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    Literature

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    • Literature by continent

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    • Literature by country

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    • Literature by form

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    • Literature by genre

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    • Literature by language

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    • Literature by medium

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    • Literature by period

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    • Literature by topic

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    • Literature by women

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    • Works by writer

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    • Literary agencies

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    • Literary archives

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    • Literary awards

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    • Literary characters

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    • Literary circles

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    • Literary collaborations

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    • Comics

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    • Literary concepts

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    • Creative writing programs

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    • Literature databases

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    • Literary events

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    • Films based on literature

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    • Literary genres

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    • Grey literature

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    • History of literature

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    • Literature lists

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    • Literary editors

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    • Literary motifs

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    • Literary museums

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    • Narratology

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    • Oral literature

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    • People in literature

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    • Poetry

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    • Literature in popular culture

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    • Professorships in literature

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    • Literary publishing companies

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    • Reading (process)

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    • Literature records

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    • References in literary works

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    • Literary series

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    • Literary societies

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    • Literary techniques

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    • Literary terminology

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    • Literature timelines

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    • Topics in literature

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    • Literary translation

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    • Versions of literary works

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    • Works about literature

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    • Works based on literature

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    • Writers' conferences


    • Images of literature

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    • Literature stubs

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    • Literature

    • Literature, in its broadest sense, is any single body of written works. More restrictively, it is writing considered as an art form, or any single writing deemed to have artistic or intellectual value, often due to deploying language in ways that differ from ordinary usage. Its Latin root literatura/litteratura (derive ... Read »


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    • Outline of literature

    • The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to literature: Literature – prose, written or oral, including fiction and non-fiction, drama and poetry. See also: outline of poetry. Literature can be described as all of the following: Non-fiction Fiction History of literature ... Read »


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    • Bibliography of encyclopedias: literature

    • This is a list of encyclopedias as well as encyclopedic and biographical dictionaries published on the subject of literature in any language. ... Read »


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    • Literary adaptation

    • Literary adaptation is the adapting of a literary source (e.g. a novel, short story, poem) to another genre or medium, such as a film, stage play, or video game. It can also involve adapting the same literary work in the same genre or medium, just for different purposes, e.g. to work with a smaller cast, in a smaller v ... Read »


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    • Afterword

    • An afterword is a literary device that is often found at the end of a piece of literature. It generally covers the story of how the book came into being, or of how the idea for the book was developed. An afterword may be written by someone other than the author of the book to provide enriching comment, such as discuss ... Read »


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    • Aldwych farce

    • The Aldwych farces were a series of twelve stage farces presented at the Aldwych Theatre, London, nearly continuously from 1923 to 1933. All but three of them were written by Ben Travers. They incorporate and develop British low comedy styles, combined with clever word-play. The plays were presented by the actor-manage ... Read »


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    • Allusion

    • Allusion is a figure of speech, in which one refers covertly or indirectly to an object or circumstance from an external context. It is left to the audience to make the connection; where the connection is directly and explicitly stated (as opposed to indirectly implied) by the author, an allusion is instead usually ter ... Read »


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    • Anecdote

    • An anecdote is a brief, revealing account of an individual person or an incident. Often humorous, anecdotes differ from jokes because their primary purpose is not simply to provoke laughter, but to reveal a truth more general than the brief tale itself, such as to characterize a person by delineating a specific quirk o ... Read »


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    • Anonymous work

    • Anonymous works are works, such as art or literature, that have an anonymous, undisclosed, or unknown creator or author. In the case of very old works, the author's name may simply be lost over the course of history and time. There are a number of reasons anonymous works arise. Anonymous works are works, such as a ... Read »


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    • Anthropotechnic

    • Anthropotechnic is a term used in art, science and literature to denote something with aspects of both man and machine.Paintings such as Max Ernst's "Oedipus Rex" are early examples of the use of this quality. In technology, it is any field of science that attempts to make machines and automation more user-friendly. In ... Read »


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    • Antivillain

    • A villain (also known as the "antagonist", "baddie", "bad guy", "heavy" or "black hat") is an "evil" character in a story, whether a historical narrative or, especially, a work of fiction. The villain usually is the antagonist (though can be the protagonist), the character who tends to have a negative effect on other ... Read »


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    • Aside

    • An aside is a dramatic device in which a character speaks to the audience. By convention the audience is to realize that the character's speech is unheard by the other characters on stage. It may be addressed to the audience expressly (in character or out) or represent an unspoken thought. An aside is usually a brief c ... Read »


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    • Balanced sentence

    • A balanced sentence is a sentence that employs parallel structures of approximately the same length and importance. ... Read »


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    • Clandestine literature

    • Clandestine literature, also called "underground literature", refers to a type of editorial and publishing process that involves self-publishing works, often in contradiction with the legal standards of a location. Clandestine literature is often an attempt to circumvent censorship, prosecution, or other suppression. I ... Read »


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    • Classic book

    • A classic is a book accepted as being exemplary or noteworthy, for example through an imprimatur such as being listed in a list of great books, or through a reader's personal opinion. Although the term is often associated with the Western canon, it can be applied to works of literature from all traditions, such as the ... Read »


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    • List of classical music in literature

    • List of classical music pieces which inspired or are mentioned explicitly in literature. ... Read »


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    • Comedy of menace

    • Comedy of menace is the body of plays written by David Campton, Nigel Dennis, N. F. Simpson, and Harold Pinter. The term was coined by drama critic Irving Wardle, who borrowed it from the subtitle of Campton's play The Lunatic View: A Comedy of Menace, in reviewing Pinter's and Campton's plays in Encore in 1958. (Campt ... Read »


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    • Conclusion (book)

    • In a non-fiction book, a conclusion is an ending section which states the concluding ideas and concepts of the preceding writing. This generally follows the body or perhaps an afterword, and the conclusion may be followed by an epilogue, outro, postscript, appendix/addendum, glossary, bibliography, index, errata, or a ... Read »


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    • Conte cruel

    • The conte cruel is, as The A to Z of Fantasy Literature by Brian Stableford states, a "short-story genre that takes its name from an 1883 collection by Villiers de l'Isle-Adam, although previous examples had been provided by such writers as Edgar Allan Poe. Some critics use the label to refer only to non-supernatural h ... Read »


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    • Dedication (publishing)

    • A dedication is the expression of friendly connection or thanks by the author towards another person. The dedication has its own place on the dedication page and is part of the front matter. In newer books, the dedication is located on a dedication page on its own, usually on the recto page after the main title pa ... Read »


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    • Domestic realism

    • Domestic realism normally refers to the genre of nineteenth-century novels popular with women readers. This body of writing is also known as "sentimental fiction" or "woman's fiction". The genre is mainly reflected in the novel though short-stories and non-fiction works such as Harriet Beecher Stowe's "Our Country Neig ... Read »


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    • Dramatization

    • Dramatization or dramatisation is the adapting of a literary source (e.g. a novel, short story, poem) to drama or theater. ... Read »


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    • Dual narrative

    • A dual narrative is a form of narrative that tells a story in two different perspectives, usually two different people. Dual narrative is also an effective technique that can be used to tell the story of people (or one person) at two different points in time (Postcards from No Man's Land, Great Expectations). It is use ... Read »


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    • List of literary dunces

    • This is a list of literary dunces – persons, either real or legendary, who are used in literature as targets of satire. ... Read »


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    • Elementary realism

    • The realism is derived from real word. This school emerged in the nineteenth century. The realism is based on realism and the subject was made in contemporary society. The emergence factors of This school include : 1. The not-so-famous writers and artists who lived in the Latin Quarter of Paris and made a mock of r ... Read »


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    • Empirical study of literature

    • The empirical study of literature is an interdisciplinary field of research which includes the psychology, sociology, Philosophy, the contextual study of literature, and the history of reading literary texts. The International Society for the Empirical Study of Literature and Media (IGEL) is one learned association wh ... Read »


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    • English studies

    • English studies is an academic discipline that includes the study of literatures written in the English language (including literatures from the United Kingdom, the United States, Ireland, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Hong Kong, the Philippines, India, Pakistan, South Africa, and the Middle East, among other areas), ... Read »


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    • Epigraph (literature)

    • In literature, an epigraph is a phrase, quotation, or poem that is set at the beginning of a document or component. The epigraph may serve as a preface, as a summary, as a counter-example, or to link the work to a wider literary canon, either to invite comparison or to enlist a conventional context. Why, you may t ... Read »


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    • Epilogue

    • An epilogue or epilog (from Greek ἐπίλογος epílogos, "conclusion" from ἐπί- "in addition" and λέγειν légein, "to say") is a piece of writing at the end of a work of literature, usually used to bring closure to the work. It is presented from the perspective of ... Read »


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    • Epistle

    • An epistle (/ᵻˈpɪsəl/; Greek ἐπιστολή, epistolē, "letter") is a writing directed or sent to a person or group of people, usually an elegant and formal didactic letter. The epistle genre of letter-writing was common in ancient Egypt as part of the scribal-school writing curricu ... Read »


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    • État second


    • Extant literature

    • Extant literature and extant music refers to texts or music that has survived from the past to the present time, as opposed to lost work. Extant literature can be divided into extant original manuscripts, copies of original manuscripts, quotations and paraphrases of passages of non-extant texts contained in other works ... Read »


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    • Fictional portrayals of psychopaths

    • Fictional portrayals of psychopaths, or sociopaths, are some of the most notorious in film and literature but may only vaguely or partly relate to the concept of psychopathy, which is itself used with varying definitions by mental health professionals, criminologists and others. The character may be identified as a dia ... Read »


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    • Film adaptation

    • A film adaptation is the transfer of a written work, in whole or in part, to a feature film. It is a type of derivative work. A common form of film adaptation is the use of a novel as the basis of a feature film. Other works adapted into films include non-fiction (including journalism), autobiography, comic books, scr ... Read »


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    • Foreword

    • A foreword is a (usually short) piece of writing sometimes placed at the beginning of a book or other piece of literature. Typically written by someone other than the primary author of the work, it often tells of some interaction between the writer of the foreword and the book's primary author or the story the book tel ... Read »


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    • Futurism (literature)

    • Futurism is a modernist avant-garde movement in literature and part of the Futurism art movement that originated in Italy in the early 20th century. It made its official literature debut with the publication of Filippo Tommaso Marinetti's Manifesto of Futurism (1909). Futurist poetry is characterised by unexpected comb ... Read »


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    • Imagery

    • Imagery, in a literary text, is an author's use of vivid and descriptive language to add depth to their work. It appeals to human senses to deepen the reader's understanding of the work. Powerful forms of imagery engage all of the senses pro lenses. There are seven major types of imagery, each corresponding to a s ... Read »


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    • Inclusio

    • In biblical studies, inclusio is a literary device based on a concentric principle, also known as bracketing or an envelope structure, which consists of creating a frame by placing similar material at the beginning and end of a section, although whether this material should consist of a word or a phrase, or whether gre ... Read »


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    • Indie literature

    • The National Literary Awards defines independent or "indie" literature as "books published outside mainstream publishing."[1] Such books are rarely recognized and hard to pin down, but some examples include "Damastor" by Dimitri Iatrou, "Returning Home" by Marcus Blake and "Hope...Joy (and a Few Little Thoughts) for Pr ... Read »


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    • Interstitial art

    • Interstitial art is any work of art whose basic nature falls between, rather than within, the familiar boundaries of accepted genres or media, thus making the work difficult to categorize or describe within a single artistic discipline. The word interstitial means "between spaces", and is commonly used to denote " ... Read »


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    • Introduction (writing)

    • In an essay, article, or book, an introduction (also known as a prolegomenon) is a beginning section which states the purpose and goals of the following writing. This is generally followed by the body and conclusion. The introduction typically describes the scope of the document and gives the brief explanation or summ ... Read »


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    • Literary language

    • A literary language is a register or dialect of a language that is used in literary writing. This may also include liturgical writing. The difference between literary and non-literary forms is more marked in some languages than in others. Where there is a strong divergence, the language is said to exhibit diglossia. C ... Read »


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    • Lead paragraph

    • In writing, especially in journalism, a lead paragraph (sometimes shortened to lead; also spelled lede) is the opening (leading) paragraph of an article, essay, book chapter, or other written work that summarizes its main ideas. The term is sometimes spelled "lede" with a claim it was a historical spelling intende ... Read »


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    • Liberature

    • Liberature is literature in which the material form is considered an important part of the whole and essential to understanding the work. Liberature refers to a new kind of literature, a trans-genre, in which the text and the material form of a book constitute an inseparable whole. The term itself is derived from ... Read »


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    • Literary cycle

    • A literary cycle is a group of stories focused on common figures, often (though not necessarily) based on mythical figures or loosely on historical ones. Cycles which deal with an entire country are sometimes referred to as matters. A fictional cycle is often referred to as a mythos. ... Read »


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    • Literary dunce

    • A dunce is a person considered incapable of learning. The word is derived from the name of the Scholastic theologian and philosopher John Duns Scotus, also referred to as Doctor Subtillis, or "Subtle Doctor", whose works on logic, theology and philosophy were accepted textbooks in the universities from the fourteenth c ... Read »


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    • Literary fragment

    • Literary fragments may comprise: The deliberately undeveloped literary sort of fragment played an especially important role in literary Romanticism. German literature of the Romantic period has left many such fragments. In English literature, note Coleridge's unfinished (but published as a fragment in 1816) "Kubla Kha ... Read »


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    • Literary science

    • Literary science (German: Literaturwissenschaft) is an umbrella term, used in many European countries, for all kinds of scientific study pertinent to literature. The main branches of literary science are history of literature, literary criticism, comparative literature, and literary theory. ... Read »


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    • Miscellany

    • A miscellany is a collection of various pieces of writing by different authors. Meaning a mixture, medley, or assortment, a can include pieces on many subjects and in a variety of different forms. In contrast to anthologies, whose aim is to give a selective and canonical view of literature, miscellanies were produced ... Read »


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    • Moral

    • A moral (from Latin morālis) is a message conveyed or a lesson to be learned from a story or . The moral may be left to the hearer, reader or viewer to determine for themselves, or may be explicitly encapsulated in a maxim. As an example of an explicit maxim, at the end of Aesop's fable of the Tortoise and the ... Read »


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    • Nonsense word

    • A nonsense word, unlike a sememe, may have no definition. Nonsense words can be classified depending on their orthographic and phonetic similarity with (meaningful) words. If it can be pronounced according to a language's phonotactics, it is a pseudoword. Nonsense words are used in literature for poetic or humorous eff ... Read »


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    • Outdoor literature

    • Outdoor literature is a literature genre about or involving the outdoors. Outdoor literature encompasses several different subgenres including exploration literature, adventure literature, mountain literature and nature writing. Another subgenre is the guide book, an early example of which was Thomas West's guide to th ... Read »


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    • Page 99 test

    • The page 99 test is a method of evalutating a work of fiction suggested by literary critic Ford Madox Ford. Ford suggested that prospective readers open a book and read page 99 to gain a sense of how well written the work is while avoiding any back-cover synopsis or the first few pages, as these are typically given ext ... Read »


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    • Pan-national epic

    • A pan-national epic is a lengthy work of poetry or prose that is widely taken to be representative of the pan-national character of a large cultural grouping that exceeds the bounds of a single nation-state or even a specific language or language group. Pan-national epics can be subdivided into supranational epics, whi ... Read »


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    • Paraliterature

    • Paraliterature comprises written works dismissed as not literary. It includes commercial fiction, popular fiction, pulp fiction, comic books and, most notably, genre fiction with works of science fiction, fantasy, mystery and others. On the term "paraliterature", Ursula K. Le Guin commented that "it exists. What I ... Read »


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    • Perverse incentive

    • A perverse incentive is an incentive that has an unintended and undesirable result which is contrary to the interests of the incentive makers. Perverse incentives are a type of negative unintended consequence or cobra effect. ... Read »


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    • Poetics

    • Poetics is the theory of literary forms and literary discourse. It may refer specifically to the theory of poetry, although some speakers use the term so broadly as to denote the concept of "theory" itself. The term "poetics" comes from the Greek ποιητικός poietikos "pertaining to poetry ... Read »


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    • Popular history

    • Popular history is a broad and somewhat ill-defined genre of historiography that takes a popular approach, aims at a wide readership, and usually emphasizes narrative, personality and vivid detail over scholarly analysis. The term is used in contradistinction to professional academic or scholarly history writing which ... Read »


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    • Portrait (literature)

    • In literature, the term portrait refers to a written description or analysis of a person or thing. A written portrait often gives deep insight, and offers an analysis that goes far beyond the superficial. For example, American author Patricia Cornwell wrote a best-selling book titled Portrait of a Killer about the pers ... Read »


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    • Postcolonial literature

    • Postcolonial literature is the literature of countries that were colonised by (mainly) European countries and which exists on all continents, but Antarctica. Postcolonial literature often addresses the problems and consequences of the decolonization of a country, especially questions relating to the political and cultu ... Read »


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    • Print disability

    • A print-disabled person is "a person who cannot effectively read print because of a visual, physical, perceptual, developmental, cognitive, or learning disability". A print disability prevents a person from gaining information from printed material in the standard way, and requires them to utilize alternative methods t ... Read »


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    • Prologue

    • A prologue or prolog (Greek πρόλογος prólogos, from pro, "before" and lógos, "word") is an opening to a story that establishes the context and gives background details, often some earlier story that ties into the main one, and other miscellaneous information. The Ancient Greek prólogos ... Read »


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    • Proverb

    • A proverb (from Latin: proverbium) is a simple and concrete saying, popularly known and repeated, that expresses a truth based on common sense or experience. They are often metaphorical. A proverb that describes a basic rule of conduct may also be known as a maxim. Proverbs fall into the category of formulaic language. ... Read »


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    • Proverbial phrase

    • A proverbial phrase or a proverbial expression is type of a conventional saying similar to proverbs and transmitted by oral tradition. The difference is that a proverb is a fixed expression, while a proverbial phrase permits alterations to fit the grammar of the context. Another similar construction is an idiomatic ph ... Read »


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    • Sensibility

    • Sensibility refers to an acute perception of or responsiveness toward something, such as the emotions of another. This concept emerged in eighteenth-century Britain, and was closely associated with studies of sense perception as the means through which knowledge is gathered. It also became associated with sentimental m ... Read »


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    • Serial (literature)

    • In literature, a serial is a printed format by which a single larger work, often a work of narrative fiction, is published in sequential installments. The installments are also known as numbers, parts or fascicles, and are either issued as separate publications or within in sequential issues of the same periodical publ ... Read »


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    • Sociology of literature

    • The sociology of literature is a subfield of the sociology of culture. It studies the social production of literature and its social implications. A notable example is Pierre Bourdieu's 1992 Les Règles de L'Art: Genèse et Structure du Champ Littéraire, translated by Susan Emanuel as Rules of Art: Genesis and S ... Read »


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    • Soliloquy

    • A soliloquy (from Latin solo "to oneself" + loquor "I talk") is a device often used in drama when a character speaks to himself or herself, relating thoughts and feelings, thereby also sharing them with the audience, giving off the illusion of being a series of unspoken reflections. If other characters are present, the ... Read »


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    • Stylistics

    • Stylistics, a branch of applied linguistics, is the study and interpretation of texts in regard to their linguistic and tonal style. As a discipline, it links literary criticism to linguistics. It does not function as an autonomous domain on its own, and it can be applied to an understanding of literature and journalis ... Read »


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    • Subliterature

    • Subliterature or trivialliteratur is a negative term to refer to popular writing and texts that are sometimes called literature but not classified as so by literary critics. Subliterature is intrinsically considered inferior to literature in terms of writing skill, depth and legacy. Subliterature is considered to have ... Read »


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    • Travel literature

    • The genre of travel literature encompasses outdoor literature, guide books, nature writing, and travel memoirs. One early travel memoirist in Western literature was Pausanias, a Greek geographer of the 2nd century AD. In the early modern period, James Boswell's Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides (1786) helped shape tra ... Read »


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    • Umbrella title

    • An umbrella title is a formal or informal name connecting a number of individual items with a common theme. It is most often used in lieu of listing separately the separate components or providing a convenient "label" for a collection of disciplines. Nonspecific fields of study are identified by umbrella titles su ... Read »


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    • Verb displacement

    • Verb displacement as it relates to prose, is a technique used to impart a lyrical or poetic feel to a phrase, sentence, or paragraph. This technique finds particular expression in minimalist literature. Specifically, verb displacement involves only those verbs that can be displaced by the word "is" or its past tense " ... Read »


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    • Verisimilitude (fiction)

    • Verisimilitude /ˌvɛrɪsɪˈmɪlɪtjuːd/ is the "lifelikeness" or believability of a work of fiction. The word comes from Latin: verum meaning truth and similis meaning similar. Language philosopher Steve Neale distinguishes between two types: cultural verisimilitude, meaning plausibility of the ficti ... Read »


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    • Vignette (literature)

    • In a novel, theatrical script, screenplay, sketch stories, and poetry, a vignette is a short impressionistic scene that focuses on one moment or character and gives a trenchant impression about that character, an idea, setting, and/or object. It's a short, descriptive passage that's more about evoking meaning through i ... Read »


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    • Villain

    • A villain (also known as the "antagonist", "baddie", "bad guy", "heavy" or "black hat") is an "evil" character in a story, whether a historical narrative or, especially, a work of fiction. The villain usually is the antagonist (though can be the protagonist), the character who tends to have a negative effect on other ... Read »


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    • Western canon

    • The Western canon is the body of books, music, and art that scholars generally accept as the most important and influential in shaping Western culture. It includes works of fiction, non-fiction, poetry, drama, music, art, sculpture, and architecture generally perceived as being of major artistic merit and representing ... Read »


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    • Whitehall farce

    • The Whitehall farces were a series of five long-running comic stage plays at the Whitehall Theatre in London, presented by the actor-manager Brian Rix, in the 1950s and 1960s. They were in the low comedy tradition of British farce, following the Aldwych farces, which played at the Aldwych Theatre between 1924 and 1933. ... Read »


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