • Chronic condition

    • A chronic condition is a human health condition or disease that is persistent or otherwise long-lasting in its effects or a disease that comes with time. The term chronic is often applied when the course of the disease lasts for more than three months. Common chronic diseases include arthritis, asthma, cancer, COPD, di ... Read »


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    • Chronic care

    • Chronic care refers to medical care which addresses pre-existing or long term illness, as opposed to acute care which is concerned with short term or severe illness of brief duration. Chronic medical conditions include asthma, diabetes, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, congestive heart disease, cirrhosis of the liver, hy ... Read »


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    • Clinical formulation

    • A clinical formulation, also known as case formulation, is a theoretically-based explanation or conceptualisation of the information obtained from a clinical assessment. It offers a hypothesis about the cause and nature of the presenting problems and is considered an adjunct or alternative approach to the more categori ... Read »


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    • Clinical pathway

    • Clinical pathways, also known as care pathways, critical pathways, integrated care pathways, or care maps, are one of the main tools used to manage the quality in healthcare concerning the standardization of care processes. It has been shown that their implementation reduces the variability in clinical practice and imp ... Read »


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    • Clinical research center

    • The term "Clinical research center" (CRC) or "General clinical research center" (GCRC) refers to any designated medical facility used to conduct clinical research, such as at a hospital or medical clinic. They have been used to perform clinical trials of various medical procedures. The medical profession has had specif ... Read »


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    • Clinical supervision

    • Supervision is used in counselling, psychotherapy, and other mental health disciplines as well as many other professions engaged in working with people. Supervision may be applied as well to practitioners in somatic disciplines for their preparatory work for patients as well as collateral with patients. Supervision is ... Read »


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    • Clinomorphism

    • Clinomorphism (from the Greek words klinikos meaning "bed" (see Clinic) and morphos meaning "form") is the deliberate or unintentional simplification, alteration, or amplification of the term for a medical condition (usually for dramatic effect). A caricature to which sufferers of (or care providers for those with) the ... Read »


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    • Cluttering

    • Cluttering (also called tachyphemia or tachyphrasia) is a speech and communication disorder characterized by a rapid rate of speech, erratic rhythm, and poor syntax or grammar, making speech difficult to understand. Cluttering is a speech and communication disorder that has also been described as a fluency disorde ... Read »


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    • Combination therapy

    • Combination therapy or polytherapy is therapy that uses more than one medication or modality (versus monotherapy, which is any therapy taken alone). Typically, these terms refer to using multiple therapies to treat a single disease, and often all the therapies are pharmaceutical (although it can also involve non-medica ... Read »


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    • Compliance (medicine)

    • In medicine, compliance (also adherence, capacitance) describes the degree to which a patient correctly follows medical advice. Most commonly, it refers to medication or drug compliance, but it can also apply to other situations such as medical device use, self care, self-directed exercises, or therapy sessions. Both t ... Read »


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    • Complication (medicine)

    • Complication, in medicine, is an unfavorable evolution or consequence of a disease, a health condition or a therapy. The disease can become worse in its severity or show a higher number of signs, symptoms or new pathological changes, become widespread throughout the body or affect other organ systems. A new disease may ... Read »


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    • Computerized physician order entry

    • Computerized Physician Order Entry (CPOE), sometimes referred to as Computerized Provider Order Entry or Computerized Provider Order Management (CPOM), is a process of electronic entry of medical practitioner instructions for the treatment of patients (particularly hospitalized patients) under his or her care. The ent ... Read »


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    • Connectomics

    • Connectomics is the production and study of connectomes: comprehensive maps of connections within an organism's nervous system, typically its brain or eye. Because these structures are extremely complex, methods within this field use a high-throughput application of neural imaging and histological techniques in order t ... Read »


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    • Contraindication

    • In medicine, a contraindication is a condition or factor that serves as a reason to withhold a certain medical treatment due to the harm that it would cause the patient. Contraindication is the opposite of indication, which is a reason to use a certain treatment. Some contraindications are absolute, meaning that there ... Read »


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    • Convulsion

    • A convulsion is a medical condition where body muscles contract and relax rapidly and repeatedly, resulting in an uncontrolled shaking of the body. Because a convulsion is often a symptom of an epileptic seizure, the term convulsion is sometimes used as a synonym for seizure. However, not all epileptic seizures lead to ... Read »


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    • Corpulence index

    • The Corpulence Index (CI) or Ponderal Index (PI) is a measure of leanness (corpulence) of a person calculated as a relationship between mass and height. It was first proposed in 1921 as the "Corpulence measure" by Swiss physician Fritz Rohrer and hence is also known as Rohrer's Index. It is similar to the body mass ind ... Read »


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    • Cosmesis

    • Cosmesis is the preservation, restoration, or bestowing of bodily beauty. In the medical context, it usually refers to the surgical correction of a disfiguring defect, or the cosmetic improvements made by a surgeon following incisions. Its use is generally limited to the additional, usually minor, steps that the surgeo ... Read »


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    • Counterstimulation

    • Counterstimulation is a treatment for pain based on distraction. A basic example is the practice of rubbing a fresh bruise, so that attention is paid to the sense of touch and pressure, rather than to the pain of the injury. Liniment and "medicated" products containing menthol work in the same way, producing sensation ... Read »


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    • Course (medicine)

    • In medicine the term course generally takes one of two meanings, both reflecting the sense of "": A patient may be said to be at the beginning, the middle or the end, or at a particular stage of the course of a disease or a treatment. A precursor is a sign or event that precedes the course or a particular stage in the ... Read »


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    • Cryptogenic disease

    • A cryptogenic disease is a disease of which the cause is unknown. It may be used in a particular case, when the nature of the patient's condition is known but the cause has not been found (e.g. cryptogenic stroke). The word cryptogenic also appears in the names of some disease entities, when the situation is sufficient ... Read »


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    • Culture conversion

    • Culture conversion is a diagnostic criteria indicating the point at which samples taken from a patient infected with a tuberculosis can no longer produce tuberculosis cell cultures. Culture conversion is a positive prognostic marker indicating that a patient is cured of, or is recovering from, tuberculosis. ... Read »


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    • Cure

    • A cure is the end of a medical condition; the substance or procedure that ends the medical condition, such as a medication, a surgical operation, a change in lifestyle, or even a philosophical mindset that helps end a person's sufferings; or the state of being healed, or cured. A remission is a temporary end to the me ... Read »


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    • Dead on arrival

    • Dead on arrival (DOA), also dead in the field and brought in dead (BID), is a term used to indicate that a patient was found to be already clinically dead upon the arrival of professional medical assistance, often in the form of first responders such as emergency medical technicians, paramedics, or police. In some jur ... Read »


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    • Dead space (physiology)

    • In physiology, dead space is the volume of air which is inhaled that does not take part in the gas exchange, either because it (1) remains in the conducting airways, or (2) reaches alveoli that are not perfused or poorly perfused. In other words, not all the air in each breath is available for the exchange of oxygen an ... Read »


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    • Death by misadventure

    • A death by misadventure, as recorded by coroners and on death certificates and associated documents, is one that is primarily attributed to an accident that occurred due to a dangerous risk that was taken voluntarily. In contrast, when a cause of death is listed as an accident rather than a misadventure, this implies n ... Read »


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    • Debility (medical)

    • In medicine, debility is being weak or feeble. ... Read »


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    • Decompensation

    • In medicine, decompensation is the functional deterioration of a previously working structure or system. Decompensation may occur due to fatigue, stress, illness, or old age. When a system is "compensated", it is able to function despite stressors or defects. Decompensation describes an inability to compensate for thes ... Read »


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    • Deficiency (medicine)

    • In medicine, a deficiency is a lack or shortage of a functional entity, by less than normal or necessary supply or function. Malnutrition can cause various effects by deficiency of one or more nutrients. For example, vitamin A deficiency causes symptoms such as xerophthalmia (dry eyes) and night blindness. Deficienci ... Read »


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    • Degeneration (medical)

    • Degeneration is deterioration in the medical sense. Generally, it is the change from a higher to a lower form. More specifically, it is the change of tissue to a lower or less functionally active form. Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary (Twenty-sixth Edition) () ... Read »


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    • Deinstitutionalisation

    • Deinstitutionalisation (or deinstitutionalization) is the process of replacing long-stay psychiatric hospitals with less isolated community mental health services for those diagnosed with a mental disorder or developmental disability. Deinstitutionalisation works in two ways: the first focuses on reducing the populatio ... Read »


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    • Dentomandibular Sensorimotor Dysfunction

    • Dentomandibular Sensorimotor Dysfunction is a medical condition involving the mandible (lower jaw), upper three cervical (neck) vertebrae, and the surrounding muscle and nerve areas. There is a concentrated nerve center in this area called the trigeminal nucleus. This major pathway of nerves controls pain signals from ... Read »


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    • Depression (physiology)

    • Depression in physiology and medicine refers to a lowering, in particular a reduction in a particular biological variable or the function of an organ. It is in contrast to elevation. For example, it is possible to refer to "depressed thyroid function" or to a depression of blood flow in a particular area. Further exa ... Read »


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    • Diadochokinesia

    • Diadochokinesia or diadochokinesis is the ability to make antagonistic movements in quick succession, alternately bringing a limb into opposite positions, as of flexion and extension or of pronation and supination.Speech-language pathology defines it as the speed necessary to stop a determined motor impulse and substit ... Read »


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    • Diagnosis

    • Diagnosis is the identification of the nature and cause of a certain phenomenon. Diagnosis is used in many different disciplines with variations in the use of logic, analytics, and experience to determine "cause and effect". In systems engineering and computer science, it is typically used to determine the causes of sy ... Read »


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    • Diagnosis of exclusion

    • A diagnosis of exclusion (per exclusionem) is a diagnosis of a medical condition reached by a process of elimination, which may be necessary if presence cannot be established with complete confidence from history, examination or testing. Such elimination of other reasonable possibilities is a major component in perform ... Read »


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    • Diagnosis-related group

    • Diagnosis-related group (DRG) is a system to classify hospital cases into one of originally 467 groups, with the last group (coded as 470 through v24, 999 thereafter) being "Ungroupable". This system of classification was developed as a collaborative project by Robert B Fetter, PhD, of the Yale School of Management, an ... Read »


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    • Diastasis (physiology)

    • In physiology, diastasis is the middle stage of diastole during the cycle of a heartbeat, where the initial passive filling of the heart's ventricles has slowed down, but before the atria contract to complete the active filling. ... Read »


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    • Diathesis (medicine)

    • In medicine and allied fields, diathesis (from Greek διάθεσις) is a hereditary or constitutional predisposition to a disease or other disorder. Atopic diathesis is a predisposition to develop one or more of hay fever, allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma, or atopic dermatitis. ... Read »


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    • Differential diagnosis

    • In medicine, a differential diagnosis is the distinguishing of a particular disease or condition from others that present similar clinical features. Differential diagnostic procedures are used by physicians and other trained medical professionals to diagnose the specific disease in a patient, or, at least, to eliminate ... Read »


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    • Disease

    • A disease is a particular abnormal condition, a disorder of a structure or function, that affects part or all of an organism. The study of disease is called pathology which includes the causal study of etiology. Disease is often construed as a medical condition associated with specific symptoms and signs. It may be cau ... Read »


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    • Disease registry

    • Disease or patient registries are collections of secondary data related to patients with a specific diagnosis, condition, or procedure, and they play an important role in post marketing surveillance of pharmaceuticals. Registries are different from indexes in that they contain more extensive data. In its simplest form ... Read »


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    • Disease theory of alcoholism

    • The modern disease theory of alcoholism states that problem drinking is sometimes caused by a disease of the brain, characterized by altered brain structure and function. The American Medical Association (AMA) declared that alcoholism was an illness in 1956. In 1991, the AMA further endorsed the dual classification of ... Read »


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    • Disseminated disease

    • Disseminated disease refers to a diffuse disease-process, generally either infectious or neoplastic. The term may sometimes also characterize connective tissue disease. A disseminated infection, for example, has extended beyond its origin or nidus and involved the bloodstream to "seed" other areas of the body. Similar ... Read »


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    • Distress (medicine)

    • In medicine, distress is an aversive state in which a person is unable to completely adapt to stressors and their resulting stress and shows maladaptive behaviors. It can be evident in the presence of various phenomena, such as inappropriate social interaction (e.g., aggression, passivity, or withdrawal). Distress is ... Read »


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    • Divaricate

    • Divaricate means branching, or separation, or a degree of separation. The angle between branches is wide. In botany, the term is often used to describe the branching pattern of plants. Divaricate branching is roughly horizontal, usually only diverging about 15 degrees upward or downward. ... Read »


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    • Diverticulum

    • Diverticulum

      A diverticulum (plural: diverticula) is the medical or biological term for an outpouching of a hollow (or a fluid-filled) structure in the body. Depending upon which layers of the structure are involved, they are described as being either true or false. In medicine, the term usually implies the structure is not normal ... Read »


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    • Dose area product

    • Dose area product (DAP) is a quantity used in assessing the radiation risk from diagnostic X-ray examinations and interventional procedures. It is defined as the absorbed dose multiplied by the area irradiated, expressed in gray-centimetres squared (Gy·cm2 – sometimes the prefixed units mGy·cm2 or cGy·cm2 ... Read »


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    • Drop attack

    • A drop attack is a sudden fall without loss of consciousness. Drop attacks stem from diverse mechanisms, including orthopedic causes (for example, leg weakness and knee instability), hemodynamic causes (for example, transient vertebrobasilar insufficiency, a type of interruption of blood flow to the brain), and neurolo ... Read »


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    • Dyscopia

    • Dyscopia consists of the Latin root copia, which means abundance or plenty (see cornucopia), and the Greek prefix dys, which means "bad", "abnormal", "difficult" or "impaired". This word has assumed two meanings, both of which are essentially a pun based on the similarity of the sound of the words "copy" and "cope" wi ... Read »


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    • Dyscrasia

    • Dyscrasia (or dyskrasia) is a concept from ancient Greek medicine, meaning bad mixture. The concept of dyscrasia was developed by the Greek physician Galen (129–216 AD), who elaborated a model of health and disease as a structure of elements, qualities, humors, organs, and temperaments. Health was understood in t ... Read »


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    • Dysdiadochokinesia

    • Dysdiadochokinesia, dysdiadochokinesis, dysdiadokokinesia, dysdiadokokinesis (from Greek δυς dys "bad", διάδοχος diadochos "succeeding", κίνησις kinesis "movement"), often abbreviated as DDK, is the medical term for an impaired ability to perform rapid, alternating ... Read »


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    • Dystrophy

    • Dystrophy is the degeneration of tissue, due to disease or malnutrition, most likely due to heredity. ... Read »


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    • E-patient

    • An e-patient is a health consumer who participates fully in his/her medical care. E-patients see themselves as equal partners with their doctors in the healthcare process. E-patients gather information about medical conditions that impact them and their families, using the Internet and other digital tools. The term enc ... Read »


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    • Ebullism

    • Ebullism is the formation of gas bubbles in bodily fluids due to reduced environmental pressure, for example at high altitude. It occurs because a system of liquid and gas at equilibrium will see a net conversion of liquid to gas as pressure lowers, for example, liquids reach their boiling point at lower temperatures w ... Read »


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    • Economic credentialing

    • Economic credentialing is a term of disapproval used by the American Medical Association (AMA). The association defines the term as "the use of economic criteria unrelated to quality of care or professional competence in determining a physician's qualifications for initial or continuing hospital medical staff membershi ... Read »


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    • Efferent

    • Efferent is an anatomical term with the following meanings: See also: ... Read »


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    • Efficacy

    • Efficacy is the ability to get a job done satisfactorily. The word comes from the same roots as, and for practical purposes is synonymous with, "effectiveness". It is used in pharmacology and medicine to refer to both the maximum response achievable from a pharmaceutical drug in research settings, and to the capacity f ... Read »


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    • Egersis

    • Egersis, in medical terminology, is an extreme state of alert wakefulness, often used in the context of insomnia. This Greek word is usually translated as a rousing up, a rising, and/or an excitation. In Judeo-Christian theology it's a stand in for "Resurrection". The word "egersis" appears once in the Christian New T ... Read »


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    • Elective surgery

    • Elective surgery or elective procedure (from the Latin eligere, meaning to choose) is surgery that is scheduled in advance because it does not involve a medical emergency. Semi-elective surgery is a surgery that must be done to preserve the patient's life, but does not need to be performed immediately. By contrast, an ... Read »


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    • Electronic prescribing

    • Electronic prescribing or e-prescribing (e-Rx) is the computer-based electronic generation, transmission and filling of a medical prescription, taking the place of paper and faxed prescriptions. E-prescribing allows a physician, pharmacist, nurse practitioner, or physician assistant to electronically transmit a new pre ... Read »


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    • Electronic visit verification

    • Electronic visit verification (often referred to as "EVV") was patented and invented by a nurse who also is a technologist, entrepreneur and Home Health Care Consultant and Domain Expert. In 1996 Michelle Boasten, RN designed and created the first clinical documentation information system for Home Health, Home Care and ... Read »


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    • Hospital emergency codes

    • Hospital emergency codes are coded messages often announced over a public address system of a hospital to alert staff to various classes of on-site emergencies. The use of codes is intended to convey essential information quickly and with minimal misunderstanding to staff while preventing stress and panic among visitor ... Read »


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    • Empyema

    • An empyema (from Greek ἐμπύημα, "abscess") is a collection or gathering of pus within a naturally existing anatomical cavity. For example, pleural empyema is empyema of the pleural cavity. It must be differentiated from an abscess, which is a collection of pus in a newly formed cavity. In human ... Read »


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    • End organ damage

    • End organ damage usually refers to damage occurring in major organs fed by the circulatory system (heart, kidneys, brain, eyes) which can sustain damage due to uncontrolled hypertension, hypotension, or hypovolemia. In the context of hypertension features looked for, at least in the initial work-up, include: ... Read »


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    • Endaural phenomena

    • Endaural phenomena are sounds that are heard without any external acoustic stimulation. Endaural means "in the ear". Phenomena include transient ringing in the ears (that sound like sine tones), white noise-like sounds, and subjective tinnitus. Endaural phenomena need to be distinguished from otoacoustic emissions, in ... Read »


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    • Endotype

    • An endotype is a subtype of a condition, which is defined by a distinct functional or pathobiological mechanism. This is distinct from a phenotype, which is any observable characteristic or trait of a disease, such as morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, or behavior, without any implication ... Read »


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    • Engel classification

    • To classify postoperative outcomes for epilepsy surgery, Jerome Engel proposed the following scheme, the Engel Epilepsy Surgery Outcome Scale, which has become the de facto standard when reporting results in the medical literature: Surgery for epilepsy patients has been used for over a century, but due to technolo ... Read »


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    • Entero

    • In biology and medicine, the prefix entero- refers to the intestine (from Greek ἔντερον, enteron). However it can also be used for cells not found in the intestine like Gastric enteroendocrine cells and Pancreatic enteroendocrine cells and Enterochromaffin cells. ... Read »


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    • Epiphenomenon

    • An epiphenomenon (plural: epiphenomena) is a secondary phenomenon that occurs alongside or in parallel to a primary phenomenon. The word has two senses, one that connotes known causation and one that connotes absence of causation or reservation of judgment about it. In the more general use of the word, a causal re ... Read »


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    • Medical eponyms

    • Medical eponyms are terms used in medicine which are named after people (and occasionally places or things). In 1975, the Canadian National Institutes of Health held a conference that discussed the naming of diseases and conditions. This was reported in The Lancet where the conclusion was summarized as: "The possessive ... Read »


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    • Equianalgesic

    • An equianalgesic (or opioid) chart is a conversion chart that lists equivalent doses of analgesics (drugs used to relieve pain). Equianalgesic charts are used for calculation of an equivalent dose (a dose which would offer an equal amount of analgesia) between different analgesics. Equianalgesic tables are availab ... Read »


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    • European Practice Assessment

    • The European Practice Assessment is a pan-European development for quality management in primary health care. The scaffolding is a set of indicators, that EPA instrument enables general practitioners to compare and to improve the organisation and management of their practices. It is based on an extended review of the i ... Read »


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    • Exacerbation

    • An exacerbation, in medicine, is the worsening of a disease or an increase in its symptoms. Examples includes an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and acute exacerbation of congestive heart failure. ... Read »


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    • Excavation (medicine)

    • In medicine, excavation has two meanings: Examples of the latter include: ... Read »


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    • Extracorporeal

    • An extracorporeal medical procedure is a medical procedure which is performed outside the body. A procedure in which blood is taken from a patient's circulation to have a process applied to it before it is returned to the circulation. All of the apparatus carrying the blood outside the body is termed the extracorp ... Read »


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    • Extravasation

    • Extravasation is the leakage of a fluid out of its container. In the case of inflammation, it refers to the movement of white blood cells from the capillaries to the tissues surrounding them (leukocyte extravasation), also known as diapedesis. In the case of malignant cancer metastasis it refers to cancer cells exiting ... Read »


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    • Extravasation (intravenous)

    • Extravasation is the leakage of intravenously (IV) infused potentially damaging medications into the extravascular tissue around the site of infusion. The leakage can occur through brittle veins in the elderly, through previous venipuncture access, or through direct leakage from wrongly positioned venous access devices ... Read »


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    • Family history (medicine)

    • In medicine, a family history (FH or FmHx) consists of information about disorders from which the direct blood relatives of the patient have suffered. Genealogy typically includes very little of the medical history of the family, but the medical history could be considered a specific subset of the total history of a fa ... Read »


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    • Federative International Committee on Anatomical Terminology

    • The Federative International Committee for Anatomical Terminology (FICAT) is a group of experts who review, analyze and discuss the terms of the morphological structures of the human body. It was created by the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists (IFAA), and was originally known as the Federative Com ... Read »


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    • Female athlete triad

    • Female athlete triad is a syndrome in which eating disorders (or low energy availability),amenorrhoea/oligomenorrhoea, and decreased bone mineral density (osteoporosis and osteopenia) are present. Also known simply as the Triad, this condition is seen in females participating in sports that emphasize leanness or low bo ... Read »


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    • Fibrosis

    • Fibrosis

      Fibrosis is the formation of excess fibrous connective tissue in an organ or tissue in a reparative or reactive process. This can be a reactive, benign, or pathological state. In response to injury, this is called scarring, and if fibrosis arises from a single cell line, this is called a fibroma. Physiologically, fibro ... Read »


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    • Fistula

    • Fistula

      A fistula is an abnormal anastomosis, that is, an abnormal connection between two hollow spaces (technically, two epithelialized surfaces), such as blood vessels, intestines, or other hollow organs. Fistulas are usually caused by injury or surgery, but they can also result from an infection or inflammation. Fistulas ar ... Read »


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    • Five-year survival rate

    • The five-year survival rate is a type of survival rate for estimating the prognosis of a particular disease, normally calculated from the point of diagnosis.Lead time bias from earlier diagnosis can affect interpretation of the five-year survival rate. There are absolute and relative survival rates, but the latter are ... Read »


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    • Fomite

    • A fomes (pronounced /ˈfoʊmiːz/) or fomite (/ˈfoʊmaɪt/) is any nonliving object or substance capable of carrying infectious organisms, such as germs or parasites, and hence transferring them from one individual to another. Skin cells, hair, clothing, and bedding are common hospital sources of contamina ... Read »


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    • FRAX

    • FRAX is a diagnostic tool used to evaluate the 10-year probability of bone fracture risk. It was developed by the University of Sheffield. FRAX integrates clinical risk factors and bone mineral density at the femoral neck to calculate the 10-year probability of hip fracture and the 10-year probability of a major osteop ... Read »


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    • Fremitus

    • Fremitus is a vibration transmitted through the body. In common medical usage, it usually refers to assessment of the lungs by either the vibration intensity felt on the chest wall (tactile fremitus) and/or heard by a stethoscope on the chest wall with certain spoken words (vocal fremitus), although there are several o ... Read »


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    • Fulminant

    • Fulminant \ˈfu̇l-mə-nənt, ˈfəl-\ is any event or process that occurs suddenly and quickly, and is intense and severe to the point of lethality, i.e., it has an explosive character. The word comes from Latin fulmināre, to strike with lightning. It is most frequently used in medicine, and there are s ... Read »


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    • Functional disorder

    • A functional disorder is a medical condition that impairs the normal function of a bodily process, but where every part of the body looks completely normal under examination, dissection or even under a microscope. This stands in contrast to a structural disorder (in which some part of the body can be seen to be abnorma ... Read »


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    • Functional symptom

    • A functional symptom is a medical symptom in an individual which is very broadly conceived as arising from a problem in nervous system 'functioning' and not due to a structural or pathologically defined disease cause. Functional symptoms are increasingly viewed within a framework in which psychological, physiological a ... Read »


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    • GCRC

    • The term "Clinical research center" (CRC) or "General clinical research center" (GCRC) refers to any designated medical facility used to conduct clinical research, such as at a hospital or medical clinic. They have been used to perform clinical trials of various medical procedures. The medical profession has had specif ... Read »


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    • General clinical research center

    • The term "Clinical research center" (CRC) or "General clinical research center" (GCRC) refers to any designated medical facility used to conduct clinical research, such as at a hospital or medical clinic. They have been used to perform clinical trials of various medical procedures. The medical profession has had specif ... Read »


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    • Giant pelvis

    • Giant Pelvis (Giant Pelves, plural) is an ancient medical term often referred to as a Justo-Major Pelvis. Early medical authors such as Thomas Lathrop Stedman of Stedman's Medical Dictionary discuss its meaning and its definition in their various medical writings as having a pelvic oblique diameter of 24 cm or great ... Read »


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    • Gliosis

    • Gliosis is a nonspecific reactive change of glial cells in response to damage to the central nervous system (CNS). In most cases, gliosis involves the proliferation or hypertrophy of several different types of glial cells, including astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes. In its most extreme form, the proliferatio ... Read »


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    • Golgi I

    • A Golgi I or Golgi type I neuron is a neuron which has a long axon that begins in the grey matter of the central nervous system and may extend from there.Golgi II neurons, in contrast, are defined as having short axons or no axon at all. This distinction was introduced by the pioneering neuroanatomist Camillo Golgi, on ... Read »


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    • Golgi II

    • A Golgi II or Golgi type II neuron is a neuron having either no axon or else a short axon that does not send branches out of the gray matter of the central nervous system. ... Read »


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    • GOMER

    • Gomer (גֹּמֶר, Standard Hebrew Gómer, Tiberian Hebrew Gōmer, pronounced [É¡oˈmeʁ]) was the eldest son of Japheth (and of the Japhetic line), and father of Ashkenaz, Riphath, and Togarmah, according to the "Table of Nations" in the Hebrew Bible (Genesis 10). The eponymous Gomer, "stan ... Read »


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    • Head-twitch response

    • The head-twitch response (HTR) is a rapid side-to-side head movement that occurs in mice and rats after the serotonin 5-HT2A receptor is activated. The prefrontal cortex may be the neuroanatomical locus mediating the HTR. Many serotonergic hallucinogens, including lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), induce the head-twitc ... Read »


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    • Health assessment

    • A health assessment is a plan of care that identifies the specific needs of a person and how those needs will be addressed by the healthcare system or skilled nursing facility. Health assessment is the evaluation of the health status by performing a physical exam after taking a health history. It is done to detect dise ... Read »


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    • Health Sciences Descriptors

    • DeCS – Health Sciences Descriptors is a structured and trilingual thesaurus created by BIREME – Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences Information – in 1987 for indexing scientific journal articles, books, proceedings of congresses, technical reports and other types of materials, as well ... Read »


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    • Healthcare error proliferation model

    • The healthcare error proliferation model is an adaptation of James Reason’s Swiss Cheese Model designed to illustrate the complexity inherent in the contemporary healthcare delivery system and the attribution of human error within these systems. The healthcare error proliferation model explains the etiology of err ... Read »


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    • Healthcare proxy

    • A healthcare proxy is a document (legal instrument) with which a patient (primary individual) appoints an agent to legally make healthcare decisions on behalf of the patient, when he or she is incapable of making and executing the healthcare decisions stipulated in the proxy. Once the health care proxy is effective, th ... Read »


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    • HEENT examination

    • A HEENT examination is a portion of a physical examination that principally concerns the head, eyes, ears, nose, and throat. A neurological examination is usually considered separate from the HEENT evaluation, although there can be some overlap in some cases. ... Read »


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    • Hickam's dictum


    • Histology

    • Histology is the study of the microscopic anatomy (microanatomy) of cells and tissues of plants and animals. It is commonly performed by examining cells and tissues under a light microscope or electron microscope, the specimen having been sectioned (cut into a thin cross section with a microtome), stained, and mounted ... Read »


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    • History of the present illness

    • Following the chief complaint in medical history taking, a history of the present illness (abbreviated HPI) (termed history of presenting complaint (HPC) in the UK) refers to a detailed interview prompted by the chief complaint or presenting symptom (for example, pain). Different sources include different question ... Read »


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    • Homicidal ideation

    • Homicidal ideation is a common medical term for thoughts about homicide. There is a range of homicidal thoughts which spans from vague ideas of revenge to detailed and fully formulated plans without the act itself. Many people who have homicidal ideation do not commit homicide. 50-91% of people surveyed on university g ... Read »


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    • Hospital-acquired condition

    • A hospital-acquired condition (HAC) is an undesirable situation or condition that affects a patient and that arose during a stay in a hospital or medical facility. It is a designation used by Medicare/Medicaid in the US for determining MS-DRG reimbursement beginning with version 26 (October 1, 2008). Not only hospital- ... Read »


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    • Host factor

    • Host factor is a medical term referring to the traits of an individual person or animal that affect susceptibility to disease, especially in comparison to other individuals. The term arose in the context of infectious disease research, in contrast to "organism factors", such as the virulence and infectivity of a microb ... Read »


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    • Human body temperature

    • Normal human body temperature, also known as normothermia or euthermia, is the typical temperature range found in humans. The normal human body temperature range is typically stated as 36.5–37.5 °C (97.7–99.5 °F). Individual body temperature depends upon the age, exertion, infection, sex, time of ... Read »


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    • Human equivalent

    • The term human equivalent is used in a number of different contexts. This term can refer to human equivalents of various comparisons of animate and inanimate things. Animal models are used to learn more about a disease, its diagnosis and its treatment, with animal models predicting human toxicity in up to 71% of c ... Read »


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    • Hyperkatifeia

    • Hyperkatifeia is defined as hypersensitivity to emotional distress in the context of opioid abuse. Hyperkatifeia and Opioid-induced hyperalgesia can be seen with long-term use of elicit street opioids e.g. heroin and prescription opioids e.g. hydrocodone and oxycodone during withdrawal. These two clinical syndromes ha ... Read »


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    • Hypoplasia

    • Hypoplasia (from Ancient Greek hypo-, "under" + πλάσις plasis, "formation"; adjective form hypoplastic) is underdevelopment or incomplete development of a tissue or organ. Although the term is not always used precisely, it properly refers to an inadequate or below-normal number of cells. Hypoplasia i ... Read »


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    • Idiopathy

    • An idiopathy is any disease with unknown pathogenesis of apparently origin. From Greek ἴδιος idios "one's own" and πάθος pathos "suffering", idiopathy means approximately "a disease of its own kind". For some medical conditions, one or more causes are somewhat understood, but in a certa ... Read »


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    • Idiosyncrasy

    • An idiosyncrasy is an unusual feature of a person (though there are also other uses, see below). It also means odd habit. The term is often used to express eccentricity or peculiarity. A synonym may be "". The term "idiosyncrasy" originates from Greek idiosynkrasía, "a peculiar temperament, habit of body" (fro ... Read »


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    • Idiosyncratic drug reaction

    • Idiosyncratic drug reactions, also known as type B reactions, are drug reactions that occur rarely and unpredictably amongst the population. This is not to be mistaken with idiopathic, which implies that the cause is not known. They frequently occur with exposure to new drugs, as they have not been fully tested and the ... Read »


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    • Imaging biomarker

    • An imaging biomarker is a biologic feature, or biomarker detectable in an image. In medicine, an imaging biomarker is a feature of an image relevant to a patient's diagnosis. For example, a number of biomarkers are frequently used to determine risk of lung cancer. First, a simple lesion in the lung detected by X-ray, C ... Read »


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    • Immune dysregulation

    • Immune dysregulation is a pseudo-scientific term. Immune system dysfunction, as seen in IPEX syndrome leads to immune dysfunction, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked (IPEX). IPEX typically presents during the first few months of life with diabetes mellitus, intractable diarrhea, failure to thrive, eczema, and he ... Read »


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    • Incidental findings

    • Incidental findings are previously undiagnosed medical or psychiatric conditions that are discovered unintentionally and are unrelated to the current medical or psychiatric condition which is being treated or for which tests are being performed. Incidental findings may be uncovered in a variety of settings such as in t ... Read »


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    • Indication (medicine)

    • In medicine, an indication is a valid reason to use a certain test, medication, procedure, or surgery. The opposite of an indication is a contraindication, a reason to withhold a certain medical treatment because it could harm a patient. Most countries and jurisdictions have a licensing body whose duty is to determine ... Read »


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    • Indirect agonist

    • In pharmacology, an indirect agonist or indirect-acting agonist is a substance that enhances the release or action of an endogenous neurotransmitter but has no specific agonist activity at the neurotransmitter receptor itself. Indirect agonists work through varying mechanisms to achieve their effects, including transpo ... Read »


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    • Ineffective erythropoiesis

    • Ineffective erythropoiesis is active erythropoiesis with premature death of red blood cells, a decreased output of RBCs from the bone marrow, and, consequently, anemia. It is a condition characterised by the presence or abundance of dysfunctional progenitor cells. ... Read »


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    • Infiltration (medical)

    • Infiltration is the diffusion or (in a tissue or cells) of substances not normal to it or in amounts in excess of the normal. The material collected in those tissues or cells is called infiltrate. As part of a disease process, infiltration is sometimes used to define the invasion of cancer cells into the underlyi ... Read »


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    • Insufflation (medicine)

    • Insufflation (Latin: insufflare, lit. 'to blow into') is the act of blowing something (such as a gas, powder, or vapor) into a body cavity. Insufflation has many medical uses, most notably as a route of administration for various drugs. Nasal inhalation of recreational drugs ("snorting") is often considered an ... Read »


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  • What Else?

    • Medical terminology

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