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  • Medical research

    Medical research

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    • Medical research by continent

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    • Medical research by country

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    • Medical researchers

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    • Abandoned drugs

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    • Alternatives to animal testing

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    • Alzheimer's disease research


    • Biological engineering

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    • Biological specimens

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    • Cancer research

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    • Cannabis research

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    • Medicinal chemistry

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    • Clinical research

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    • Experimental drugs

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    • Medical journals

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    • Life extension

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    • Military medical research

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    • Nanomedicine

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    • Medical research organizations

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    • Psychiatric research

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    • Stem cell research

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    • Translational medicine

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    • Twin studies

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    • Medical works

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    • Medical research

    • Biomedical research (or experimental medicine) is in general simply known as medical research. It is the basic research (also called bench science or bench research),applied research, or translational research conducted to aid and support the development of knowledge in the field of medicine. An important kind of medi ... Read »


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    • Academic Healthcare Organization

    • An academic healthcare organization or research hospital is a Canadian patient care organization including research hospitals, regional health authorities, and medical research facilities. ... Read »


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    • Adverse event prediction

    • Adverse event (or Adverse effect) prediction is the process of identifying potential adverse events of an investigational drug before they actually occur in a clinical trial. Predicting adverse events accurately represents a significant challenge to both the pharmaceutical industry and academia, the reason being that ... Read »


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    • Alternative uses for placenta

    • The placenta is an organ which links the fetus to the mother in mammals for the transfer of oxygen and nutrients to the fetus and fetal waste products to the mother. Many species of mammals consume their placentas. Placentas are consumed in some human cultures. This may be for nutrition but often it has a cultural sign ... Read »


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    • Animal testing

    • Animal testing

      Animal testing, also known as animal experimentation, animal research, and in vivo testing, is the use of non-human animals in experiments that seek to control the variables that affect the behavior or biological system under study. This approach can be contrasted with field studies in which animals are observed in the ... Read »


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    • Anne O'Tate


    • Antiseptic Principle of the Practice of Surgery

    • "Antiseptic Principle of the Practice of Surgery" is a paper regarding antiseptics written by Joseph Lister in 1867. ... Read »


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    • Aptamer

    • Aptamers (from the Latin aptus - fit, and Greek meros - part) are oligonucleotide or peptide molecules that bind to a specific target molecule. Aptamers are usually created by selecting them from a large random sequence pool, but natural aptamers also exist in riboswitches. Aptamers can be used for both basic research ... Read »


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    • Artificial uterus

    • An artificial uterus (or artificial womb) is a theoretical device that would allow for extracorporeal pregnancy or extrauterine fetal incubation (EUFI) by growing an embryo or fetus outside of the body of an organism that would normally internally carry the embryo or fetus to term. An artificial uterus, as a replaceme ... Read »


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    • Basic rest activity cycle

    • The existence of a Basic Rest - Activity Cycle, or BRAC, during both sleep and wakefulness was proposed by Nathaniel Kleitman. It is a human biological cycle of approximately 90 minutes (80–120 minutes) that is characterized by different level of excitement and rest. The cycle is controlled by the human biologica ... Read »


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    • Behavioural despair test

    • Behavioural despair test

      Main articlesAnimal testingAlternatives to animal testing Testing on: invertebratesfrogs · primatesrabbits · rodentsAnimal testing regulationsHistory of animal testingHistory of model organismsIACUCLaboratory animal sourcesPain and suffering in lab animalsTesting cosmetics on animalsToxicology testingVivi ... Read »


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    • Betz cell

    • Betz cell

      Betz cells (also known as pyramidal cells of Betz) are giant pyramidal cells (neurons) located within the fifth layer of the grey matter in the primary motor cortex. They are named after Ukrainian scientist Vladimir Betz, who described them in his work published in 1874. These neurons are the largest in the central ner ... Read »


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    • Biodistribution

    • Biodistribution is a method of tracking where compounds of interest travel in an experimental animal or human subject. For example, in the development of new compounds for PET (positron emission tomography) scanning, a radioactive isotope is chemically joined with a peptide (subunit of a protein). This particular class ... Read »


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    • Biological anthropology

    • Biological anthropology, also known as physical anthropology, is a scientific discipline concerned with the biological and behavioral aspects of human beings, their related non-human primates and their extinct hominin ancestors. It is a subfield of anthropology that provides a biological perspective to the systematic s ... Read »


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    • Biomedical cybernetics

    • Biomedical cybernetics investigates signal processing, decision making and control structures in living organisms. Applications of this research field are in biology, ecology and health sciences. ... Read »


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    • Biospine

    • “BioSpine” is the acronym of a research project entitled: "FEM supported determination of the biomechanical response of the human spine considering all musculoskeletal characteristics". The project, awarded to Dr. A. Tsouknidas during May 2012, has a three-year duration and is funded within the framework of t ... Read »


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    • Body donation

    • Body donation, anatomical donation, or body bequest is the donation of a whole body after death for research and education. Donated bodies are mostly used for medical education and research. They are used for gross anatomy, surgical anatomy, and for furthering medical education. For years, only medical schools accepted ... Read »


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    • List of breast cancer cell lines

    • Scientists study the behaviour of isolated cells grown in the laboratory for insights into how cells function in the body in health and disease. Experiments using cell culture are used for developing new diagnostic tests and new treatments for diseases. This is a list of major breast cancer cell lines that are primaril ... Read »


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    • Case series

    • A case series (also known as a clinical series) is a type of medical research study that tracks subjects with a known exposure, such as patients who have received a similar treatment, or examines their medical records for exposure and outcome. Case series may be consecutive or non-consecutive, depending on whether all ... Read »


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    • Cell Computing

    • Cell Computing is a now-defunct distributed computing project that was operated by NTT Data to perform biomedical research. It used the Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC) platform; however, it was initially launched using the United Devices Grid MP platform in 2002. The project ended in 2008 d ... Read »


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    • Clinatec

    • Clinatec is a biomedical research center based at the Polygone Scientifique in Grenoble. Doctors, biologists and experts work side-by-side at the 6,000 m² facility. Around a hundred researchers and employees work at the center. When it opened at the end of 2011, it was hailed as the first center of its kind in the ... Read »


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    • Clinical equipoise

    • Clinical equipoise, also known as the principle of equipoise, provides the ethical basis for medical research that involves assigning patients to different treatment arms of a clinical trial. The term was first used by Benjamin Freedman in 1987. In short, clinical equipoise means that there is genuine uncertainty in th ... Read »


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    • Clinical Practice Research Datalink

    • The Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) is an observational and interventional research service that operates as part of the UK Department of Health. It is jointly funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) and the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). CPRD is working close ... Read »


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    • Co-occurrence networks

    • Co-occurrence networks are generally used to provide a graphic visualization of potential relationships between people, organizations, concepts or other entities represented within written material. The generation and visualization of co-occurrence networks has become practical with the advent of electronically stored ... Read »


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    • Cognitive epidemiology

    • Cognitive epidemiology is a field of research that examines the associations between intelligence test scores (IQ scores or extracted g-factors) and health, more specifically morbidity (mental and physical) and mortality. Typically, test scores are obtained at an early age, and compared to later morbidity and mortality ... Read »


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    • Common disease-common variant

    • The common disease-common variant (often abbreviated CD-CV) hypothesis predicts that common disease-causing alleles, or variants, will be found in all human populations which manifest a given disease. Common variants (not necessarily disease-causing) are known to exist in coding and regulatory sequences of genes. Accor ... Read »


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    • Comparative medicine

    • Comparative medicine involves the study of diseases across species in order to improve understanding. ... Read »


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    • Conflict procedure

    • Conflict procedure

      Main articlesAnimal testingAlternatives to animal testing Testing on: invertebratesfrogs · primatesrabbits · rodentsAnimal testing regulationsHistory of animal testingHistory of model organismsIACUCLaboratory animal sourcesPain and suffering in lab animalsTesting cosmetics on animalsToxicology testingVivi ... Read »


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    • Consecutive controlled case series

    • A consecutive controlled case series (CCCS) is a clinical study that involves aggregating multiple cases consecutively encountered wherein an experimentally controlled single-case experimental design was employed with each case. The CCCS design differs from the consecutive case series, because the latter reports on mul ... Read »


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    • Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials

    • CONSORT (Consolidated Standards Of Reporting Trials) encompasses various initiatives developed by the CONSORT Group to alleviate the problems arising from inadequate reporting of randomized controlled trials. The main product of the CONSORT Group is the CONSORT Statement, which is an evidence-based, minimum set of ... Read »


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    • Contrast-enhanced ultrasound

    • Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is the application of ultrasound contrast medium to traditional medical sonography. Ultrasound contrast agents rely on the different ways in which sound waves are reflected from interfaces between substances. This may be the surface of a small air bubble or a more complex structure. ... Read »


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    • Declaration of Helsinki

    • The Declaration of Helsinki (DoH) is a set of ethical principles regarding human experimentation developed for the medical community by the World Medical Association (WMA). It is widely regarded as the cornerstone document on human research ethics. It is not a legally binding instrument under the international law, bu ... Read »


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    • DNA methylation in cancer

    • DNA methylation in cancer plays a variety of roles, helping to change the healthy regulation of gene expression to a disease pattern. All mammalian cells descended from a fertilized egg (a zygote) share a common DNA sequence (except for new mutations in some lineages). However, during development and formation of diff ... Read »


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    • Docphin

    • Docphin is a mobile and web platform for medical professionals. Launched in May 2012, Docphin helps medical professionals access medical research, landmark articles, and search for relevant medical research more easily. Docphin is available on the web, iOS, and Android. Docphin was selected by Apple as one of the best ... Read »


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    • Drug development

    • Drug development is the process of bringing a new pharmaceutical drug to the market once a lead compound has been identified through the process of drug discovery. It includes pre-clinical research on microorganisms and animals, filing for regulatory status, such as via the United States Food and Drug Administration fo ... Read »


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    • Drug of last resort

    • A drug of last resort (DoLR) is a pharmaceutical drug that is tried after all other drug options have failed to produce an adequate response in the patient. Drug resistance, such as antimicrobial resistance or antineoplastic resistance, may make the first-line drug ineffective, especially with multidrug-resistant patho ... Read »


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    • Dynamic treatment regime

    • In medical research, a dynamic treatment regime (DTR), adaptive intervention, or adaptive treatment strategy is a set of rules for choosing effective treatments for individual patients. Historically, medical research and the practice of medicine tended to rely on an acute care model for the treatment of all medical pro ... Read »


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    • EASE Guidelines for Authors and Translators of Scientific Articles

    • EASE Guidelines for Authors and Translators of Scientific Articles to be Published in English (often shortened to EASE Guidelines for Authors and Translators or EASE Guidelines) were first published by the European Association of Science Editors (EASE) in 2010. Updated versions appeared in June 2011, 2012, and 2013.EAS ... Read »


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    • Ebola virus disease treatment research

    • Ebola virus disease (research) or simply Ebola, is a disease that affects humans and other primates caused by ebolaviruses; there is no cure or specific treatment that is currently approved, treatment is primarily supportive in nature. In March 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) reported a major Ebola outbreak ... Read »


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    • Effect of psychoactive drugs on animals

    • Psychoactive drugs, such as caffeine, amphetamine, mescaline, LSD, marijuana, chloral hydrate, theophylline, IBMX and others, can have strong effects on certain animals. At small concentrations, some psychoactive drugs reduce the feeding rate of insects and molluscs, and at higher doses some can kill them. Spiders buil ... Read »


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    • Else Kröner-Fresenius Foundation


    • Exomedicine

    • Exomedicine is the study and exploration of medical solutions in the zero gravity environment of space to promote benefits to human health on Earth. The purpose is to advance the field, study, and practice of medicine on Earth through research investigations conducted in the microgravity conditions of space which may p ... Read »


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    • Expanded access

    • Expanded access (also known as compassionate use or "pre-approval access") refers to the use of an investigational new drug (IND) outside of a clinical trial by people with serious or life-threatening conditions who do not meet the enrollment criteria for the clinical trial in progress. Outside the US, such access is a ... Read »


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    • Fc receptor

    • An Fc receptor is a protein found on the surface of certain cells – including, among others, B lymphocytes, follicular dendritic cells, natural killer cells, macrophages, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, human platelets, and mast cells – that contribute to the protective functions of the immune syst ... Read »


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    • Fc receptor-like molecule

    • Fc receptor-like molecules (FCRLs) are a class of proteins that resemble Fc receptors. They have been characterized in a number of species, including humans and mice. They are preferentially expressed by B lymphocytes. Unlike the classical Fc receptors, there is no strong evidence that suggests that FCRLs bind to the F ... Read »


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    • Flying syringe

    • Flying syringe is a phrase that is used to refer to proposed, but not yet created, genetically modified mosquitoes that inject vaccines into people when they bite them. In 2008 the Gates Foundation awarded $100,000 to Hiroyuki Matsuoka of Jichi Medical University in Japan to do research on them, with a condition that ... Read »


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    • Gateway drug theory

    • Gateway drug theory (alternatively, stepping-stone theory, escalation hypothesis, or progression hypothesis) is a comprehensive catchphrase for the medical theory that the use of a psychoactive drug can be coupled to an increased probability of the use of further drugs. Possible causes are biological alterations in the ... Read »


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    • Gene therapy

    • Gene therapy is the therapeutic delivery of nucleic acid polymers into a patient's cells as a drug to treat disease. The first attempt at modifying human DNA was performed in 1980 by Martin Cline, but the first successful and approved nuclear gene transfer in humans was performed in May 1989. The first therapeutic use ... Read »


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    • Gene therapy of the human retina

    • Retinal gene therapy holds great promise in treating different forms of non-inherited and inherited blindness. In 2008, three independent research groups reported that patients with the rare genetic retinal disease Leber's Congenital Amaurosis had been successfully treated using gene therapy with adeno-associated viru ... Read »


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    • Germ cell tumor

    • Germ cell tumor

      A germ cell tumor (GCT) is a neoplasm derived from germ cells. Germ cell tumors can be cancerous or non-cancerous tumors. Germ cells normally occur inside the gonads (ovary and testis). Germ cell tumors that originate outside the gonads may be birth defects resulting from errors during development of the embryo. S ... Read »


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    • Great ape research ban

    • Great ape research ban

      Main articlesAnimal testingAlternatives to animal testing Testing on: invertebratesfrogs · primatesrabbits · rodentsAnimal testing regulationsHistory of animal testingHistory of model organismsIACUCLaboratory animal sourcesPain and suffering in lab animalsTesting cosmetics on animalsToxicology testingVivi ... Read »


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    • Guidelines for human subject research

    • Various organizations have created guidelines for human subject research for various kinds of research involving human subject research and for various situations. In 1892, Albert Ludwig Sigesmund Neisser, a German physician who is credited with the discovery of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, performed two sets of clinica ... Read »


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    • Hair analysis (alternative medicine)

    • In mainstream scientific usage, hair analysis is the chemical analysis of a hair sample. The use of hair analysis in alternative medicine as a method of investigation to assist alternative diagnosis is controversial and its use in this manner has been opposed repeatedly by the AMA because of its unproven status and i ... Read »


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    • Healia

    • Healia [1] is a health vertical search engine and online health community. Healia's search engine uses algorithms to assess quality and to categorize Web documents. Healia Communities is composed of online health support groups that enable people to share health experiences, connect with others, and ask questions of pe ... Read »


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    • Herpes simplex research

    • Herpes simplex research includes all medical research that attempts to prevent, treat, or cure herpes, as well as fundamental research about the nature of herpes. Examples of particular herpes research include drug development, vaccines and genome editing. HSV-1 and HSV-2 are commonly thought of as oral and genital her ... Read »


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    • Hilary Koprowski Prize in Neurovirology

    • The Hilary Koprowski Prize in Neurovirology was established in 2014 by Drexel University in honor of Dr. Hilary Koprowski's contributions to the field of neurovirology. The prize is awarded annually in conjunction with the International Symposium on Molecular Medicine and Infectious Disease, which is sponsored by the I ... Read »


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    • HIV/AIDS research


    • Hot plate test

    • The hot plate test is a test of the pain response in animals, similar to the tail flick test. It is used in basic pain research and in testing the effectiveness of analgesics by observing the reaction to pain caused by heat. It was proposed by Eddy and Leimbach in 1953. They used a behavioral model of nociception wher ... Read »


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    • Human HGF plasmid DNA therapy

    • Human HGF plasmid DNA therapy of cardiomyocytes is being examined as a potential treatment for coronary artery disease (a major cause of myocardial infarction (MI)), as well as treatment for the damage that occurs to the heart after MI. After MI, the myocardium suffers from reperfusion injury which leads to death of ca ... Read »


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    • Humanized mouse

    • A humanized mouse is a mouse carrying functioning human genes, cells, tissues, and/or organs. Humanized mice are commonly used as small animal models in biological and medical research for human therapeutics. Immunodeficient mice are often used as recipients for human cells or tissues, because they can relatively easil ... Read »


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    • Humster

    • A humster is a hybrid cell line made from hamster oocyte fertilized with human sperm. It always consists of single cells, and cannot form a multi-cellular being. Humsters are routinely created for mainly two reasons: Somatic cell hybrids between hamster or mouse and man have been used for mapping of various traits at ... Read »


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    • Hybrid operating room

    • A hybrid operating room is a surgical theatre that is equipped with advanced medical imaging devices such as fixed C-Arms, CT scanners or MRI scanners. These imaging devices enable minimally-invasive surgery, which is less traumatic for the patient. Minimally invasive means that the surgeon does not need to cut the pat ... Read »


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    • IDEAL framework

    • IDEAL (Idea, Development, Exploration, Assessment, Long-term study) is a framework for describing the stages of innovation in surgery and other interventional procedures. The purpose of IDEAL is to improve the quality of research in surgery by emphasizing appropriate methods, transparency of data and rigorous reporting ... Read »


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    • Imaging biomarker

    • An imaging biomarker is a biologic feature, or biomarker detectable in an image. In medicine, an imaging biomarker is a feature of an image relevant to a patient's diagnosis. For example, a number of biomarkers are frequently used to determine risk of lung cancer. First, a simple lesion in the lung detected by X-ray, C ... Read »


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    • Immunogenetics

    • Immunogenetics or immungenetics is the branch of medical research that explores the relationship between the immune system and genetics. Autoimmune diseases, such as type 1 diabetes, are complex genetic traits which result from defects in the immune system. Identification of genes defining the immune defects may ident ... Read »


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    • IMRAD

    • In scientific writing, IMRaD (/ˈɪmræd/) (Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion) refers to a common organization structure. IMRAD is the most prominent norm for the structure of a scientific journal article of the original research type. Original research articles are typically structured in this ... Read »


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    • Influenza Research Database

    • Influenza Research Database

      The Influenza Research Database (IRD) is an integrative and comprehensive publicly available database and analysis resource to search, analyze, visualize, save and share data for influenza virus research. IRD is one of the five Bioinformatics Resource Centers (BRC) funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infect ... Read »


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    • Information Hyperlinked over Proteins

    • Information Hyperlinked over Proteins (or iHOP) is an online text-mining service that provides a gene-guided network to access PubMed abstracts. The service was established by Robert Hoffmann and Alfonso Valencia in 2004. The concept underlying iHOP is that by using genes and proteins as hyperlinks between sentences a ... Read »


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    • Ingelfinger rule

    • In scientific publishing, the Ingelfinger rule stipulates that The New England Journal of Medicine would not publish findings that had been published elsewhere, in other media or in other journals. Many scientific journals followed suit after it was first enunciated in 1969 by Franz J. Ingelfinger. (An earlier version ... Read »


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    • Institute of Experimental Medicine, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic

    • Institute of Experimental Medicine, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic

      Institute of Experimental Medicine, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (IEM) is focused on biomedical research, incl. cell biology, neuropathology, teratology, cancer research, molecular embryology, stem cells and nervous tissue regeneration as such leading institution in the research in the CR it was selected a ... Read »


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    • International Aging Research Portfolio

    • International Aging Research Portfolio

      International Aging Research Portfolio (IARP) is a non-profit, open-access knowledge management system incorporating grants, publications, conferences in natural and social & behavioral sciences. In addition to the advanced search and visual trend analysis tools the system includes a directory of research projects clas ... Read »


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    • Investigational New Drug

    • The United States Food and Drug Administration's Investigational New Drug (IND) program is the means by which a pharmaceutical company obtains permission to ship an experimental drug across state lines (usually to clinical investigators) before a marketing application for the drug has been approved. The FDA reviews the ... Read »


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    • LabTV

    • Evan Walker, CEO LabTV is an online hub where people, labs, and organizations engaged in medical research come together to tell their stories. LabTV has filmed hundreds of medical researchers at dozens of institutions across the United States, including dozens at the National Institutes of Health. LabTV is a priv ... Read »


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    • Medical library

    • A health or medical library is designed to assist physicians, health professionals, students, patients, consumers, medical researchers, and information specialists in finding health and scientific information to improve, update, assess, or evaluate health care. Medical libraries are typically found in hospitals, medica ... Read »


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    • Light-dark box test

    • The light-dark box test (LDB) is a popular animal model used in pharmacology to assay unconditioned anxiety responses in rodents. The extent to which behavior in the LDB measures anxiety is controversial. . The LDB apparatus has two compartments. The light compartment is 2/3 of the box and is brightly lit and open ... Read »


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    • List of contaminated cell lines

    • Many cell lines that are widely used for biomedical research have been contaminated and overgrown by other, more aggressive cells. For example, supposed thyroid lines were actually melanoma cells, supposed prostate tissue was actually bladder cancer, and supposed normal uterine cultures were actually breast cancer. Th ... Read »


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    • List of important publications in medicine

    • This is a list of important publications in medicine, organized by field. Some reasons why a particular publication might be regarded as important: The definitive bibliographic source of books and articles demonstrating the history of medicine and identifying the first publications in the field is "Garrison and Morto ... Read »


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    • Literature-based discovery

    • Literature-based discovery refers to the use of papers and other academic publications (the "literature") to find new relationships between existing knowledge (the "discovery"). The technique was pioneered by Don R. Swanson in the 1980s and has since seen widespread use. Literature-based discovery does not generate ne ... Read »


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    • Ludwig-McGill HPV Cohort

    • Established in 1993 by Ludwig Cancer Research and McGill University (Montreal, Canada), the Ludwig / McGill Cohort is one of the world’s largest longitudinal studies of the natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical cancer risk. ... Read »


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    • Marble burying

    • Marble burying

      Main articlesAnimal testingAlternatives to animal testing Testing on: invertebratesfrogs · primatesrabbits · rodentsAnimal testing regulationsHistory of animal testingHistory of model organismsIACUCLaboratory animal sourcesPain and suffering in lab animalsTesting cosmetics on animalsToxicology testingVivi ... Read »


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    • Massry Prize

    • The Massry Prize was established in 1996, and until 2009 was administered by the Meira and Shaul G. Massry Foundation. The Prize, of $40,000 and the Massry Lectureship, is bestowed upon scientists who have made substantial recent contributions in the biomedical sciences. Shaul G. Massry, M.D., who established the Massr ... Read »


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    • Medical ethics

    • Medical ethics is a system of moral principles that apply values and judgments to the practice of medicine. As a scholarly discipline, medical ethics encompasses its practical application in clinical settings as well as work on its history, philosophy, and sociology. Historically, Western medical ethics may be tra ... Read »


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    • Medical ghostwriter

    • Medical ghostwriters are employed by pharmaceutical companies and medical-device manufacturers to produce apparently independent manuscripts for peer-reviewed journals, conference presentations and other communications. Physicians and other scientists are paid to attach their names to the manuscripts as though they had ... Read »


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    • Medical literature retrieval

    • Medical literature retrieval or medical document retrieval is an activity that uses professional methods for medical research papers retrieval, report and other data to improve medicine research and practice. ... Read »


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    • Medical Subject Headings

    • Medical Subject Headings

      Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a comprehensive controlled vocabulary for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences; it serves as a thesaurus that facilitates searching. Created and updated by the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), it is used by the MEDLINE/PubMed article ... Read »


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    • List of MeSH codes

    • Medical subject headings

      The following is a list of the codes for MeSH (Medical Subject Headings), a comprehensive controlled vocabulary for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences; it can also serve as a thesaurus that facilitates searching. It is a product of the United States National Library of Medicine. Cli ... Read »


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    • Microdosing

    • Microdosing (or micro-dosing) is a technique for studying the behaviour of drugs in humans through the administration of doses so low ("sub-therapeutic") they are unlikely to produce whole-body effects, but high enough to allow the cellular response to be studied. This allows the observation of a drug's pharmacokinetic ... Read »


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    • Minimal clinically important difference

    • The minimal important difference (MID), is the smallest change in a treatment outcome that a patient would identify as important and which would mandate a change in the patient's management. Over the years great steps have been taken in reporting what really matters in clinical research. A clinical researcher migh ... Read »


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    • Mitotic inhibitor

    • A mitotic inhibitor is a drug that inhibits mitosis, or cell division. These drugs disrupt microtubules, which are structures that pull the cell apart when it divides. Mitotic inhibitors are used in cancer treatment, because cancer cells are able to grow and eventually spread through the body (metastasize) through cont ... Read »


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    • Nanonephrology

    • Nanonephrology is a branch of nanomedicine and nanotechnology that deals with: The creation and use of materials and devices at the molecular and atomic levels that can be used for the diagnosis and therapy of renal diseases is also a part of Nanonephrology that will play a role in the management of patients with kidn ... Read »


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    • NASA research

    • The United States space agency NASA conducts research in several fields of study. A variety of large-scale medical studies are being conducted in space by the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI). Prominent among these is the Advanced Diagnostic Ultrasound in Microgravity Study, in which astronauts ... Read »


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    • National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse

    • The National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NDDIC) is an information dissemination service of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). The NIDDK is part of the National Institutes of Health, which is under the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Established ... Read »


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    • Natural history study

    • In medicine, a natural history study is a study that follows a group of people over time who have, or are at risk of developing, a specific medical condition or disease. A natural history study collects health information over time in order to understand how the medical condition or disease develops and to give insight ... Read »


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    • Neglected tropical disease research and development

    • Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are a set of infectious diseases affecting an estimated 1.4 billion people worldwide. The classification of this group of neglected diseases is linked to their frequent neglect in public and private sector expenditure and attention at local, national, and international levels, and the ... Read »


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    • Neutralizing antibody

    • Neutralizing Antibodies

      A neutralizing antibody (NAb) is an antibody that defends a cell from an antigen or infectious body by neutralizing any effect it has biologically. An example of a neutralizing antibody is diphtheria antitoxin, which can neutralize the biological effects of diphtheria toxin. Most antibodies work by binding to an a ... Read »


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    • Nocebo

    • The nocebo effect is when a negative expectation of a phenomenon causes it to have a more negative effect than it otherwise would. A nocebo effect causes the perception that the phenomenon will have a negative outcome to actively influence the result. Mental states such as beliefs, expectations and anticipation can str ... Read »


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    • Non-specific effect of vaccines

    • Non-specific effects of vaccines (also called “heterologous effects" or "off-target effects") are effects which go beyond the specific protective effects against the targeted diseases. Non-specific effects can be strongly beneficial, increasing protection against non-targeted infections, but also at times negative ... Read »


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    • Nutritional epidemiology

    • Nutritional epidemiology is a relatively new field of medical research that studies the relationship between nutrition and health. Diet and physical activity are difficult to measure accurately, which may partly explain why nutrition has received less attention than other risk factors for disease in epidemiology. ... Read »


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    • Open field (animal test)

    • Developed by Calvin S. Hall, the open field test (OFT) is an experiment used to assay general locomotor activity levels and anxiety in rodents in scientific research and willingness to explore in rodents. However, the extent to which behavior in the open field measures anxiety is controversial. Animals such as rat ... Read »


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    • Open-label trial

    • An open-label trial or open trial is a type of clinical trial in which both the researchers and participants know which treatment is being administered. This contrasts with single blind and double blind experimental designs, where participants are not aware of what treatment they are receiving (researchers are also una ... Read »


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    • Parallel study

    • A parallel study is a type of clinical study where two groups of treatments, A and B, are given so that one group receives only A while another group receives only B. Other names for this type of study include "between patient" and "non-crossover". This is unlike a crossover study where at first one group receives trea ... Read »


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    • Pedobarography

    • Pedobarography is the study of pressure fields acting between the plantar surface of the foot and a supporting surface. Used most often for biomechanical analysis of gait and posture, pedobarography is employed in a wide range of applications including sports biomechanics and gait biometrics . The term 'pedobarography' ... Read »


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    • Pharma Medica

    • Pharma Medica

      Pharma Medica Research Inc. is a Canadian research and development company that works with pharmaceutical companies and performs clinical trials in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry. The company is based near Toronto, Canada with headquarters in Mississauga, Ontario. Pharma Medica has locations in Scarborou ... Read »


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    • PHI-base

    • PHI-base

      The Pathogen-Host Interaction database (PHI-base) contains expertly curated molecular and biological information on genes proven to affect the outcome of pathogen-host interactions. The database was created and is maintained by researchers at Rothamsted Research and external collaborators since 2005. The database and l ... Read »


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    • Placebo studies

    • Placebo studies is an interdisciplinary academic discipline concerning the study of the placebo effect. The placebo effect is commonly characterized when patients given a placebo or "fake" treatment exhibit a perceived improvement. The discipline was pioneered by Ted Kaptchuk and colleagues at the Program in Placebo St ... Read »


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    • Privacy for research participants

    • Privacy for research participants is a concept in research ethics which states that a person in human subject research has a right to privacy when participating in research. Some examples of typical scenarios are that a surveyor doing social research conducts an interview where the research participant is a respondent, ... Read »


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    • Pseudohypoxia

    • Pseudohypoxia refers to increased cytosolic ratio of free NADH to NAD in cells. Research has shown that declining levels of NAD+ during aging cause pseudohypoxia, and that raising nuclear NAD+ in old mice reverses pseudohypoxia and metabolic dysfunction, thus reversing the aging process. It is expected that human NAD t ... Read »


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    • Psychic driving

    • Psychic driving was a psychiatric procedure of the 1950s and 1960s in which patients were subjected to a continuously repeated audio message on a looped tape to alter their behaviour. In psychic driving, patients were often exposed to hundreds of thousands of repetitions of a single statement over the course of their t ... Read »


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    • PubGene

    • The Bioinformatics company PubGene AS is located in Oslo, Norway and is the daughter company of PubGene Inc. In 2001, PubGene founders demonstrated one of the first applications of text mining to research in biomedicine (i.e., biomedical text mining). They went on to create the PubGene public search engine, exemplifyi ... Read »


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    • Race and health

    • Race and health refers to the relationship between individual health and one's race and ethnicity. Differences in health status, health outcomes, life expectancy, and many other indicators of health in different racial and ethnic groups is well documented, referred to as health disparities. Race is a complex concept, a ... Read »


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    • Radiopharmacology

    • Radiopharmacology or medicinal radiochemistry is radiochemistry applied to medicine and thus the pharmacology of radiopharmaceuticals (medicinal radiocompounds, that is, pharmaceutical drugs that are radioactive). Radiopharmaceuticals are used in the field of nuclear medicine as radioactive tracers in medical imaging a ... Read »


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    • Reactogenicity

    • In clinical trials, the term reactogenicity refers to the property of a vaccine of being able to produce common, “expected” adverse reactions, especially excessive immunological responses and associated signs and symptoms—fever, sore arm at injection site, etc. (Much less frequently, the term has also be ... Read »


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    • Regulation of transcription in cancer

    • Generally, in progression to cancer, hundreds of genes are silenced or activated. Although silencing of some genes in cancers occurs by mutation, a large proportion of carcinogenic gene silencing is a result of altered DNA methylation (see DNA methylation in cancer). DNA methylation causing silencing in cancer typicall ... Read »


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    • Retrospective cohort study

    • A retrospective cohort study, also called a historic cohort study, is a longitudinal cohort study that studies a cohort of individuals that share a common exposure factor to determine its influence on the development of a disease, and are compared to another group of equivalent individuals that were not exposed to that ... Read »


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    • Rotarod performance test

    • The rotarod performance test is a performance test based on a rotating rod with forced motor activity being applied, usually by a rodent. The test measures parameters such as riding time (seconds) or endurance. Some of the functions of the test include evaluating balance, grip strength and motor coordination of the sub ... Read »


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    • Rule of three (statistics)

    • In statistical analysis, the rule of three states that if a certain event did not occur in a sample with n subjects (p^=0{\displaystyle {\hat {p}}=0}), the interval from 0 to 3/n is a 95% confidence interval for the rate of occurrences in the population. When n is greater than 30, this is a good approximation to result ... Read »


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    • Secondary research

    • Secondary research (also known as desk research) involves the summary, collation and/or synthesis of existing research rather than primary research, in which data are collected from, for example, research subjects or experiments. Care should be taken to distinguish secondary research from primary research that uses ra ... Read »


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    • Self-experimentation in medicine

    • Self-experimentation refers to scientific experimentation in which the experimenter conducts the experiment on her- or himself. Often this means that the designer, operator, subject, analyst, and user or reporter of the experiment are all the same. Self-experimentation has a long and well-documented history in medicine ... Read »


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    • Smart ligand

    • Smart ligands are affinity ligands selected with pre-defined equilibrium (Kd{\displaystyle K_{d}}), kinetic (koff{\displaystyle k_{off}}, kon{\displaystyle k_{on}}) and thermodynamic (ΔH, ΔS) parameters of biomolecular interaction. Ligands with desired parameters can be selected from large combinatorial librarie ... Read »


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    • Specific-pathogen-free

    • Specific-pathogen-free

      Main articlesAnimal testingAlternatives to animal testing Testing on: invertebratesfrogs · primatesrabbits · rodentsAnimal testing regulationsHistory of animal testingHistory of model organismsIACUCLaboratory animal sourcesPain and suffering in lab animalsTesting cosmetics on animalsToxicology testingVivi ... Read »


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    • Spinal cord injury research

    • Spinal cord injury research seeks new ways to cure or treat spinal cord injury in order to lessen the debilitating effects of the injury in the short or long term. There is no cure for SCI, and current treatments are mostly focused on spinal cord injury rehabilitation and management of the secondary effects of the cond ... Read »


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    • Strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology

    • The STROBE (STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology) Statement is a reporting guideline including a checklist of 22 items that are considered essential for good reporting of observational studies. It has been published in several leading biomedical journals in October and November 2007 and ... Read »


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    • Subgroup analysis

    • Subgroup analysis, in the context of design and analysis of experiments, refers to looking for pattern in a subset of the subjects. ... Read »


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    • Subjective report

    • In experimental psychology and medical science, a subjective report is information collected from an experimental subject's description of their own experiences, symptoms or histories. Subjective reporting is the act of an individual describing their own subjective experience, following their introspection on physical ... Read »


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    • Surrogate endpoint

    • In clinical trials, a surrogate endpoint (or marker) is a measure of effect of a specific treatment that may correlate with a real clinical endpoint but does not necessarily have a guaranteed relationship. The National Institutes of Health (USA) defines surrogate endpoint as "a biomarker intended to substitute for a cl ... Read »


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    • Survival rate

    • Survival rate is a part of survival analysis. It is the percentage of people in a study or treatment group still alive for a given period of time after diagnosis. Survival rates are important for prognosis, but because the rate is based on the population as a whole, an individual prognosis may be different depending on ... Read »


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    • Systematic review

    • A systematic review is a type of literature review that collects and critically analyzes multiple research studies or papers. A review of existing studies is often quicker and cheaper than embarking on a new study. Researchers use methods that are selected before one or more research questions are formulated, and then ... Read »


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    • Tail flick test

    • The tail flick test is a test of the pain response in animals, similar to the hot plate test. It is used in basic pain research and to measure the effectiveness of analgesics, by observing the reaction to heat. It was first described by D'Amour and Smith in 1941. Most commonly, an intense light beam is focused on ... Read »


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    • Tail suspension test

    • Tail suspension test

      Main articlesAnimal testingAlternatives to animal testing Testing on: invertebratesfrogs · primatesrabbits · rodentsAnimal testing regulationsHistory of animal testingHistory of model organismsIACUCLaboratory animal sourcesPain and suffering in lab animalsTesting cosmetics on animalsToxicology testingVivi ... Read »


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    • The Three Rs (animals)

    • The Three Rs (3Rs) in relation to science are guiding principles for more ethical use of animals in testing. They were first described by W. M. S. Russell and R. L. Burch in 1959. The 3Rs are: The 3Rs have a broader scope than simply encouraging alternatives to animal testing, but aim to improve animal welfare and sci ... Read »


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    • Tissue bank

    • A tissue bank is an establishment that collects and recovers human cadaver tissue for the purposes of medical research and education. A tissue bank may also refer to a location where biomedical tissue is stored under cryogenic conditions, and is generally used in a more clinical sense. The United States Navy Tissue Ba ... Read »


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    • Transfersome

    • Transfersome is a trademark registered by the German company IDEA AG, which refers to its drug delivery technology. The name means “carrying body” and is derived from the Latin word 'transferre', meaning 'to carry across', and the Greek word 'soma', meaning 'a body'. A Transfersome carrier is an artificial v ... Read »


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    • Translational research

    • Translational research (TR) – often used interchangeably with translational medicine – is a highly interdisciplinary field, the primary goal of which is to coalesce assets of various natures within the individual pillars in order to improve the global healthcare system significantly. The goal of translational ... Read »


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    • Undiagnosed Diseases Network

    • The Undiagnosed Diseases Network (UDN) is a research study that is funded by the National Institutes of Health Common Fund. Its purpose is to bring together clinical and research experts from across the United States to solve the most challenging medical mysteries using advanced technologies. The UDN is made up of a ... Read »


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    • ICMJE recommendations

    • The ICMJE recommendations (full title, Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals) are a set of guidelines produced by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors for standardising the ethics, preparation and formatting of manuscripts submitted ... Read »


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    • Utstein Style

    • The Utstein Style is a set of guidelines for uniform reporting of cardiac arrest. The Utstein Style was first proposed for emergency medical services in 1991. The name derives from a 1990 conference of the European Society of Cardiology, the European Academy of Anesthesiology, the European Society for Intensive Care Me ... Read »


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    • Vectors in gene therapy

    • Gene therapy utilizes the delivery of DNA into cells, which can be accomplished by several methods, summarized below. The two major classes of methods are those that use recombinant viruses (sometimes called biological nanoparticles or viral vectors) and those that use naked DNA or DNA complexes (non-viral methods). ... Read »


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    • Virotherapy

    • Virotherapy is a treatment using biotechnology to convert viruses into therapeutic agents by reprogramming viruses to treat diseases. There are three main branches of virotherapy: anti-cancer oncolytic viruses, viral vectors for gene therapy and viral immunotherapy. In a slightly different context, virotherapy can also ... Read »


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    • Virtual Physiological Rat

    • sysThe Virtual Physiological Rat (VPR) Project is an international collaboration aimed simulating the integrated cardiovascular function of the rat and supported by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences as a National Center for Systems Biology. The project is motivated by the fact that, although there exis ... Read »


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    • Vitamin D and Omega-3 Trial

    • Vitamin D and Omega-3 Trial (VITAL) (VITamin D and OmegA-3 TriaL) is a 5 year trial to run from 2010 to determine the benefits of vitamin D and Omega-3 supplements on elderly Americans. It aims to enroll 20,000 participants (women 55 or over, men 50 or over) who will be randomized to one of four groups: Participants ... Read »


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    • Vivisection

    • Vivisection (from Latin vivus, meaning 'alive', and sectio, meaning 'cutting') is surgery conducted for experimental purposes on a living organism, typically animals with a central nervous system, to view living internal structure. The word is, more broadly, used as a pejorative catch-all term for experimentation on li ... Read »


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    • Vogel Conflict Test

    • The Vogel Conflict Test (VCT) is a conflict based experimental method primarily used in pharmacology. It is used to determine anxiolytic properties of drugs. The VCT predicts drugs that can manage generalized anxiety disorders and acute anxiety states. Suppressing behaviour through punishment is commonly used to d ... Read »


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    • Medical research

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