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    Languages

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    • Languages by word order

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    • Lists by language

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    • Lists of languages

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    • Categories by language

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    • Languages by continent

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    • Languages by country

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    • Language families

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    • Languages by geographical region

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    • Languages by time

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    • Ancient languages

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    • Constructed languages

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    • Diaspora languages

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    • Endangered languages

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    • Extinct languages

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    • Glottonyms

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    • International language observances

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    • ISO 639

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about ISO 639


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    • Jewish languages

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Jewish languages


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    • Language orthographies

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Language orthographies


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    • Language phonologies

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Language phonologies


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    • Language comparison

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    • Language flags

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Language flags


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    • Language isolates

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    • Language versus dialect

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Language versus dialect


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    • Linguistic maps

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    • Medieval languages

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Medieval languages


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    • Metalanguages

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Metalanguages


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    • Musical languages

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Musical languages


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    • Non-tonal languages in tonal families

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Non-tonal languages in tonal families


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    • Proto-languages

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Proto-languages


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    • Ritual languages

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Ritual languages


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    • Sign languages

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Sign languages


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    • Sprachbund

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Sprachbund


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    • Spurious languages

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Spurious languages


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    • Tonal languages

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Tonal languages


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    • Unclassified languages

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Unclassified languages


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    • Language varieties and styles

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    • Vowel-harmony languages

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Vowel-harmony languages


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    • Language stubs

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    • Language

    • Language is the ability to acquire and use complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so, and a language is any specific example of such a system. The scientific study of language is called linguistics. Questions concerning the philosophy of language, such as whether words can represent expe ... Read »


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    • Ancient language

    • An ancient language is any language originating in times that may be referred to as ancient. There is no formal criteria for deeming a language ancient, but a traditional convention is to demarcate as "ancient" those languages that existed prior to the 5th century. Linguist Roger Woodward has said that "[p]erhaps, then ... Read »


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    • Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies

    • Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies

      The Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies (AIATSIS) is an independent Australian Government statutory authority. It is a collecting, publishing and research institute and is considered to be Australia's premier resource for information about the cultures and societies of Aboriginal and T ... Read »


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    • Bernolák language


    • Context-free language

    • In formal language theory, a context-free language (CFL) is a language generated by a context-free grammar (CFG). Context-free languages have many applications in programming languages, in partiular, most arithmetic expressions are generated by context-free grammars. Different CF grammars can generate the same CF ... Read »


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    • Cross-border language

    • A cross-border language or trans-border language is a language spoken by a population (ethnic group or nation) that lives in a geographical area in two or several internationally recognized countries that have common land or maritime borders. Cross-border languages are particularly common in Africa but are found on all ... Read »


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    • Donor principle

    • In linguistics, the donor principle refers primarily to the observance of the original spelling of a loanword from the original ("donor") language. This principle applies in particular to the standardization in the receiver language of exonyms when they are used in publications. The term donor principle is sometimes a ... Read »


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    • Dutch Sign Language

    • Dutch Sign Language (Dutch: Nederlandse Gebarentaal or NGT; Sign Language of the Netherlands or SLN) is the sign language used by deaf people in the Netherlands and is not officially recognized. As of 1995, more and more schools for the deaf in The Netherlands teach Signed Dutch (Nederlands met Gebaren). This uses the ... Read »


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    • Economics of language

    • The economics of language is an emerging field of study concerning a range of topics such as the effect of language skills on income and trade, and the costs and benefits of language planning options, preservation of minority languages, etc. It is relevant to analysis of language policy. In his book 'Language and econ ... Read »


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    • English in Bangladesh

    • English in the People's Republic of Bangladesh is the principal language of the Bangladeshi upper judiciary, including the Bangladesh Supreme Court and the Dhaka High Court. Bengali is the sole official language, but English is often used secondarily for official purposes, especially in the judiciary. English medium e ... Read »


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    • Experimental language

    • An experimental language is a constructed language designed for linguistics research, often on the relationship between language and thought. One particular assumption having received much attention in fiction is popularly known as the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis. The claim is that the structure of a language somehow ... Read »


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    • First language

    • A first language (also native language, father tongue/mother tongue, arterial language, or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period. If there are multiple L1, the designation "first language" is used for the L1 spoken the best or the one that is the basis for sociolin ... Read »


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    • Genderless language

    • A genderless language is a natural or constructed language that has no distinctions of grammatical gender—that is, no categories requiring morphological agreement between nouns and associated pronouns, adjectives, articles, or verbs. The notion of "genderless language" must not be confused with that of gender-neu ... Read »


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    • Global language system

    • The global language system is the "ingenious pattern of connections between language groups". Dutch sociologist Abram de Swaan developed this theory in 2001 in his book Words of the World: The Global Language System and according to him, "the multilingual connections between language groups do not occur haphazardly, bu ... Read »


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    • Glossophilia

    • Glossophilia is a love of language, be it foreign or native. The term refers to people with a love for language and the structure of language. Glossophiles also dedicate themselves to the learning of foreign languages and intensely study as many languages as possible. It is not uncommon for glossophiles to be proficien ... Read »


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    • Historical language

    • Historical languages (also known as historic languages) are languages that were spoken in a historical period, but that are distinct from their modern form; that is, they are forms of languages historically attested to from the past which have evolved into more modern forms. Thus, historical languages contrast with dea ... Read »


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    • Heritage language

    • A heritage language is the language someone learns at home as a child which is a minority language in a society, but because of growing up with a dominant language, the speaker seems more competent in the latter and feels more comfortable communicating in that language. Polinsky & Kagan label it as a continuum that ran ... Read »


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    • IETF language tag

    • An IETF language tag is an abbreviated language code (for example, en for English, pt-BR for Brazilian Portuguese, or nan-Hant-TW for Min Nan Chinese as spoken in Taiwan using traditional Han characters) defined by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) in the BCP 47 document series, which is currently composed of ... Read »


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    • Indigenous language

    • An indigenous language or autochthonous language is a language that is native to a region and spoken by indigenous people, often reduced to the status of a minority language. This language would be from a linguistically distinct community that has been settled in the area for many generations. Indigenous languages are ... Read »


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    • International Year of Languages

    • The United Nations General Assembly proclaimed 2008 as the International Year of Languages, pursuant to a resolution of UNESCO. The resolution also reaffirmed the need to achieve full parity among the six official languages on United Nations websites. The Year was intended to address issues of linguistic diversity ... Read »


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    • ISO 639 macrolanguage


    • Language code

    • A language code is a code that assigns letters or numbers as identifiers or classifiers for languages. These codes may be used to organize library collections or presentations of data, to choose the correct localizations and translations in computing, and as a shorthand designation for longer forms of language-name. ... Read »


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    • Languages in censuses

    • Many countries and national censuses currently enumerate or have previously enumerated their populations by languages, native language, home language, level of knowing language or a combination of these characteristics. Pashto and Dari (Persian) are the official languages of Afghanistan; bilingualism is very commo ... Read »


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    • Lingua franca

    • A lingua franca is a language used for communication between speakers of different languages. Lingua Franca or lingua franca can also refer to: ... Read »


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    • Linguistic boundary of Brittany

    • The language boundary in Brittany is the language border between the part of Brittany where Breton (a Celtic language) is spoken and the area in Brittany where Gallo (a Romance language) is spoken. The existence of this linguistic border led to differentiate the Celtic-speaking Lower Brittany (West) from the Romance-sp ... Read »


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    • Linguistic boundary of Moselle

    • The linguistic boundary in the French department of Moselle (Lorraine region) is a subset of the wider Romance-Germanic language border that stretches through Belgium, France, Switzerland and Italy. At the end of the nineteenth century: ... Read »


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    • Loanword

    • A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation. A loanword is distinguished from a calque (loan translation), which is a word or phrase whose meaning or idiom is adopted from another language by translatio ... Read »


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    • Medium of instruction

    • A medium of instruction (plural: usually mediums of instruction, but the archaic media of instruction is still used by some) is a language used in teaching. It may or may not be the official language of the country or territory. If the first language of students is different from the official language, it may be used a ... Read »


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    • Metaphorical language

    • Metaphorical language is the use of a complex system of metaphors to create a sub-language within a common language which provides the basic terms (verbs, prepositions, conjunctions) to express metaphors. People who over-expose themselves to environments atypical from their usual habits tend to develop understanding o ... Read »


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    • Minoritized language

    • Minoritized language is a term of sociolinguistics that refers to a language that has suffered marginalization, persecution or even ban at some point in its history. It is a concept which highlights the presence of an enforcement action that leads to a cut in its use. It differs from the more widely used "minority lang ... Read »


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    • Minority language

    • A minority language is a language spoken by a minority of the population of a territory. Such people are termed linguistic minorities or language minorities. With a total number of 193 sovereign states recognized internationally (as of 2008) and an estimated number of roughly 5,000 to 7,000 languages spoken worldwide, ... Read »


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    • Modern language

    • A modern language is any human language that is currently in use. The term is used in language education to distinguish between languages which are used for day-to-day communication (such as French and German) and dead classical languages such as Latin and Classical Chinese, which are studied for their cultural or ling ... Read »


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    • Multialphabetism

    • The term multialphabetism describes parallel use of different alphabets. One can discriminate between ... Read »


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    • Mutual intelligibility

    • In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort. It is generally used as the most important criterion for distinguishing languages from dialects, alth ... Read »


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    • Nomen à clef


    • Polyglotism

    • Polyglotism or polyglottism is the ability to master, or the state of having mastered, multiple languages. The word is a synonym of multilingualism, but in recent usage polyglot is sometimes used to refer to a person who learns multiple languages as an avocation. The term hyperpolyglot was coined in 2008 by linguist Ri ... Read »


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    • Romance-speaking world

    • The Romance-speaking world,romanophone,neolatin world, or Latin-speaking world, is the part of the world where Romance languages (those derived from Latin) are either official, co-official, or significantly used, comprising Latin America, Latin Europe, Romance-speaking Africa and Romance-speaking Asia. It includes the ... Read »


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    • Sprachraum

    • In linguistics, a sprachraum (/ˈsprɑːkraʊm/; German: [ˈʃpʁaːxʁaʊm], "language space") is a geographical region where a common first language (mother tongue), with dialect varieties, or group of languages is spoken. Most sprachraums do not follow national borders. For example, half of ... Read »


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    • Tripartite language

    • A tripartite language, also called an ergative–accusative language, is one that treats the agent of a transitive verb, the patient of a transitive verb, and the single argument of an intransitive verb each in different ways. This contrasts with nominative–accusative and ergative–absolutive languages. If ... Read »


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    • UCL Division of Psychology and Language Sciences

    • The UCL Division of Psychology and Language Sciences is a Division within the Faculty of Brain Sciences of University College London (UCL) and is located in London, United Kingdom. The Division offers teaching and training and undertakes research in psychology and communication and allied clinical and basic science. It ... Read »


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    • Universal language

    • Universal language may refer to a hypothetical or historical language spoken and understood by all or most of the world's population. In some contexts, it refers to a means of communication said to be understood by all living things, beings, and objects alike. It may be the idea of an international auxiliary language f ... Read »


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    • World language

    • A world language is a language that is spoken internationally and is learned and spoken by a large number of people as a second language. A world language is characterized not only by the total number of speakers (native and second language speakers), but also by its geographical distribution, as well as use in interna ... Read »


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    • Written language

    • A written language is the representation of a spoken or gestural language by means of a writing system. Written language is an invention in that it must be taught to children, who will pick up spoken language (oral or sign) by exposure even if they are not specifically taught. A written language exists only as a compl ... Read »


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    • Zacatepec Chatino

    • Zacatepec Chatino is an indigenous Mesoamerican language, one of the Chatino family of the Oto-Manguean languages. It is often referred to as Chatino de San Marcos Zacatepec or Chatino de Zacatepec as it is distinct from other Chatino languages in the region. Unfortunately, it is not intelligible with other Chatino lan ... Read »


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