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    Learning

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    • Applied learning

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    • Attention

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    • Critical thinking

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    • Learning disabilities

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    • Educational devices

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    • Intelligence

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    • Language acquisition

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    • Lifelong learning

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    • Machine learning

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    • Learning management systems

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    • Learning methods

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    • Play (activity)

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    • Educational practices

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    • Learning programs

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    • Learning psychology

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    • Learning to read

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    • Skills

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    • Social learning theory

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    • Teaching

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    • Learning theory (education)

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    • Competency management system

    • Competency (or competence) management systems (CMS or CompMS – because CMS is a more common homonym) are usually associated with, and may include, a learning management system (LMS). The LMS is typically a web-based tool that allows access to learning resources. Competency Management Systems tend to have a more mu ... Read »


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    • Learning

    • Learning is the act of acquiring new, or modifying and reinforcing existing, knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences which may lead to a potential change in synthesizing information, depth of the knowledge, attitude or behavior relative to the type and range of experience. The ability to learn is possessed ... Read »


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    • Spontaneous recovery

    • Spontaneous recovery is a phenomenon of learning and memory that was first named and described by Pavlov in his studies of classical (Pavlovian) conditioning. In that context, it refers to the re-emergence of a previously extinguished conditioned response after a delay. Such a recovery of "lost" behaviors can be observ ... Read »


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    • 21st century skills

    • 21st century skills are a series of higher-order skills, abilities, and learning dispositions that have been identified as being required for success in 21st century society and workplaces by educators, business leaders, academics, and governmental agencies. This is part of a growing international movement focusing on ... Read »


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    • Academic advising

    • Academic advising is, according to the National Academic Advising Association, "a series of intentional interactions with a curriculum, a pedagogy, and a set of student learning outcomes. Academic advising synthesizes and contextualizes students' educational experiences within the frameworks of their aspirations, abili ... Read »


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    • Active recall

    • Active recall is a principle of efficient learning, which claims the need to actively stimulate memory during the learning process. It contrasts with passive review, in which the learning material is processed passively (e.g. by reading, watching, etc.). For example, reading a text about George Washington, with no furt ... Read »


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    • Actual development level

    • Actual development level refers to how much a child can achieve independently without the assistance of a parents, teachers, or peers. ... Read »


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    • Adaptive hypermedia

    • Adaptive hypermedia (AH) uses hypermedia which is adaptive according to a user model. In contrast to linear media, where all users are offered a standard series of hyperlinks, adaptive hypermedia (AH) tailors what the user is offered based on a model of the user's goals, preferences and knowledge, thus providing links ... Read »


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    • Analytical skill

    • Analytical skill is the ability to visualize, articulate, conceptualize or solve both complex and uncomplicated problems by making decisions that are sensible given the available information. Such skills include demonstration of the ability to apply logical thinking to breaking complex problems into their component par ... Read »


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    • Articulatory approach for teaching pronunciation

    • The Articulatory approach to teaching pronunciation considers learning how to pronounce a second language to be a motor skill which most students are not in a position to develop based on self-evaluation of their production. The role of the teacher is therefore to provide feedback on students' performance as part of co ... Read »


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    • Augmented learning

    • Augmented learning is an on-demand learning technique where the environment adapts to the learner. By providing remediation on-demand, learners can gain greater understanding of a topic while stimulating discovery and learning. Technologies incorporating rich media and interaction have demonstrated the educational pot ... Read »


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    • Authoring system

    • An authoring system is a program that has pre-programmed elements for the development of interactive multimedia software titles. Authoring systems can be defined as software that allows its user to create multimedia applications for manipulating multimedia objects. In the development of educational software, an author ... Read »


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    • Automaticity

    • Automaticity /ˌɔːtəməˈtɪsáµ»ti/ is the ability to do things without occupying the mind with the low-level details required, allowing it to become an automatic response pattern or habit. It is usually the result of learning, repetition, and practice. Examples of automaticity are common activitie ... Read »


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    • Bad habit

    • A bad habit is a negative behaviour pattern. Common examples include procrastination, fidgeting, overspending, stereotyping, gossips, bullying, and nail-biting. It is not a misconception that it takes on average 66 days to break a habit. The amount of time it takes to break a habit is generally between 18 and 254 ... Read »


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    • Berlin Model

    • The Berlin Model (Berliner Modell) was developed by (1901–1967) and is also known as the “Teaching-learning theory of education" (lehr-lern-theoretische Didaktik) in order to distinguish it from the "developmental education theory" (bildungstheoretische Didaktik) of . Heinemann considered Klafki to be thinki ... Read »


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    • Blocking effect

    • In Kamin's blocking effect the conditioning of an association between two stimuli, a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an unconditioned stimulus (US) is impaired if, during the conditioning process, the CS is presented together with a second CS that has already been associated with the unconditioned stimulus. For example, ... Read »


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    • Classical conditioning

    • Classical conditioning (also known as Pavlovian or respondent conditioning) refers to a learning procedure in which a biologically potent stimulus (e.g. food) is paired with a previously neutral stimulus (e.g. a bell). It also refers to the learning process that results from this pairing, through which the neutral stim ... Read »


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    • Co-construction

    • In linguistics, a co-construction is a grammatical or semantic entity which has been uttered by more than one speaker. It is a technical term for the notion of one person finishing another person's thought. For example: In learning, co-construction is a distinctive approach, where the emphasis is on collaborative, or ... Read »


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    • Cognitive load

    • In cognitive psychology, cognitive load refers to the total amount of mental effort being used in the working memory. Cognitive load theory was developed out of the study of problem solving by John Sweller in the late 1980s. Sweller argued that instructional design can be used to reduce cognitive load in learners. Cogn ... Read »


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    • Committee machine

    • A committee machine is a type of artificial neural network using a divide and conquer strategy in which the responses of multiple neural networks (experts) are combined into a single response. The combined response of the committee machine is supposed to be superior to those of its constituent experts. Compare with ens ... Read »


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    • Community of inquiry

    • The community of inquiry, abbreviated as CoI, is a concept first introduced by early pragmatist philosophers C.S.Peirce and John Dewey, concerning the nature of knowledge formation and the process of scientific inquiry. The community of inquiry is broadly defined as any group of individuals involved in a process of emp ... Read »


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    • Conditioned emotional response

    • The term conditioned emotional response (CER) can refer to a specific learned behavior or a procedure commonly used in classical or Pavlovian conditioning research. It may also be called "conditioned suppression" or "conditioned fear response (CFR)." It is an "emotional response" that results from classical conditionin ... Read »


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    • Conditioned place preference

    • Conditioned place preference (CPP) is a form of Pavlovian conditioning used to measure the motivational effects of objects or experiences. This paradigm can also be used to measure conditioned place aversion with an identical procedure involving aversive stimuli instead. Both procedures usually involve mice or rats as ... Read »


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    • Connectionism

    • Connectionism is a set of approaches in the fields of artificial intelligence, cognitive psychology, cognitive science, neuroscience, and philosophy of mind, that models mental or behavioral phenomena as the emergent processes of interconnected networks of simple units. The term was introduced by Donald Hebb in the 194 ... Read »


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    • Constructive alignment

    • Constructive alignment is a principle used for devising teaching and learning activities, and assessment tasks, that directly address the intended learning outcomes (ILOs) in a way not typically achieved in traditional lectures, tutorial classes and examinations (Biggs and Tang, 2011). Constructive alignment was devise ... Read »


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    • Critical making

    • Critical making refers to the hands-on productive activities that link digital technologies to society. It is invented to bridge the gap between creative physical and conceptual exploration. The purpose of critical making lies in the learning extracted from the making rather than the experience derived from the finishe ... Read »


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    • Critical period hypothesis

    • The critical period hypothesis is the subject of a long-standing debate in linguistics and language acquisition over the extent to which the ability to acquire language is biologically linked to age. The hypothesis claims that there is an ideal time window to acquire language in a linguistically rich environment, after ... Read »


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    • Critical thinking

    • Critical thinking was described by Richard Paul as a movement in two waves (1994). The "first wave" of critical thinking is often referred to as a 'critical analysis' that is clear, rational thinking involving critique. Its details vary amongst those who define it. According to Barry K. Beyer (1995), critical thinking ... Read »


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    • Cumulative learning

    • For Cumulative Learning in artificial intelligence, see Multi-task learning Cumulative learning is the cognitive process by which we accumulate knowledge and abilities that serve as building blocks for subsequent cognitive development. A very simple example is the saying 'you can't run before you can walk'; the proced ... Read »


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    • Curriculum mapping

    • Curriculum mapping is a procedure for reviewing the operational curriculum as it is entered into an electronic database at any education setting. It is based largely on the work of Heidi Hayes Jacobs in Mapping the Big Picture: Integrating Curriculum and Assessment K-12 (ASCD, 1997) and Getting Results with Curriculum ... Read »


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    • Desirable difficulty

    • A desirable difficulty is a learning task that requires a considerable but desirable amount of effort, thereby improving long-term performance. The term was first coined by Robert A. Bjork in 1994. As the name suggests, desirable difficulties should be both desirable and difficult. Research suggests that while difficul ... Read »


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    • Dialogic learning

    • Dialogic learning is learning that takes place through dialogue. It is typically the result of egalitarian dialogue; in other words, the consequence of a dialogue in which different people provide arguments based on validity claims and not on power claims. The concept of dialogic learning is not a new one. Within the ... Read »


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    • Didaskalogenic

    • Given their inherently abstract nature, many scientific concepts, such as Newton's laws of motion, directly conflict a "working" and immediate understanding of the world. Where this is the case, such conceptual conflicts can give rise to serious obstacles to students' acceptance and understanding of scientific ideas. I ... Read »


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    • Digital learning

    • Digital learning refers to the process of learning with the aid of digital content, platform or facilitators. The future of learning would see an increased use of digital components increasingly as more content becomes available, the comfort and willingness of the players in the learning ecosystem changes along with th ... Read »


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    • Discovery (observation)

    • Discovery is the act of detecting something new, or something "old" that had been unrecognized as meaningful. With reference to sciences and academic disciplines, discovery is the observation of new phenomena, new actions, or new events and providing new reasoning to explain the knowledge gathered through such observat ... Read »


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    • Discrimination learning

    • In psychology, discrimination learning is the process by which animals or people learn to respond differently to different stimuli. It was a classic topic in the psychology of learning from the 1920s to the 1970s, and was particularly investigated within: While interest in the learning of discriminations has continued ... Read »


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    • Dreyfus model of skill acquisition

    • In the fields of education and operations research, the Dreyfus model of skill acquisition is a model of how students acquire skills through formal instruction and practicing. Brothers Stuart and Hubert Dreyfus proposed the model in 1980 in an influential, 18-page report on their research at the University of Californi ... Read »


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    • Dysrationalia

    • Dysrationalia is defined as the inability to think and behave rationally despite adequate intelligence. It is a concept in educational psychology and is not a clinical disorder such as a thought disorder. Dysrationalia can be a resource to help explain why smart people fall for Ponzi schemes and other fraudulent encoun ... Read »


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    • Educator effectiveness

    • Educator effectiveness is a K-12 school system education policy initiative that measures the quality of a educator performance in terms of improving student learning. It describes a variety of methods, such as observations, student assessments, student work samples and examples of teacher work, that education leaders u ... Read »


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    • Elkonin boxes

    • Elkonin boxes are an instructional method used in the early elementary grades especially in children with reading difficulties and inadequate responders in order to build phonological awareness by segmenting words into individual sounds. They are named after D.B. Elkonin, the Russian psychologist who pioneered their us ... Read »


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    • Emergent Design

    • Emergent Design is a phrase coined by David Cavallo to describe a theoretical framework for the implementation of systemic change in education and learning environments. This examines how choice of design methodology contributes to the success or failure of education reforms through studies in Thailand. It is related t ... Read »


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    • English Phonotypic Alphabet

    • The English Phonotypic Alphabet is a phonetic alphabet developed by Sir Isaac Pitman and Alexander John Ellis to simplify the English spelling. It was originally published in June 1845. The same year another version was extended to German, Arabic, Spanish, Tuscan, French, Welsh, Italian, Dutch, Polish, Portuguese and ... Read »


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    • Environmental enrichment

    • Environmental enrichment is the stimulation of the brain by its physical and social surroundings. Brains in richer, more stimulating environments have higher rates of synaptogenesis and more complex dendrite arbors, leading to increased brain activity. This effect takes place primarily during neurodevelopment, but also ... Read »


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    • Epigenetics in learning and memory

    • While the cellular and molecular mechanisms of learning and memory have long been a central focus of neuroscience, it is only in recent years that attention has turned to the epigenetic mechanisms behind the dynamic changes in gene transcription responsible for memory formation and maintenance. Epigenetic gene regulati ... Read »


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    • Errorless learning

    • Errorless learning was an instructional design introduced by psychologist B.F. Skinner in the 1930s as part of his studies on what would make the most effective learning environment. Skinner said: "errors are not necessary for learning to occur. Errors are not a function of learning or vice versa nor are they blamed on ... Read »


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    • Erudition

    • The word erudition came into Middle English from Latin. A scholar is erudite (Latin eruditus) when instruction and reading followed by digestion and contemplation have effaced all rudeness (e- (ex-) + rudis), that is to say smoothed away all raw, untrained incivility. Common usage has blurred the distinction from "lear ... Read »


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    • Example choice

    • Example choice is a teaching method that has been developed and explored at the University of Bergen. The main objective is to make mathematics and science teaching more interesting and relevant to the daily life of students. One study by Perkins, Gratny, Adams, Finkelstein, and Wieman found that interest in physics de ... Read »


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    • Expertise reversal effect

    • The expertise reversal effect refers to the reversal of the effectiveness of instructional techniques on learners with differing levels of prior knowledge. The primary recommendation that stems from the expertise reversal effect is that instructional design methods need to be adjusted as learners acquire more knowledge ... Read »


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    • The First Year Experience Program

    • The First-Year Experience (FYE) (also known as the Freshman-Year Experience or the Freshman Seminar Program) is a program at many American colleges and universities designed to help students prepare for the transition from high school to college. FYE programs often foster the participation of students in co-curricular ... Read »


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    • Four corners (teaching method)

    • The Four Corners is one of the many co-operative teaching and learning strategies. This activity is very useful when the teacher wants to point out the fact that not all in the class have the same view-point or that there are multiple solutions to some problems. First, the four corners of the class are labelled, eithe ... Read »


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    • Games and learning

    • Games and learning is a field of education research that studies what is learned by playing video games, and how the design principles, data and communities of video game play can be used to develop new learning environments. Video games create new social and cultural worlds – worlds that help people learn by inte ... Read »


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    • Gamification of learning

    • The gamification of learning is an educational approach to motivate students to learn by using video game design and game elements in learning environments. The goal is to maximize enjoyment and engagement through capturing the interest of learners and inspiring them to continue learning.Gamification, broadly defined, ... Read »


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    • Generalization (learning)

    • Generalization is the concept that humans and animals use past learning in present situations of learning if the conditions in the situations are regarded as similar. For example, if a person has learned in the past that every time they eat an apple, their throat becomes itchy and swollen, they might assume they are al ... Read »


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    • Group learning

    • A learning community is a group of people who share common academic goals and attitudes, who meet semi-regularly to collaborate on classwork. Such communities have become the template for a cohort-based, interdisciplinary approach to higher education. This may be based on an advanced kind of educational or 'pedagogical ... Read »


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    • Habit

    • A habit (or wont) is a routine of behavior that is repeated regularly and tends to occur subconsciously. In the American Journal of Psychology (1903) it is defined in this way: "A habit, from the standpoint of psychology, is a more or less fixed way of thinking, willing, or feeling acquired through previous repetition ... Read »


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    • Habituation

    • Habituation is a form of learning in which an organism decreases or ceases to respond to a stimulus after repeated presentations. Essentially, the organism learns to stop responding to a stimulus which is no longer biologically relevant. For example, organisms may habituate to repeated sudden loud noises when they lear ... Read »


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    • Help-seeking

    • Help-seeking theory postulates that people follow a series of predictable steps to seek help for their inadequacies, it is a series of well-ordered and purposeful cognitive and behavioral steps, each leading to specific types of solutions. Help seeking theory falls into two categories where some consider similarity in ... Read »


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    • Hyperfocus

    • Hyperfocus is an intense form of mental concentration or visualization that focuses consciousness on a subject, topic, or task. In some individuals, various subjects or topics may also include daydreams, concepts, fiction, the imagination, and other objects of the mind. Hyperfocus on a certain subject can cause side-tr ... Read »


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    • Imitative learning

    • Imitative learning is a type of social learning whereby new behaviors are acquired via imitation. Imitation aids in communication, social interaction, and the ability to modulate one's emotions to account for the emotions of others, and is "essential for healthy sensorimotor development and social functioning". The abi ... Read »


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    • Implicit learning

    • Implicit learning is the learning of complex information in an incidental manner, without awareness of what has been learned. According to Frensch and Rünger (2003) the general definition of implicit learning is still subject to some controversy, although the topic has had some significant developments since the 196 ... Read »


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    • Imprinting (psychology)

    • In psychology and ethology, imprinting is any kind of phase-sensitive learning (learning occurring at a particular age or a particular life stage) that is rapid and apparently independent of the consequences of behavior. It was first used to describe situations in which an animal or person learns the characteristics of ... Read »


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    • Incremental reading

    • Incremental reading is a method for learning and retaining information from reading that might otherwise be forgotten. It is particularly targeted to people who are trying to learn a large amount of information at once, particularly if that information is varied. Incremental reading works by breaking up key points of ... Read »


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    • Inferential theory of learning

    • Inferential theory of learning (ITL) is an area of machine learning which describes inferential processes performed by learning agents. ITL has been developed by Ryszard S. Michalski in 1980s. In ITL learning process is viewed as a search (inference) through hypotheses space guided by a specific goal. Results of learni ... Read »


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    • Informal education

    • Informal Education is a general term for education outside of a standard school setting. Informal Education is the wise, respectful and spontaneous process of cultivating learning. It works through conversation, and the exploration and enlargement of experience. For Example, Informal education has activities with child ... Read »


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    • Information grazing

    • Information grazing refers to the ability to quickly obtain knowledge and facts just in time to solve new problems or answer questions. "Information grazing" can also be "information jumping", jumping from site to site and cherry-picking information seems to "rewire" the brain to deleterious effects or focus on somethi ... Read »


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    • Initial Teaching Alphabet

    • The Initial Teaching Alphabet (I.T.A. or i.t.a.) is a variant of the Latin alphabet developed by Sir James Pitman (the grandson of Sir Isaac Pitman, inventor of a system of shorthand) in the early 1960s. It was not intended to be a strictly phonetic transcription of English sounds, or a spelling reform for English as s ... Read »


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    • Instantaneously trained neural networks

    • Instantaneously trained neural networks are feedforward artificial neural networks that create a new hidden neuron node for each novel training sample. The weights to this hidden neuron separate out not only this training sample but others that are near it, thus providing generalization. This training can be done in a ... Read »


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    • Instructional design

    • Instructional design, or instructional systems design (ISD), is the practice of creating "instructional experiences which make the acquisition of knowledge and skill more efficient, effective, and appealing." The process consists broadly of determining the state and needs of the learner, defining the end goal of instru ... Read »


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    • Instructor-led training

    • Instructor-led training, or ILT, is the practice of training and learning material between an instructor and learners, either individuals or groups. Instructors can also be referred to as a facilitator, who may be knowledgeable and experienced in the learning material, but can also be used more for their facilitati ... Read »


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    • Intellectual need

    • Intellectual need is a specific form of intrinsic motivation; it is a desire to learn something. It has been recognized as critical in effective education and learning. Intellectual need arises when someone poses a question to themselves or others, either out of curiosity or to solve a specific problem. Intellectual n ... Read »


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    • Interpretive discussion

    • An interpretive discussion is a discussion in which participants explore and/or resolve interpretations often pertaining to texts of any medium containing significant ambiguity in meaning. Interpretive discussions are an effective pedagogical method throughout educational systems in classes of nearly every subject and ... Read »


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    • ISO/IEC 19788


    • Knowledge integration

    • Knowledge integration is the process of synthesizing multiple knowledge models (or representations) into a common model (representation). Compared to information integration, which involves merging information having different schemas and representation models, knowledge integration focuses more on synthesizing the un ... Read »


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    • Knowledge of results

    • Knowledge of results is a term in the psychology of learning.p619 A psychology dictionary defines it as feedback of information: It describes the situation where a subject gets information which helps them to change behaviour in a desirable way, or to gain understanding. There are a number of similar terms in psychol ... Read »


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    • Kurso de Esperanto

    • Kurso de Esperanto

      Kurso de Esperanto (English: Course of Esperanto) is a free and open source language course software with 12 units for the constructed language Esperanto. The course is especially dedicated to beginners who will know the basics of Esperanto within two weeks, due to optimized learning exercises. The software uses liste ... Read »


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    • Latent inhibition

    • Latent inhibition is a technical term used in classical conditioning to refer to the observation that a familiar stimulus takes longer to acquire meaning (as a signal or conditioned stimulus) than a new stimulus. The term "latent inhibition" dates back to Lubow and Moore. The LI effect is "latent" in that it is not exh ... Read »


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    • Law of effect

    • The law of effect is a psychological principle advanced by Edward Thorndike in 1905 on the matter of behavioral conditioning (not yet formulated as such) which states that "responses that produce a satisfying effect in a particular situation become more likely to occur again in that situation, and responses that produc ... Read »


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    • Learning analytics

    • Learning analytics is the measurement, collection, analysis and reporting of data about learners and their contexts, for purposes of understanding and optimizing learning and the environments in which it occurs. A related field is educational data mining. For general audience introductions, see: The definition and ... Read »


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    • Learning curve

    • A learning curve is a graphical representation of the increase of learning (vertical axis) with experience (horizontal axis). The term learning curve is used in two main ways: where the same task is repeated in a series of trials, or where a body of knowledge is learned over time. The first person to describe the lear ... Read »


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    • Learning cycle

    • A learning cycle is a concept of how people learn from experience. A learning cycle will have a number of stages or phases, the last of which can be followed by the first. In 1933, John Dewey described five phases or aspects of reflective thought: In between, as states of thinking, are (1) suggestions, in which t ... Read »


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    • Learning enterprises

    • Learning Enterprises is the type of learning which reflected capabilities that combine types of learning into more general expertise developed by Gagné and Merrill (1990). This is additional type of learning to Gagné’s types of learning: declarative knowledge, intellectual skills, cognitive strategies, attit ... Read »


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    • Learning management system

    • A learning management system (LMS) is a software application for the administration, documentation, tracking, reporting and delivery of educational courses or training programs. They help the instructor deliver material to the students, administer tests and other assignments, track student progress, and manage record-k ... Read »


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    • Learning nugget

    • Learning nuggets is a standalone mini learning activity, usually less than 5 minutes in length, that would vary in size and scope that learners undertake in a particular context in order to attain specific learning outcomes A learning nugget task will take a prescribed length of time and may, or may not be assessed. Nu ... Read »


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    • Learning plan

    • A learning plan is a document (possibly an interactive or on-line document) that is used to plan learning, usually over an extended period of time. Any entity can have a learning plan. They are often used by individuals to plan and manage their own learning, but they can also be used by teams, communities of practice ... Read »


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    • Learning power

    • Learning power refers to the collection of psychological traits and skills that enable a person to engage effectively with a variety of learning challenges. The concept emerged during the 1980s and 90s, for example in the writings of the cognitive scientist Guy Claxton, as a way of describing the form of intelligence p ... Read »


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    • Learning resource center

    • A learning resource centre is a facility within a school, staffed by a specialist, containing several information sources. Purpose Information and communication development opportunities and information flow are the big challenges arising from a dedicated review of most educational questions, whether from theoretical ... Read »


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    • Learning rule

    • Learning rule or Learning process is a method or a mathematical logic which improves the artificial neural network's performance and usually this rule is applied repeatedly over the network. It is done by updating the weights and bias levels of a network when a network is simulated in a specific data environment. A lea ... Read »


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    • Learning through play

    • Learning through play is a term used in education and psychology to describe how a child can learn to make sense of the world around them. Through play children can develop social and cognitive skills, mature emotionally, and gain the self-confidence required to engage in new experiences and environments. Key ways tha ... Read »


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    • Lesson

    • A lesson is a structured period of time where learning is intended to occur. It involves one or more students (also called pupils or learners in some circumstances) being taught by a teacher or instructor. A lesson may be either one section of a textbook (which, apart from the printed page, can also include multimedia) ... Read »


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    • Lesson study

    • Lesson study (or jugyō kenkyÅ«) is a teaching improvement process that has origins in Japanese elementary education, where it is a widespread professional development practice. Working in a small group, teachers collaborate with one another, meeting to discuss learning goals, planning an actual classroom lesson (c ... Read »


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    • List of datasets for machine learning research

    • These datasets are used for machine learning research and have been cited in peer-reviewed academic journals and other publications. Datasets are an integral part of the field of machine learning. Major advances in this field can result from advances in learning algorithms (such as deep learning), computer hardware, an ... Read »


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    • Literature circle

    • A literature circle is equivalent of an adult book club, but with greater structure, expectation and rigor. The aim is to encourage thoughtful discussion and a love of reading in young people. The true intent of literature circles is "to allow students to practice and develop the skills and strategies of good readers" ... Read »


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    • Low-residency program

    • A low-residency program (or limited residency program) is a form of education, normally at the university level, which involves some amount of distance education and brief on-campus or specific-site residencies—residencies may be one weekend or several weeks. These programs are most frequently offered by colleges ... Read »


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    • Machine learning

    • Machine learning is the subfield of computer science that gives computers the ability to learn without being explicitly programmed (Arthur Samuel, 1959). Evolved from the study of pattern recognition and computational learning theory in artificial intelligence, machine learning explores the study and construction of al ... Read »


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    • Machine Teaching

    • Machine teaching is the inverse problem to machine learning. The objective is to build the input training data when a learning algorithm and desired outputs are given. In essence, this is similar to how human teachers construct lesson plan and exercises to obtain desired learning in their students. The primary focus of ... Read »


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    • Mate choice copying

    • Mate choice copying (or just "mate copying") describes a non-independent mate choice event. Mate choice copying is said to occur when the likelihood that one individual (the "observer" or "focal individual") will mate with a particular individual (the "target") increases or decreases based upon observing a sexual inter ... Read »


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    • Mathetics

    • Mathetics is the science of learning. The term was coined by John Amos Comenius (1592–1670) in his work Spicilegium didacticum, published in 1680. He understood Mathetics as the opposite of Didactics, the science of teaching. Mathetics considers and uses findings of current interest from pedagogical psychology, ne ... Read »


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    • Meaningful learning

    • Meaningful learning is opposed to rote learning and refers to a learning method where the new knowledge to acquire is related with previous knowledge (Ausubel 2000). In meaningful learning, the learners are actively "integrating" new information into old information (Novak 2002). Concept mapping has been found to be a ... Read »


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    • Measures of conditioned emotional response

    • In experimental psychology the term conditioned emotional response refers to a phenomenon that is seen in classical conditioning after a conditioned stimulus (CS) has been paired with an emotion-producing unconditioned stimulus (US) such as electric shock. The conditioned emotional response is usually measured through ... Read »


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    • Melodic learning

    • Melodic Learning is a multimodal learning method that uses the defining elements of singing (pitch, rhythm and rhyme) to facilitate the capture, storage and retrieval of information. Widely recognized examples of Melodic Learning include using the alphabet song to learn the alphabet and This Old Man to learn counting. ... Read »


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    • Meta learning

    • Meta learning is the study of disciplines. Meta learning is originally described by Donald B. Maudsley (1979) as "the process by which learners become aware of and increasingly in control of habits of perception, inquiry, learning, and growth that they have internalized". Maudsely sets the conceptual basis of his ... Read »


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    • Microdegree

    • In higher education a microdegree also micro degree and micro masters is a credential focused upon a specified professional or career discipline and typically comprises one or more sources of accelerated educational experiences. Microdegrees are a single manifestation of Competency Based Education (CBE) which seeks to ... Read »


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    • Microlearning

    • Microlearning deals with relatively small learning units and short-term learning activities. Generally, the term "microlearning" refers to micro-perspectives in the context of learning, education and training. More frequently, the term is used in the domain of e-learning and related fields in the sense of a new paradig ... Read »


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    • Miscue analysis

    • Miscue analysis was originally developed by Ken Goodman for the purpose of understanding the reading process. It is a diagnostic tool that helps researchers/teachers gain insight into the reading process. The term "miscue" was initiated by Ken Goodman to describe an observed response in the reading process that does n ... Read »


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    • Mobile computer-supported collaborative learning

    • Mobile computer-supported collaborative learning may have different meanings depending on the context in which it is applied. Mobile CSCL includes any in-class and out-of-class use of handheld mobile devices such as cell phones, smart phones, and personal digital assistants (PDAs) to enable collaborative learning. ... Read »


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    • Modality effect

    • The modality effect is a term used in experimental psychology, most often in the fields dealing with memory and learning, to refer to how learner performance depends on the presentation mode of studied items. Modality can refer to a number of characteristics of the presented study material. However, this term is u ... Read »


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    • Narrative-based learning

    • Narrative-based learning is a learning model grounded in the theory that humans define their experiences within the context of narratives – which serve as cognitive structures and a means of communication, as well as aiding people in framing and understanding their perceptions of the world.Narrative contextualises ... Read »


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    • National Service Learning Conference

    • The National Service-Learning Conference was first held in 1988 to serve as "the largest gathering of youth and practitioners from the service-learning movement" of the United States. The conference is a program of the National Youth Leadership Council, and is co-hosted annually by partner organizations in the state or ... Read »


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    • Networked learning

    • Networked learning is a process of developing and maintaining connections with people and information, and communicating in such a way so as to support one another's learning. The central term in this definition is connections. It takes a relational stance in which learning takes place both in relation to others and in ... Read »


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    • Neutral stimulus

    • A neutral stimulus is a stimulus which initially produces no specific response other than focusing attention. In classical conditioning, when used together with an unconditioned stimulus, the neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus. With repeated presentations of both the neutral stimulus and the unconditioned ... Read »


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    • Novelty effect

    • The novelty effect, in the context of human performance, is the tendency for performance to initially improve when new technology is instituted, not because of any actual improvement in learning or achievement, but in response to increased interest in the new technology. The Metropolitan Education and Research Consort ... Read »


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    • Numbers heads together

    • A cooperative learning strategy holds each individual student for learning the material. Students are divided in-group and each student will be given a number (from one to maximum number in each group). For Example: Learners are given problem for getting the solution and they put their head together and finally GE ... Read »


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    • Nuremberg Funnel

    • Nuremberg Funnel (German: Nürnberger Trichter) is a jocular description of a mechanical way of learning and teaching. On the one hand, it evokes the image of a student learning his lessons with this kind of teaching method almost without effort and on the other hand, a teacher teaching everything to even the "stupid ... Read »


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    • Observational learning

    • Observational learning is learning that occurs through observing the behavior of others. It is a form of social learning which takes various forms, based on various processes. In humans, this form of learning seems to not need reinforcement to occur, but instead, requires a social model such as a parent, sibling, frien ... Read »


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    • Operant conditioning

    • Operant conditioning (also called "instrumental conditioning") is a type of learning in which (a) the strength of a behavior is modified by the behavior's consequences, such as reward or punishment, and (b) the behavior is controlled by antecedents called "discriminative stimuli" which come to emit those responses. Wh ... Read »


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    • Operant conditioning chamber

    • An operant conditioning chamber (also known as the Skinner box) is a laboratory apparatus used to study animal behavior. The operant conditioning chamber was created by B. F. Skinner while he was a graduate student at Harvard University (studying for a master's degree in 1930 and a doctorate in 1931). It may have been ... Read »


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    • Outline of education

    • The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to education: Education – in the general sense is any act or experience that has a formative effect on the mind, character, or physical ability of an individual. In its technical sense, education is the process by which society deliberately tra ... Read »


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    • Passive review

    • Passive review is the opposite of active recall, in which the learning material is processed passively (e.g. by reading, watching, etc.). For example, to improve memory through passive review, an individual may read a text today; to not forget it, it is repeated tomorrow and then 4 days later and then 8, 16, 32, 64, e ... Read »


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    • Peer learning

    • One of the most visible approaches to peer learning comes out of cognitive psychology, and is applied within a "mainstream" educational framework: "Peer learning is an educational practice in which students interact with other students to attain educational goals." In this context, it can be compared to the practices t ... Read »


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    • Perceptual learning

    • Perceptual learning is learning better perception skills such as differentiating two musical tones from one another or categorizations of spatial and temporal patterns relevant to real-world expertise as in reading, seeing relations among chess pieces, knowing whether or not an X-ray image shows a tumor. Sensory modal ... Read »


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    • Personal learning network

    • A personal learning network is an informal learning network that consists of the people a learner interacts with and derives knowledge from in a personal learning environment. In a PLN, a person makes a connection with another person with the specific intent that some type of learning will occur because of that connect ... Read »


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    • Phonetically Intuitive English

    • Phonetically Intuitive English (PIE) is a scheme and a Chrome browser extension that automatically adds diacritics to English words on Web pages to show pronunciation, intended for English-as-a-second-language (ESL) learners to learn correct pronunciations as they browse the Web, and for children in English-speaking co ... Read »


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    • Phonics

    • Phonics is a method for teaching reading and writing of the English language by developing learners' phonemic awareness—the ability to hear, identify, and manipulate phonemes—in order to teach the correspondence between these sounds and the spelling patterns (graphemes) that represent them. The goal of phoni ... Read »


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    • Play (activity)

    • In psychology and ethology, play is a range of voluntary, intrinsically motivated activities normally associated with recreational pleasure and enjoyment. Play is commonly associated with children and juvenile-level activities, but play occurs at any life stage, and among other higher-functioning animals as well, most ... Read »


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    • Play bus

    • A play bus (or playbus or learning bus) is a bus used for providing a mobile facility for a variety of activities surrounding entertainment and education, usually for children of pre-school or school age. Play buses are usually specially converted for their purpose, usually from second hand vehicles, although occasion ... Read »


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    • Potential development level

    • Potential development level is the level a child is able to reach with the assistance of parents, teachers, peers or experts. ... Read »


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    • Preparedness (learning)

    • In psychology, preparedness is a concept developed to explain why certain associations are learned more readily than others. For example, phobias related to survival, such as snakes, spiders, and heights, are much more common and much easier to induce in the laboratory than other kinds of fears. According to Martin Sel ... Read »


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    • Proactive learning

    • Proactive learning is a generalization of active learning designed to relax unrealistic assumptions and thereby reach practical applications. "Active learning seeks to select the most informative unlabeled instances and ask an omniscient oracle for their labels, so as to retrain a learning algorithm maximizing accurac ... Read »


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    • Psychology of learning

    • The psychology of learning is a theoretical science. Learning is a process that depends on experience and leads to long-term changes in behavior potential. Behavior potential designates the possible behavior of an individual, not actual behavior. The main assumption behind all learning psychology is that the effects o ... Read »


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    • Re-Engineering Assessment Practices

    • The Re-Engineering Assessment Practices in Scottish Higher Education project, or REAP, is one of six projects funded under the Scottish Funding Council's E-learning Transformation Programme. The project is piloting improved models of assessment across three universities - the University of Strathclyde, Glasgow Caledoni ... Read »


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    • Learning to read

    • Learning to read is the process of acquiring the skills necessary for reading; that is, the ability to acquire meaning from print. Learning to read is paradoxical in some ways. For an adult who is a fairly good reader, reading seems like a simple, effortless and automatic skill but the process builds on cognitive, ling ... Read »


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    • Reading Recovery

    • Reading Recovery is a school-based, short-term intervention designed for children aged five or six, who are the lowest achieving in literacy after their first year of school. For instance, a child who is unable to read the simplest of books or write their own name, after a year in school, would be appropriate for a ref ... Read »


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    • Robot learning

    • Robot learning is a research field at the intersection of machine learning and robotics. It studies techniques allowing a robot to acquire novel skills or adapt to its environment through learning algorithms. The embodiment of the robot, situated in a physical embedding, provides at the same time specific difficulties ... Read »


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    • Running record

    • Exactly how a running record is constructed varies by the specific purpose for which it will be used and the program for which it is used. However, there are some similarities across methods. First, a child reads a selected book or passage aloud. The teacher or tutor has a copy of the words, typed out on a different pi ... Read »


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    • Second-order conditioning

    • In classical conditioning, second-order conditioning or higher-order conditioning is a form of learning in which a stimulus is first made meaningful or consequential for an organism through an initial step of learning, and then that stimulus is used as a basis for learning about some new stimulus. For example, an anima ... Read »


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    • Self-criticism

    • Self-criticism involves how an individual evaluates his or her self. Self-criticism is typically studied and discussed as a negative personality trait in which a person has a disrupted self identity. The opposite of self-criticism would be someone who has a coherent, comprehensive, and generally positive self-identity. ... Read »


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    • Sensitization

    • Sensitization is a non-associative learning process in which repeated administration of a stimulus results in the progressive amplification of a response. Sensitization often is characterized by an enhancement of response to a whole class of stimuli in addition to the one that is repeated. For example, repetition of a ... Read »


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    • Sequence learning

    • In cognitive psychology, sequence learning is inherent to human ability because it is an integrated part of conscious and nonconscious learning as well as activities. Sequences of information or sequences of actions are used in various everyday tasks: "from sequencing sounds in speech, to sequencing movements in typing ... Read »


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    • Serial memory processing

    • Serial memory processing is the act of attending to and processing one item at a time. This is usually contrasted against parallel memory processing, which is the act of attending to and processing all items simultaneously. In short-term memory tasks, participants are given a set of items (e.g. letters, digits) one at ... Read »


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    • Serial position effect

    • Serial position effect is the tendency of a person to recall the first and last items in a best, and the middle items worst. The term was coined by Hermann Ebbinghaus through studies he performed on himself, and refers to the finding that recall accuracy varies as a function of an item's position within a study list. ... Read »


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    • Serial reaction time


    • Situated learning

    • Situated learning is a theory on how individuals acquire professional skills, extending research on apprenticeship into how legitimate peripheral participation leads to membership in a community of practice. Situated learning "takes as its focus the relationship between learning and the social situation in which it occ ... Read »


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    • Skill

    • A skill is the ability to carry out a task with pre-determined results often within a given amount of time, energy, or both. Skills can often be divided into domain general and domain-specific skills. For example, in the domain of work, some general skills would include time management, teamwork and leadership, self-mo ... Read »


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    • Sleep and creativity

    • The majority of studies on sleep creativity have shown that sleep can facilitate insightful behavior and flexible reasoning, and there are several hypotheses about the creative function of dreams. On the other hand, a few recent studies have supported a theory of creative insomnia, in which creativity is significantly ... Read »


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    • Sleep and learning

    • Multiple hypotheses explain the possible connections between sleep and learning in humans. Research indicates that sleep does more than allow the brain to rest. It may also aid the consolidation of long-term memories. REM sleep and slow-wave sleep play different roles in memory consolidation. REM is associated with th ... Read »


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    • Social Thinking

    • Social Thinking is a social skills curriculum developed by Michelle Garcia Winner. The curriculum is intended for students with social learning disabilities, especially those with autistic spectrum conditions. Its main focus is on teaching students to think about how others perceive them. Social thinking what indi ... Read »


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    • Social Web Academy

    • Social Web Academy is a web-based learning system which combines formal e-learning methods with informal learning, in an approach which centres on specific target groups. Social web academies initiate learning communities using formal learning processes, which at the same time encourage web-based learning. The differen ... Read »


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    • Socratic questioning

    • Socratic questioning (or Socratic maieutics) is disciplined questioning that can be used to pursue thought in many directions and for many purposes, including: to explore complex ideas, to get to the truth of things, to open up issues and problems, to uncover assumptions, to analyze concepts, to distinguish what we kno ... Read »


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    • Splinter skill

    • A splinter skill is an "ability to do a specific task that does not generalize to other tasks", according to Occupational Therapy for Physical Dysfunction. Cheatum and Hammond define them as skills learned that are above the child's age. Jacks writes that they are skills that are not "an integral part of the orderly se ... Read »


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    • Split attention effect

    • The split-attention effect is a learning effect inherent within some poorly designed instructional materials. It is apparent when the same modality (e.g. visual) is used for various types of information within the same display. To learn from these materials, learners must split their attention between these materials t ... Read »


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    • Stability (learning theory)

    • Stability, also known as algorithmic stability, is a notion in computational learning theory of how a machine learning algorithm is perturbed by small changes to its inputs. A stable learning algorithm is one for which the prediction does not change much when the training data is modified slightly. For instance, consid ... Read »


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    • Student information system

    • A student information system (SIS), student management system, school administration software or student administration system is a management information system for education establishments to manage student data. Student information systems provide capabilities for registering students in courses, documenting grading ... Read »


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    • Summer learning loss

    • Summer learning loss is the loss of academic skills and knowledge over the course of summer holidays. The loss in learning varies across grade level, subject matter, and family income. A common finding across numerous studies is that on average, students score lower on standardized tests at the end of the summer than t ... Read »


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    • Summer reading program

    • Summer Reading' can be assigned to students in the United States during their summer vacation. This can range from the simple book reports to in depth projects that support the curriculum including Science, Language Arts, Social Sciences, and Math. Occasionally there is a controversy - see UNC-Qur'an Controversy. Many ... Read »


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    • Supplemental instruction

    • Supplemental Instruction (SI) is an academic support model developed by Dr. Deanna Martin at the University of Missouri–Kansas City (UMKC) in 1973 that uses peer-assisted study sessions to improve student retention and success within targeted historically difficult courses. The SI program provides peer support by ... Read »


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    • Sustained silent reading

    • Sustained silent reading (SSR) is a form of school-based recreational reading, or free voluntary reading, where students read silently in a designated time period every day in school. An underlying assumption of SSR is that students learn to read by reading constantly. Successful models of SSR typically allow students ... Read »


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    • Texture Discrimination Task

    • The Texture Discrimination Task is a common task used in visual perception learning. In this task, the subject must respond to the central letter task (in order to ensure that the subject remains fixated on the letter) and then identify the orientation of a target array in a peripheral location of the test stimulus. T ... Read »


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    • Time-Place learning

    • Time-place learning (TPL) is the process by which animals link events (e.g. finding food, encountering a predator) with both the location and time of occurrence. It enables them to decide which locations to visit or to avoid based on previous experience and knowledge of the current time of day. TPL presumably allows an ... Read »


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    • Tinnitus retraining therapy

    • Tinnitus retraining therapy (TRT) is a form of habituation therapy designed to help people who suffer from tinnitus, a ringing, buzzing, hissing, or other sound in the ears when no external sound is present. Two key components of TRT directly follow from the neurophysiological model of tinnitus. One of these principles ... Read »


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    • Transformative learning

    • Transformative learning theory says that the process of "perspective transformation" has three dimensions: psychological (changes in understanding of the self), convictional (revision of belief systems), and behavioral (changes in lifestyle). Transformative learning is the expansion of consciousness through the transf ... Read »


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    • Tutor

    • A tutor is an instructor who gives private lessons. Shadow education is a name for private supplementary tutoring that is offered outside the mainstream education system. Normally, a tutor will help a student who is struggling in a subject of some sort. Also, a tutor may be provided for a student who wants to learn at ... Read »


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    • Universal design for instruction

    • Universal instructional design (UID) or universal design for instruction (UDI) is an educational framework for applying universal design principles to learning environments with a goal toward greater accessibility for all students, including students with disabilities. UDI involves considering the potential needs of al ... Read »


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    • University of Arkansas Office of Distance Education

    • The Office of Distance Education (ODE) was founded in July 1998 on the campus of the Arkansas School for Mathematics, Sciences, and the Arts in Hot Springs, Arkansas and is now a part of the University of Arkansas System. Originally established in order to expand educational opportunities in Arkansas’ rural school ... Read »


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    • UPEDU

    • The UPEDU or Unified Process for Education is a software development process specialized for education, developed by Pierre-N. Robillard (École Polytechnique de Montréal), Philippe Kruchten (Rational Software) and Patrick d'Astous (École Polytechnique de Montréal). UPEDU is a customization of the IBM Ratio ... Read »


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    • Validated learning

    • Validated learning is a process in which one learns by trying out an initial idea and then measuring it to validate the effect. Each test of an idea is a single iteration in a larger process of many iterations whereby something is learnt and then applied to succeeding tests. The term coined in the lean startup scene, b ... Read »


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    • Varied practice

    • In the study of learning and memory, varied practice (also known as variable practice or mixed practice) refers to the use of a training schedule that includes frequent changes of task so that the performer is constantly confronting novel instantiations of the to-be-learned information. The varied practice approach fo ... Read »


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    • Visible Learning

    • In a 2008 meta-study, John Hattie popularized the concept of visible learning. Hattie compared the effect size of many aspects that influence learning outcomes in schools and points out that in education most things work. The question is which strategies and innovations work best and where to concentrate efforts in or ... Read »


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    • Vocal learning

    • Vocal learning is the ability to modify acoustic and syntactic sounds, acquire new sounds via imitation, and produce vocalizations. “Vocalizations” in this case refers only to sounds generated by the vocal organ (mammalian larynx or avian syrinx) as opposed to by the lips, teeth, and tongue, which require sub ... Read »


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    • Web Inquiry Projects

    • Web Inquiry Projects (WIPs) are "open inquiry learning activities that leverage the use of uninterpreted online data and information." They were invented at San Diego State University in 2001. One example is the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign's Ethnography of the University (EOTU) program, which sponsors u ... Read »


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    • Worked-example effect

    • The worked-example effect is a learning effect predicted by cognitive load theory (Sweller, 1988). Specifically, it refers to the learning effect observed when worked-examples are used as part of instruction, compared to other instructional techniques such as problem-solving (Renkl, 2005) and discovery learning (Mayer, ... Read »


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    • Youth work

    • Youth work is community support activity aimed at older children and adolescents. Depending upon the culture and the community, different services and institutions may exist for this purpose. In the United Kingdom youth work is the process of creating an environment where young people can engage in informal educational ... Read »


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    • Zeigarnik effect

    • In psychology, the Zeigarnik effect states that people remember uncompleted or interrupted tasks better than completed tasks. In Gestalt psychology, the Zeigarnik effect has been used to demonstrate the general presence of Gestalt phenomena: not just appearing as perceptual effects, but also present in cognition. ... Read »


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