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    Language stubs

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    • Afroasiatic languages

    • Afroasiatic languages

      Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian and traditionally as Hamito-Semitic (Chamito-Semitic), is a large language family of several hundred related languages and dialects. It comprises about 300 or so living languages and dialects, according to the 2009 Ethnologue estimate. It includes languages spoken pred ... Read »


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    • Chadic languages

    • Chadic languages

      The Chadic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family that is spoken in parts of the Sahel. They include 150 languages spoken across northern Nigeria, southern Niger, southern Chad, Central African Republic and northern Cameroon. The most widely spoken Chadic language is Hausa, a lingua franca of much of ... Read »


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    • Biu–Mandara languages


    • East Chadic languages

    • East Chadic languages

      The three dozen East Chadic languages of the Chadic family are spoken in Chad and Cameroon. The branches of East Chadic go either by names or by letters and numbers in an outline format. ... Read »


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    • West Chadic languages

    • West Chadic languages

      The West Chadic languages of the Afro-Asiatic family are spoken principally in Niger and Nigeria. They include Hausa, the most populous Chadic language and the major language of West Africa. The branches of West Chadic go either by names or by letters and numbers in an outline format. In addition, Poki is unclassifie ... Read »


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    • Austroasiatic languages

    • Austroasiatic languages

      The Austroasiatic languages, in recent classifications synonymous with Mon–Khmer, are a large language family of continental Southeast Asia, also scattered throughout India, Bangladesh, Nepal and the southern border of China. The name Austroasiatic comes from the Latin words for "south" and "Asia", hence "South As ... Read »


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    • Austronesian languages

    • Austronesian languages

      Malayo-Polynesian The Austronesian languages are a language family that is widely dispersed throughout Maritime Southeast Asia, Madagascar and the islands of the Pacific Ocean, with a few members in continental Asia. Austronesian languages are spoken by about 386 million people, making it the fifth-largest language fa ... Read »


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    • Javanese language

    • Javanese language

      Javanese /dʒɑːvəˈniːz/ (ꦧꦱꦗꦮ, basa Jawa; Javanese pronunciation: [bɔsɔ dʒɔwɔ]) (colloquially known as ꦕꦫꦗꦮ, cara Jawa; Javanese pronunciation: [tjɔrɔ dʒɔwɔ]) is the language of the Javanese people from the central and eastern ... Read »


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    • Constructed languages

    • A planned or constructed language (sometimes called a conlang) is a language whose phonology, grammar, and vocabulary have been consciously devised for human or human-like communication, instead of having developed naturally. It is also referred to as an artificial or invented language. There are many possible reasons ... Constructed languages


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    • Esperanto language

    • Esperanto language

      Esperanto (/ˌɛspəˈræntoʊ/ or /-ˈrɑː-/; in Esperanto: [espeˈranto]  listen ) is a constructed international auxiliary language. It is the most widely spoken constructed language in the world. The Polish-Jewish ophthalmologist L. L. Zamenhof published the first book detailing Esperanto ... Read »


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    • Dravidian languages

    • Dravidian languages

      The Dravidian languages are a language family spoken mainly in southern India and parts of eastern and central India, as well as in northeastern Sri Lanka with small pockets in southwestern Pakistan, southern Afghanistan, Nepal, Bangladesh and Bhutan, and overseas in other countries such as Malaysia and Singapore. The ... Read »


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    • Hmong–Mien languages


    • Indigenous American languages

    • Indigenous languages of the Americas are spoken by indigenous peoples from Alaska and Greenland to the southern tip of South America, encompassing the land masses that constitute the Americas. These indigenous languages consist of dozens of distinct language families, as well as many language isolates and unclassified ... Indigenous American languages


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    • Indigenous Australian languages

    • The Australian Aboriginal languages consist of up to twenty-seven language families and isolates, spoken by Aboriginal Australians of mainland Australia and a few nearby islands. The relationships between these languages are not clear at present. Despite this uncertainty the indigenous languages of Australia are collec ... Indigenous Australian languages


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    • Indo-European languages

    • Indo-European languages

      The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects. There are about 445 living Indo-European languages, according to the estimate by Ethnologue, with over two-thirds (313) of them belonging to the Indo-Iranian branch. The most widely spoken Indo-European languages by nat ... Read »


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    • Latin language

    • Latin language

      Latin (Latin: lingua latÄ«na, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets. Latin was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula. Through the power ... Read »


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    • Yiddish language

    • Yiddish language

      Yiddish (, or , yidish/idish, lit. "Jewish", pronounced [ˈjɪdɪʃ] [ˈɪdɪʃ]; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, lit. Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews. It originated during the 9th century in Central Europe, providing the ... Read »


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    • Japonic languages

    • Japonic languages

      The Japonic language family includes the Japanese language spoken on the main islands of Japan as well as the Ryukyuan languages spoken in the Ryukyu Islands. The family is widely accepted by linguists, and the term "Japonic languages" was coined by Leon Serafim. The common ancestral language is known as Proto-Japonic. ... Read »


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    • Mongolic languages

    • Mongolic languages

      The Mongolic languages are a group of languages spoken in East-Central Asia, mostly in Mongolia and surrounding areas plus in Kalmykia. The best-known member of this language family, Mongolian, is the primary language of most of the residents of Mongolia and the Mongolian residents of Inner Mongolia, China with an esti ... Read »


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    • Niger–Congo languages


    • Bantu languages

    • Bantu languages

      The Bantu languages (/ˈbæntuː/), technically the Narrow Bantu languages (as opposed to "Wide Bantu", a loosely defined categorization which includes other Bantoid languages), constitute a traditional branch of the Niger–Congo languages. There are about 250 Bantu languages by the criterion of mutual intell ... Read »


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    • Swahili language

    • Swahili language

      Swahili, also known as Kiswahili, is a Bantu language and the first language of the Swahili people. It is a lingua franca of the African Great Lakes region and other parts of eastern and southeastern Africa, including Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Mozambique and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The clo ... Read »


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    • Nilo-Saharan languages

    • Nilo-Saharan languages

      The Nilo-Saharan languages are a proposed family of African languages spoken by some 50–60 million Nilotic people, mainly in the upper parts of the Chari and Nile rivers, including historic Nubia, north of where the two tributaries of the Nile meet. The languages extend through 17 nations in the northern half of A ... Read »


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    • Northeast Caucasian languages

    • Northeast Caucasian languages

      The Northeast Caucasian, East Caucasian, or Nakho-Dagestanian languages are a language family spoken in the Russian republics of Dagestan, Chechnya, and Ingushetia, in northern Azerbaijan and northeastern Georgia, as well as in diaspora populations in Russia, Turkey, and the Middle East. They are occasionally called Ca ... Read »


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    • Papuan languages

    • The Papuan languages are a subset of Languages of Papua New Guinea of the western Pacific island of New Guinea, and neighbouring islands, that are neither Austronesian nor Australian. The term does not presuppose a genetic relationship. The concept of Papuan peoples as distinct from Melanesians was first suggested and ... Read »


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    • Pidgin

    • A pidgin /ˈpɪdʒᵻn/, or pidgin language, is a grammatically simplified means of communication that develops between two or more groups that do not have a language in common: typically, a mixture of simplified languages or a simplified primary language with other languages' elements included. It is most com ... Read »


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    • creole languages

    • A creole language is a stable natural language developed from a mixture of different languages. While the concept is similar to that of a mixed or hybrid language, in the strict sense of the term, a mixed/hybrid language has derived from two or more languages, to such an extent that it is no longer closely related to t ... creole languages


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    • Sign languages

    • A sign language (also signed language) is a language which chiefly uses manual communication to convey meaning, as opposed to acoustically conveyed sound patterns. This can involve simultaneously combining hand shapes, orientation and movement of the hands, arms or body, and facial expressions to express a speaker's th ... Sign languages


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    • Sino-Tibetan languages

    • Sino-Tibetan languages

      The Sino-Tibetan languages, in a few sources also known as Tibeto-Burman or Trans-Himalayan, are a family of more than 400 languages spoken in East Asia, Southeast Asia and South Asia. The family is second only to the Indo-European languages in terms of the number of native speakers. The Sino-Tibetan languages with the ... Read »


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    • Tai–Kadai languages


    • Turkic languages

    • Turkic languages

      The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five languages, spoken by Turkic peoples from Southeastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China. The Turkic languages originated in a region spanning Western China to Mongolia from where it expanded to Central Asia and farther west. Tur ... Read »


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    • Uralic languages

    • Uralic languages

      The Uralic languages /jʊˈræláµ»k/ (sometimes called Uralian languages /jʊˈreɪliən/) constitute a language family of 38languages spoken by approximately 25 million people, predominantly in Northern Eurasia. The Uralic languages with the most native speakers are Hungarian, Finnish, and Estonian, w ... Read »


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    • Chadic languages

    • Chadic languages

      The Chadic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family that is spoken in parts of the Sahel. They include 150 languages spoken across northern Nigeria, southern Niger, southern Chad, Central African Republic and northern Cameroon. The most widely spoken Chadic language is Hausa, a lingua franca of much of ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Biu–Mandara languages


    • East Chadic languages

    • East Chadic languages

      The three dozen East Chadic languages of the Chadic family are spoken in Chad and Cameroon. The branches of East Chadic go either by names or by letters and numbers in an outline format. ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • West Chadic languages

    • West Chadic languages

      The West Chadic languages of the Afro-Asiatic family are spoken principally in Niger and Nigeria. They include Hausa, the most populous Chadic language and the major language of West Africa. The branches of West Chadic go either by names or by letters and numbers in an outline format. In addition, Poki is unclassifie ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Biu–Mandara languages


    • East Chadic languages

    • East Chadic languages

      The three dozen East Chadic languages of the Chadic family are spoken in Chad and Cameroon. The branches of East Chadic go either by names or by letters and numbers in an outline format. ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • West Chadic languages

    • West Chadic languages

      The West Chadic languages of the Afro-Asiatic family are spoken principally in Niger and Nigeria. They include Hausa, the most populous Chadic language and the major language of West Africa. The branches of West Chadic go either by names or by letters and numbers in an outline format. In addition, Poki is unclassifie ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Javanese language

    • Javanese language

      Javanese /dʒɑːvəˈniːz/ (ꦧꦱꦗꦮ, basa Jawa; Javanese pronunciation: [bɔsɔ dʒɔwɔ]) (colloquially known as ꦕꦫꦗꦮ, cara Jawa; Javanese pronunciation: [tjɔrɔ dʒɔwɔ]) is the language of the Javanese people from the central and eastern ... Read »


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    • Esperanto language

    • Esperanto language

      Esperanto (/ˌɛspəˈræntoʊ/ or /-ˈrɑː-/; in Esperanto: [espeˈranto]  listen ) is a constructed international auxiliary language. It is the most widely spoken constructed language in the world. The Polish-Jewish ophthalmologist L. L. Zamenhof published the first book detailing Esperanto ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Latin language

    • Latin language

      Latin (Latin: lingua latÄ«na, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets. Latin was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula. Through the power ... Read »


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    • Yiddish language

    • Yiddish language

      Yiddish (, or , yidish/idish, lit. "Jewish", pronounced [ˈjɪdɪʃ] [ˈɪdɪʃ]; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, lit. Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews. It originated during the 9th century in Central Europe, providing the ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Bantu languages

    • Bantu languages

      The Bantu languages (/ˈbæntuː/), technically the Narrow Bantu languages (as opposed to "Wide Bantu", a loosely defined categorization which includes other Bantoid languages), constitute a traditional branch of the Niger–Congo languages. There are about 250 Bantu languages by the criterion of mutual intell ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Swahili language

    • Swahili language

      Swahili, also known as Kiswahili, is a Bantu language and the first language of the Swahili people. It is a lingua franca of the African Great Lakes region and other parts of eastern and southeastern Africa, including Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Mozambique and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The clo ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Swahili language

    • Swahili language

      Swahili, also known as Kiswahili, is a Bantu language and the first language of the Swahili people. It is a lingua franca of the African Great Lakes region and other parts of eastern and southeastern Africa, including Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Mozambique and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The clo ... Read »


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    • Austroasiatic language stubs

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Austroasiatic language stubs


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    • Afroasiatic language stubs

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    • Austronesian language stubs

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    • Caucasian language stubs

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    • Constructed language stubs

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    • Dravidian language stubs

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    • Hmong–Mien language stubs


    • Indigenous languages of the Americas stubs

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    • Indigenous Australian language stubs

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    • Indo-European language stubs

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    • Japonic language stubs

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    • Niger–Congo language stubs


    • Nilo-Saharan language stubs

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    • Papuan language stubs

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    • Pidgin and creole language stubs

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    • Sign language stubs

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    • Sino-Tibetan language stubs

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    • Tai-Kadai language stubs

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    • Turkic language stubs

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    • Uralic language stubs

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    • Spanish language stubs

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    • Abureni language

    • Abureni is a Central Delta language of Nigeria. ... Read »


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    • Adurgari

    • Adurgari (ادرغارى) is a secret cant of the nomadic Shaikh Mohammadi tribe of peddlers of Afghanistan, used especially in the presence of outsiders. It is taught to children around age seven; all adults speak it in addition to Persian and Pashto. It is not a native language and contains a mixture of ... Read »


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    • Aesopian language

    • Aesopian language is communications that convey an innocent meaning to outsiders but hold a concealed meaning to informed members of a conspiracy or underground movement. For instance, if Person X is known for exposing secrets in an organization, the organization leaders announce that "any members who have dirty talkin ... Read »


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    • Agarabi language

    • Agarabi, also called Bare, is a Kainantu language spoken in Papua New Guinea. ... Read »


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    • Akeu language

    • Akeu and Chepya are a Loloish language mainly of China, with smaller numbers in Burma, Laos, and Thailand. Akeu (Ake 阿克; autonym: Gouke 勾克) is spoken in the following locations of Yunnan (You 2013:172). The Akeu migrated from Mojiang County to the Sipsongpanna area 8 generations ago (about 300 year ... Read »


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    • Alasha dialect

    • Alasha ([ɑɮʃɑ], in some Mongolian varieties [ɑɮɑ̆ɡʃɑ]); Mongolian script ᠠᠯᠠᠱᠠ AlaÅ¡a, Chinese: 阿拉善; pinyin: Ālāshàn), or AlaÅ¡a-EÇ°en-e, is a variety in-between Oirat and Mongolian that historically used to belong to Oirat but has ... Read »


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    • Aka-Kede language

    • Aka-Kede language

      The Kede language, Aka-Kede, is an extinct Great Andamanese language, of the Northern group. It was spoken in the Northern section of Middle Andaman island (Justin 2000). The Aka-Kede were one of the indigenous peoples of the Andaman Islands, one of the ten or so Great Andamanese tribes identified by British colon ... Read »


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    • Aka-Kol language

    • Aka-Kol language

      The Kol language, Aka-Kol, is an extinct Great Andamanese language, of the Central group. It was spoken in the southeast section of Middle Andaman. The Kol were one of the indigenous peoples of the Andaman Islands, one of the ten or so Great Andamanese tribes identified by British colonials in the 1860s. Their languag ... Read »


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    • Akar-Bale language

    • Akar-Bale language

      The Bale language, Akar-Bale (also Balwa), is an extinct SouthernGreat Andamanese language once spoken in the Andaman Islands in Ritchie's Archipelago, Havelock Island, and Neill Island. The Bale disappeared as a distinct people sometime after 1931. The Great Andamanese languages are agglutinative languages, with ... Read »


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    • Oko-Juwoi language

    • Oko-Juwoi language

      The Juwoi language, Oko-Juwoi (also Junoi), is an extinct Great Andamanese language, of the Central group. It was spoken in the west central and southwest interior of Middle Andaman. The Juwoi were one of the indigenous peoples of the Andaman Islands, one of the ten or so Great Andamanese tribes identified by Brit ... Read »


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    • Apalachee language

    • Apalachee was a Muskogean language of Florida. It was closely related to Koasati and Alabama. The language is known primarily from one document, a letter written in 1688 to Charles II of Spain. Geoffrey Kimball has produced a grammatical sketch (Kimball 1987) and a vocabulary of the language (Kimball 1988) based on th ... Read »


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    • Arabic WordNet

    • Arabic WordNet is a WordNet for Arabic language, since its creation in 2006, it has been extended in 2015. ... Read »


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    • Arendalsk

    • Arendalsk, Arendal dialect or Arendal Norwegian (BokmÃ¥l and Nynorsk: Arendalsk, Arendalsdialekten; the Arendal dialect: Ændalsk) is a dialect of Norwegian used in Arendal. According to the linguist Gjert Kristoffersen, a very recent change is that the postvocalic /ʀ/ is vocalized to [æ̯], rather tha ... Read »


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    • Arin language

    • Arin was a Yeniseian language spoken in Russia along the Yenisei River between Yeniseysk and Krasnoyarsk. It is classified as a Southern Yeniseian language, along with Kott and Assan. It is believed that the term Ar or Ara was used by speakers of Arin to refer to themselves. It became extinct in the 18th Century. ... Read »


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    • Ayu language

    • Ayu is a minor and endangered Plateau language of Nigeria. Its subsequent classification is uncertain, but it may be one of the Ninzic languages (Blench 2008). It is not being passed on to many children. ... Read »


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    • Baekje language

    • Baekje language

      The language of the ancient kingdom of Baekje (18 BCE – 660 CE), one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, is sparsely attested; indeed, it is not clear that what material exists is from the same language. Since Baekje was established by immigrants from Goguryeo (the Buyeo-Baekje / Puyo-Paekche), it is presumed that th ... Read »


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    • Baenan language

    • Baenan (Baenã, Baenán, Baena) is a poorly attested language of Brazil. The last remaining speaker lived in Bahia, Brazil in 1940. The language of this speaker was associated with the Baenan language as the last members of the Baenan tribe lived in Paragaçú, Bahia, near where the language was attested. There ... Read »


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    • Bahasa

    • Bahasa, Bhas a, Basa, or Phasa is the word for "language" in many Asian languages, which derives from the Sanskrit word भाषा bhāṣā "spoken language". In many modern languages in South Asia and Southeast Asia which have been influenced by Sanskrit or Pali, bahasa and cognate words are now ... Read »


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    • Bai (suffix)

    • Bai or baisaheb is a suffix added to the name of female members of the Maratha and Rajput dynasties. This type of suffix is also used in several kshatriya castes and in some of the tribal castes, for example the Lambadi. ... Read »


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    • Balanced sentence

    • A balanced sentence is a sentence that employs parallel structures of approximately the same length and importance. ... Read »


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    • Basa-Kontagora language

    • Basa-Kontagora is a nearly extinct Kainji language of Nigeria. It is spoken in Mariga, Niger state, near Kontagora and the Basa homeland. ... Read »


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    • Batteries Included (slang)


    • Bengali Portuguese creole

    • Bengali Indo-Portuguese Creole was an Indo-Portuguese creole spoken in various cities in Bengal, in India and Bangladesh: Calcutta, Balasore, Pipli, Chandernagore, Chittagong, Midnapore, Hugli, Dacca. The language was formed from contact between the Portuguese and Bengali languages. It is now extinct. ... Read »


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    • Bergen Corpus of London Teenage Language

    • The Bergen Corpus of London Teenage Language (COLT) is a data set of samples of spoken English that was compiled in 1993 from tape recorded and transcribed conversations by teens between the ages of 13 and 17 in London schools. This corpus, which has been tagged for part of speech using the CLAWS 6 tagset, is one of th ... Read »


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    • Biao Min language

    • Biao Min, or Biao-Jiao Mien, is a Hmong–Mien language of China. The two varieties, Biao Min and Jiaogong Mian, are evidently not mutually intelligible. Ethnologue reports the Biao Min language to be spoken in the following counties in China. Dialects of Biao Min are as follows, according to Mao Zongwu (2004) ... Read »


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    • Binumarien language

    • Binumarien is a Kainantu language of Papua New Guinea. ... Read »


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    • Bislish

    • Bislish is a portmanteau of the words Bisaya and English, which refers to any of the Visayan languages of the Philippines macaronically infused with English terms. It is an example of code mixing. An example of Bislish as spoken in Cebuano language areas would be, "Tired na jud ko girl, how far pa house nimo?" which me ... Read »


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    • Blagar language

    • Blagar is a Papuan language of Pantar island in the Alor archipelago of Indonesia. The Tereweng dialect on Teweweng Island of the coast of Pantar is sometimes treated as a distinct language. The Blagar language has 26 letters (Aa, Bb, Cc, Dd, Ee, Ff, Gg, Hh, Ii, Jj, Kk, Ll, Mm, Nn, Oo, Pp, Qq, Rr, Ss, Tt, Uu, Vv, Ww, ... Read »


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    • Boeraans

    • Boeraans is a dialect of Afrikaans which is one of the 11 official languages in South Africa, and is one of the youngest Germanic languages with official status. Boeraans was also known as "Die Taal" (meaning "The Language). The Border Boers moved from the Western Cape to the Eastern Cape, and stayed there. In 1820, ... Read »


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    • Bote-Darai language

    • Bote (Bote-Majhi) and Darai are mutually intelligible tribal dialects of Nepal that are close to Danwar Rai but otherwise unclassified. Speakers are rapidly shifting to Nepali. ... Read »


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    • Brava Creole

    • Brava Creole is the name given to the variant of Cape Verdean Creole spoken mainly in the Brava Island of Cape Verde. It belongs to the Sotavento Creoles branch. The speakers of this form of Capeverdean Creole are 8,000 (1.36% of the national population). One of the least spoken being seventh place and one of the first ... Read »


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    • Broken English

    • Broken English refers to a poorly spoken or ill-written version of the English language, sometimes considered a pidgin. Under the strictest definition of the term, broken English consists of English vocabulary grafted onto the syntax of a non-English speaker's native language, including word order, other aspects of sen ... Read »


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    • Brønnøy dialect


    • Bruges dialect

    • The Bruges dialect (Standard Dutch and West Flemish: Brugs) is a West Flemish dialect used in Bruges. It is rapidly declining, being replaced with what scholars call general (rural) West Flemish. According to Hinskens & Taeldeman (2013), /r/ is realized as a voiced uvular trill with little friction [ʀ̝]. In ... Read »


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    • Budya language

    • Budya is a minor Bantu language. It is listed among Luban languages in Maho (2009). Shona (Korekore) has a dialect of the same name (Budya/Budjga) in Zimbabwe. ... Read »


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    • Bungu language

    • Bungu (Kibungu, Wungu) is a Bantu language of Tanzania. ... Read »


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    • Buyeo language

    • Buyeo language

      The language of the Buyeo kingdom is very sparsely attested; however, according to Chinese sources it was mutually intelligible with the Goguryeo language to its south. The few words which are known bear this out. ... Read »


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    • Bzyb dialect ()

    • Bzyb (also spelled Bzyp) is a major dialect of Abkhaz, spoken in the Bzyb River region of Caucasus and Turkey. It is also named after the river. It differs from standard Abkhaz mainly in terms of phonology. It shares the [ɕʷ] and [ʑʷ] sounds with the Sadz dialect, and the [t͡ɕ], [d͡ʑ], [tÍ¡É ... Read »


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    • Chehalis language

    • The Chehalis language is a collective expression regarding two languages, Upper Chehalis language and Lower Chehalis language. Both are members of the Tsamosan (Olympic) branch within the Coast Salish subfamily of the Salishan language family. Alternatively "Chehalis" may refer to one of the two different languages: ... Read »


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    • Chungcheong dialect

    • The Chungcheong dialects of Korean (Hangul: 충청도 방언/사투리; Hanja: 忠淸道方言) are spoken in the Chungcheong (Hoseo) region of South Korea, including the city of Daejon. Chungcheong dialect can be divided into two categories: the Northern Chungcheong dialect, not ... Read »


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    • Chuvan language

    • Chuvan (Chuvantsy) is an extinct Yukaghir language of Siberia, part of a dialect continuum with the two surviving languages. It was last spoken perhaps as late as the 18th century. ... Read »


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    • Classical Mongolian language

    • Classical Mongolian is an extinctMongolic language formerly used in Mongolia, China, and Russia. It is a standardized written language used in the 18th century and 20th centuries notable texts include the translation of the Kanjur and Tanjur and several chronicles roughly between 1700 and 1900. The term is sometimes al ... Read »


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    • Continuative aspect

    • The continuative aspect (abbreviated CONT or CNT) is a grammatical aspect representing actions that are 'still' happening. English doesn't mark the continuous explicitly but instead uses an adverb such as still. Ganda uses the infix -kya- to mark the continuative aspect. For example, nsoma (unmarked for aspect) means ... Read »


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    • Cross-border language

    • A cross-border language or trans-border language is a language spoken by a population (ethnic group or nation) that lives in a geographical area in two or several internationally recognized countries that have common land or maritime borders. Cross-border languages are particularly common in Africa but are found on all ... Read »


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    • Death and taxes (idiom)

    • Death and taxes is a common reference to the famous quotation: Our new Constitution is now established, and has an appearance that promises permanency; but in this world nothing can be said to be certain, except death and taxes. However, Franklin's letter is not the origin of the phrase, which appeared earlier in Dan ... Read »


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    • Dhalandji language

    • Dhalandji (Dhalanyji, Thalantji), or Binigura (Pinikura), is an aboriginal language, or pair of languages, of Western Australia. ... Read »


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    • Eini dialect

    • Eini is an extinct variety of Khoekhoe language on the Orange River of South Africa, sometimes listed as a distinct language or mistakenly assumed to be a variety of !Ora. ... Read »


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    • English in Bangladesh

    • English in the People's Republic of Bangladesh is the principal language of the Bangladeshi upper judiciary, including the Bangladesh Supreme Court and the Dhaka High Court. Bengali is the sole official language, but English is often used secondarily for official purposes, especially in the judiciary. English medium e ... Read »


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    • Episodic storytelling

    • Episodic storytelling is when a story is narrated through episodes, as opposed to chapters, which are typically seen in novels. The term used in literature to refer to a body of work composed of episodes or similar installments is serial. Serials are also known as episodic fiction. Multiple episodes are usually groupe ... Read »


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    • Eskimo Trade Jargon

    • Eskimo Trade Jargon was an Inuit pidgin used by the Mackenzie River Inuit as a trade language with the Athabaskan peoples to their south, such as the Gwich'in (Loucheux). It was reported by Stefánsson (1909), and was apparently distinct from the Athabaskan-based Loucheux Jargon of the same general area. A reduced f ... Read »


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    • Eskimo–Uralic languages


    • Estremenho dialect

    • Estremenho is a dialect of European Portuguese spoken in Coimbra and Lisbon, Portugal. It is considered a prestige dialect of European Portuguese and is the basis of the Standard Portuguese taught and spoken in Lusophone African countries, East Timor, and Macau. ... Read »


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    • Even language

    • The Even language /eɪˈvɛn/, also known as Lamut, Ewen, Eben, Orich, Ilqan (Russian: Эве́нский язы́к, earlier also Ламутский язы́к), is a Tungusic language spoken by the Evens in Siberia. It is spoken by widely scattered communi ... Read »


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    • Ewondo Populaire

    • Ewondo Populair is a Beti-based pidgin of Cameroon, spoken in the area of the capital Yaoundé. ... Read »


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    • Extrema ratio

    • Extrema ratio is a Latin expression whose literal meaning is "extreme solution", "last possibility". In the Italian language it has taken on, in addition to the original meaning of "last possible course of action" even the more specific, the "last possible solution", or the solution fall back on when any possible reme ... Read »


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    • Finnicization of Helsinki

    • The Finnicization of Helsinki is the transformation of Helsinki, Finland from a Swedish-speaking city to one that is bilingual or even multilingual, with Finnish as both the majority language and lingua franca. The dominant aspects of this transition were the immigration of Finnish speakers in the process of urbanizati ... Read »


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    • Gaelic diaspora

    • Gaelic diaspora would be understood as referring to the Gaelic-speaking parts of either the Irish diaspora or the Scottish diaspora. The use of the term "diaspora" in relation to the Gaelic languages is arguably not appropriate as it suggests that Gaelic speakers and people interested in Gaelic outside Scotland have H ... Read »


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    • ǃGãǃne language


    • Gbanzili language

    • Gbanziri (Gbanzili) is a Ubangian language of the Central African Republic and Democratic Republic of the Congo. Ethnologue lists Buraka separately, but notes that it is not known whether they are mutually intelligible. ... Read »


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    • Geko Karen

    • Geko is a Karen language of Burma. Yinbaw is reportedly a variety. Speakers of Geko and Yinbaw are ethnically Kayan, as are speakers of Lahta and Padaung. Yinbaw (population 7,300 as of 1983) is spoken in eastern Shan State and Kayah State. ... Read »


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    • Gende language

    • Gende (Gendeka, Gene; also Bundi) is a Papuan language spoken in Madang Province, Papua New Guinea. ... Read »


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    • German Orthographic Conference of 1901

    • The German Orthographic Conference of 1901 (the Berlin II Orthographic Conference; German: Zweite Orthographische Konferenz or II. Orthographische Konferenz) took place in Berlin from 17th till 19 June 1901. The standardized German spelling that resulted from the conference was largely based on the Prussian school spel ... Read »


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    • Ghanaian English

    • Ghanaian English is the variety of English spoken in Ghana. The voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant /ɕ/ is the usual realization of /ʃ/ (as in ship) in Ghanaian English. ... Read »


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    • Ghera language

    • Ghera, also known as Bara, is an Indo-Aryan language spoken primarily in Hyderabad, Pakistan and surrounding areas in Sindh province. It possesses considerable lexical similarities with neighbouring languages, especially Gurgula. According to Ethnologue, it belongs to the Western Hindi subgroup. ... Read »


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    • Git (slang)

    • Git is a term of insult with origins in British English denoting an unpleasant, silly, incompetent, stupid, annoying, senile, elderly or childish person. As a mild oath it is roughly on a par with prat and marginally less pejorative than berk. Typically a good-natured admonition with a strong implication of familiarity ... Read »


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    • Gomba language

    • Gomba is an unclassified language of Ethiopia. It may be Afro-Asiatic. ... Read »


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    • Good ol' boy


    • Gowlan tongue

    • Gowlan is an Indo-Aryan language of India spoken by the Gowlan people, a Scheduled Caste. Gowlan speakers are situated in the Amravati district of Maharashtra, the Hoshangabad district of Madhya Pradesh and northern Karnataka. According to Ethnologue, Gowlan belongs to the Southern Zone, and possesses substantial lexic ... Read »


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    • Guarani Braille

    • Guarani Braille is the braille alphabet of the Paraguayan Guarani language. Letter assignments are those of Spanish Braille (except for the accented vowels): that is, the basic braille alphabet plus â » for ñ. An additional letter, ⠒, is used for glottal stop, written as an apostrophe in the Guarani print al ... Read »


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    • Gutian language

    • The Gutian language (/ˈɡuːtiən/; also Qutian) was spoken by the Gutian people, who briefly ruled over Sumer as the Gutian dynasty in the 22nd century BCE. The Gutians lived in the territory between the Zagros and the Tigris in present-day Iranian and Iraqi Kurdistan. Nothing is known about the language exce ... Read »


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    • Gǁana language


    • Hakuchi Adyghe dialect

    • Hakuchi (Xakuchi; Хьакӏуцубзэ [ħaːkʷʼətÍ¡sʷəbza] Kh′ak′ucubză or Къaрaцхaибзэ Qaracxaibză in Hakuchi Adyghe) is a variety of the Shapsug sub-dialect of West Adyghe dialect of Adyghe language spoken in Turkey. The dialect ... Read »


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    • Hamgyŏng dialect


    • Howdy

    • Howdy is an informal greeting, commonly thought to have originated as a shortened form of the greeting "How do you do?". It was first recorded as part of the South England dialect in 1680. Literature from that period includes the use of "How-do, how-do" and "How" as a greeting used by the Scottish when addressing Anglo ... Read »


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    • Hwanghae dialect

    • Hwanghae dialect (황해 방언) is a dialect of Korean spoken in North Hwanghae Province and South Hwanghae Province in North Korea. ... Read »


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    • Indo-Portuguese Creole of Bombay

    • The Indo-Portuguese Creole of Bombay was a creole language based on Portuguese, which grew out of the long contact between the Portuguese and local languages. Currently this language is extinct. It was spoken in Bombay (now Mumbai) and northern India: Bassein, Salsette, Thana, Chevai, Mahim, Tecelaria, Dadar, Parel, Ca ... Read »


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    • International Francophonie Day

    • International Francophonie Day

      International Francophonie Day (French: Journée internationale de la Francophonie) is observed within the International Organization of La Francophonie's 77 member states every March 20 to celebrate the French language and Francophone culture. There are over 274 million French speakers on Earth. The date celebrates ... Read »


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    • Isaurian language

    • Isaurian is an extinct language spoken in the area of Isaura, Asia Minor. The personal names of its users appear to be derived from Luwian and thus Indo-European. Epigraphic evidence, including funerary inscriptions, is found into the 5th century AD. ... Read »


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    • Itanglese

    • Itanglese, also known as Anglitaliano or (in the United Kingdom) Britalian, is the macaronic blend (at different degrees) of Italian and English, in the speech of people who speak parts of the two languages, or whose primary language is different from that of the country where they live. ... Read »


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    • Jarawa language (Andaman Islands)

    • Järawa or Jarwa is an Ongan language spoken by the Jarawa people of the interior and south central Rutland Island, central interior and south interior South Andaman Island, and the west coast of Middle Andaman Island. Järawa means 'foreigners' in Aka-Bea, the language of their traditional enemies. Like many peop ... Read »


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    • Jeolla dialect

    • The Jeolla dialect of Korean (also known as Cholla; Hangul: , hanja: ), or Southwestern Korean, are spoken in the Honam region of South Korea, including the city of Gwangju. This area was known as Jeolla Province during the Joseon era. Like the Chungcheong dialect, the Jeolla dialect is considered non-standard. Perh ... Read »


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    • Kaado language

    • Kaado is a recently described Songhay language of Niger, located upriver from the socially dominant Zarma language. It has traditionally been considered a dialect of Zarma, the name used for all Songhai spoken in Niger. ... Read »


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    • Kalaallisut

    • Kalaallisut

      Kalaallisut, or West Greenlandic, is the standard dialect of the Greenlandic language, spoken by the vast majority of the inhabitants of Greenland, as well as by thousands of Greenlandic Inuit in Denmark proper (in total, approximately 50,000 people). Kalaallisut means "Greenlandic" and is virtually identical to modern ... Read »


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    • Kangjia language

    • The Kangjia language (in Chinese, 康家语 Kāngjiā Yǔ) is a recently discovered Mongolic language spoken by a Muslim population of around 300 people in Jainca (Jianzha) County, Huangnan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Qinghai province of China. As to its taxonomic affiliation, Kangjia seems to be an ... Read »


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    • Kanglish

    • Kanglish (Kannada: ಕಂಗ್ಲಿಷ್) is a macaronic language of Kannada and English; the name is a portmanteau of the names of the two languages. ... Read »


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    • Kanite language

    • Kanite is a Papuan language spoken in Eastern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea. ... Read »


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    • Karasuk languages

    • Karasuk is a language family proposed by George van Driem of the University of Leiden that links the Yeniseian languages of central Siberia with the Burushaski language of northern Pakistan. The family is named after the Karasuk culture, which existed in Central Asia during the Bronze Age in second millennium BCE. Van ... Read »


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    • Kaskian language

    • Kaskian (Kaskean) was a non-Indo-European language of the Kaskians of northeastern Bronze Age Anatolia, in the mountains along the Black Sea coast. It is sometimes suspected that Kaskian was related to the pre-Hittite Hattic language, based on toponyms and personal names. There may also be connections to the Northwest ... Read »


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    • Kholosi language

    • Kholosi is a newly discovered Indo-Aryan language spoken in two villages in southern Iran. At its current status, the language is considered endangered. Being located on the Iranian plateau and surrounded by Iranic languages, it draws heavily from those languages. ... Read »


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    • Khorasani Arabic

    • Khorasani Arabic is a dialect of Arabic spoke in Iran. It is a variety of Central Asian Arabic spoken in the Iranian province of Khorasan. Khorasani Arabic is not taught in school and is not spoken by the majority of Khorosani Arabs. ... Read »


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    • Kili language

    • Kili (Kirin, Kila), known as Hezhe or more specifically Qileen (奇勒恩 Qílè'ēn) in Chinese and also as the Kur-Urmi dialect of Nanai, is a Tungusic language of Russia and China. Nanai is a Southern Tungusic language, and Kili has traditionally been considered one of the diverse dialects of Nanai, b ... Read »


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    • Kinalakna language

    • Kinalakna is a Papuan language of Morobe Province, Papua New Guinea. ... Read »


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    • Koromba language

    • Kɔrɔmba, or Basa-Gurmana, is a Kainji language of Nigeria. ... Read »


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    • Koryak language

    • Koryak is a Chukotko-Kamchatkan language spoken by about 1,700 people in the easternmost extremity of Siberia, mainly in Koryak Okrug. It is mostly spoken by Koryaks. Its close relative, the Chukchi language, is spoken by about three times that number. The language together with Chukchi, Kerek, Alutor and Itelmen forms ... Read »


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    • Kosena language

    • Kosena is a Kainantu language of Papua New Guinea. ... Read »


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    • Kovai language

    • Kovai (Kobai, Kowai) is a Papuan language spoken on Umboi Island, halfway between mainland Papua New Guinea and the island of New Britain, and mostly within the caldera of that volcanic island. ... Read »


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    • Kugbo language

    • Kugbo is a Central Delta language of Nigeria. ... Read »


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    • Kunyi language

    • Kunyi is a Bantu language spoken in R. Congo. ... Read »


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    • Kurbet language

    • Kurbetcha (or Gurbetcha) is a creole language with what appears to be predominantly Romani vocabulary and Cypriot Turkish grammar, spoken by the Kurbet (Roma) of Cyprus. The Kurbet have traditionally also spoken Turkish. The majority settled in the north after 1974, but many of those have returned to the south (i.e. th ... Read »


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    • Kwadi language

    • Kwadi /ˈkwɑːdi/ was a "click language" of uncertain classification once spoken in the southwest corner of Angola. It is believed to be extinct. There were only fifty Kwadi in the 1950s, of whom only 4–5 were competent speakers of the language. Three partial speakers were known in 1965, but in 1981 no spea ... Read »


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    • ǂKx'ao-ǁ'ae


    • Lahul Lohar language

    • Lahul Lohar is an unclassified Indic tribal language of India. It is distinct from Gade Lohar, though culturally similar. ... Read »


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    • Lambya language

    • Lambya (Rambia) is a Bantu language of Tanzania and Malawi. In Northern Malawi it is spoken particularly in the Chitipa District. Sukwa, once thought to be a dialect of Nyakyusa, is now considered to be a dialect of Lambya. The University of Malawi Language Mapping Survey for Northern Malawi (2006), agreeing with this ... Read »


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    • Language bank

    • A language bank is an organization that helps people who need translation or interpretation services fulfill those needs through the assistance of qualified translators or interpreters. Such organizations usually, but not always, provide such services free of charge, often as a service of local government. Language ban ... Read »


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    • Language code

    • A language code is a code that assigns letters or numbers as identifiers or classifiers for languages. These codes may be used to organize library collections or presentations of data, to choose the correct localizations and translations in computing, and as a shorthand designation for longer forms of language-name. ... Read »


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    • Language coordination

    • Language coordination refers to the tendency of people to mimic the language of others. The coordination can occur when one person responds to another using similar vocabulary, or word or sentence structure. Language coordination can also be applied to individuals who linguistically coordinate to a group. As suggested ... Read »


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    • Language Council

    • A language council, also known as a language regulator or a language academy, is an organisation that regulates a language. Some councils with independent association to any country where the language is dominant exist. ... Read »


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    • Language Proficiency Index

    • The Language Proficiency Index or LPI is a Canadian standardized test for English proficiency and is administered by Paragon Testing Enterprises, a subsidiary of the University of British Columbia. The results of this test are used mostly by post secondary institutions and professional organizations within the Province ... Read »


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    • Languages of Chad

    • Chad has two official languages, French and Modern Standard Arabic, and over 120 indigenous languages. A vernacular version of Arabic, Chadian Arabic, is the lingua franca. Of the two official languages, French has the most speakers in Chad (though Chadian Arabic has more speakers in Chad than both French and Standard ... Read »


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    • Languages of Colombia

    • More than 99.2% of Colombians speak the Spanish language; also 65 Amerindian languages, 2 Creole languages and the romani language are spoken in the country. English has official status in the San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina Islands. The overwhelming majority of Colombians speak Spanish (see also Colombi ... Read »


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    • Languages of Djibouti

    • Languages of Djibouti

      The languages of Djibouti include Somali, Afar, Arabic and French. Somali and Afar are the most widely spoken tongues, and Arabic and French serve as the official languages. Djibouti is a multilingual country. According to Ethnologue, the majority of the population speaks Somali (524,000 speakers) or Afar (306,000 ... Read »


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    • Languages of Mauritania

    • The languages of Mauritania mainly consist of various Afroasiatic languages, including the Berber Zenaga and Tamasheq idioms, as well as Arabic. French is also spoken due to colonial influence, and some ethnic minorities speak Niger-Congo languages. Due to colonialism, Indo-European languages are often present on ... Read »


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    • Languages of Mozambique

    • Mozambique is a multilingual country. A number of Bantu languages are indigenous to Mozambique. Portuguese, inherited from the colonial period (see: Portuguese Mozambique), is the official language, and Mozambique is a full member of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries.Ethnologue lists 43 languages spoken in ... Read »


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    • Languages of Niger

    • Niger has 11 official languages, French being the most widely spoken. Depending on how they are counted, Niger has between 8 and 20 indigenous languages. The discrepancy comes from the fact that several are closely related, and can be grouped together or considered apart. French, inherited from the colonial period ... Read »


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    • Languages of Norfolk Island

    • There are two official languages of Norfolk Island, English and Norfuk. English, due to the influence of Great Britain and Australia, the two colonial powers who administered Norfolk Island, is the dominant language of the pair. Norfuk, a creole language based on English and Tahitian and brought to the island by the de ... Read »


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    • Languages of Palestine

    • The languages of Palestine are the languages spoken or once spoken in the territory of the State of Palestine. Palestinian Arabic is the primary language spoken by Palestinians that has a unique dialect. It is a Levantine Arabic dialect subgroup spoken in Palestine, by Arab citizens of Israel (mostly Palestinians) and ... Read »


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    • Languages of São Tomé and Príncipe


    • Languages of Senegal

    • Senegal is a multilingual country: Ethnologue lists 36 languages, Wolof being the most widely spoken language. French, which was inherited from the colonial era, is the official language of Senegal. It is used by the administration and understood by about 15–20% of all males and about 1–2% of all women. Sene ... Read »


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    • Languages of the Falkland Islands

    • The only official language of the Falkland Islands is English, and this is spoken by almost everyone on a day-to-day basis. Spanish is spoken by nearly 10% of the population, a significant minority. Most of the Spanish speakers are immigrants, foreign workers, and expats, predominantly from Chile and Argentina. Falkla ... Read »


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    • Languages of the Pitcairn Islands

    • There are two languages of Pitcairn Island, English and Pitkern. Pitkern is a creole language based on eighteenth-century English and Tahitian and spoken by about fifty people inland not to mention those outside Adamstown, mostly dozens of children leaving Pitcairn while becoming adults. It is partly derived from eigh ... Read »


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    • Languages of Tripura

    • Languages of Tripura, a state in the Northeast India, include Bengali as official language and many other minority languages. As in the rest of India, English is used for official purpose. Bengali is the most spoken language, due to the predominance of Bengali people in the state. Kokborok is the second official langua ... Read »


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    • Languages of Zimbabwe

    • Zimbabwe has 16 official languages.English, Shona and Ndebele are the most widely spoken languages in the country. Approximately 70% of the population is Shona speaking and speaks Shona as their first language. Also it is said that around 20% are Ndebele and speak IsiNdebele as their first language. These statistics ha ... Read »


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    • Lanuvian language

    • Lanuvian was either a Latino-Faliscan language or an archaic dialect of Latin. ... Read »


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    • Navarro-Lapurdian dialect

    • Navarro-Lapurdian dialect

      Navarro-Labourdin or Navarro-Lapurdian is a Basque dialect spoken in the Lower Navarre and Labourd (Lapurdi) former provinces of the French Basque Country (in the Pyrénées Atlantiques département). It consists of two dialects in older classifications, Lower Navarrese and Labourdin. It differs somewhat from Upp ... Read »


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    • Learning Resource Metadata Initiative

    • The Learning Resource Metadata Initiative (LRMI) is a project led by Creative Commons (CC) and the Association of Educational Publishers (AEP) to establish a common vocabulary for describing learning resources. ... Read »


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    • Linguapax Prize

    • The International Linguapax Award is awarded annually on International Mother Language Day (21 February) by Linguapax (Linguapax Institute) "which recognises and awards the actions carried out in different areas in favour of the preservation of linguistic diversity, revitalization and reactivation of linguistic communi ... Read »


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    • Linking verb

    • In traditional grammars and guide books, the term linking verb is used to refer to verbs that describe the subject by connecting it to a predicate adjective or predicate noun (collective known as subject complements). Unlike the majority of verbs, they do not describe any direct action taken or controlled by the subjec ... Read »


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    • List of dictionaries by number of words

    • This is a list of dictionaries considered authoritative or complete by approximate number of total words, or headwords, included. These figures do not take account of entries with senses for different word classes (such as noun and adjective) and homographs. Although it is possible to count the number of entries in a d ... Read »


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    • List of royal titles

    • Royal titles include: ... Read »


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    • Loosduinen dialect

    • Loosduinen dialect is a dialect of Dutch spoken in the Loosduinen district of The Hague. It is very similar to The Hague dialect. ... Read »


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    • Lotegorisch

    • Lotegorisch or Lottegorisch (older own description: lochne kodesch, from the Hebrew: laschon‎‎ = "tongue, language", and kodesch = "holy") is a trading language and Palatine variant of the secret language, Rotwelsch, spoken in the Leiningerland (especially in Carlsberg), where in the late 18th century a large ... Read »


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    • Luo language (Cameroon)

    • The Luo language is an unclassified language spoken in a section of the Atta region of Cameroon. It is a critically endangered language, or possibly extinct, with only one speaker remaining in 1995. ... Read »


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    • MÁ


    • Macarrônico


    • Macro-Andean languages

    • Macro-Andean is a speculative proposal by Kaufman (2007) linking languages of the northern Andes. Kaufman (1990) found lexical support for proposals linking the Jivaro–Cahuapanan families as suggested by Swadesh and others. By 2007 he had tentatively added Saparo–Yawan, which is itself provisional, and Bora ... Read »


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    • Macrofamily

    • In historical linguistics, a macrofamily, also called a superfamily or phylum, is a proposed genetic relationship grouping together language families (also isolates) in a larger scale classification. However, Campbell regards this term as superfluous, preferring "language family" for those classifications for which the ... Read »


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    • Maio Creole

    • Maio Creole is the name given to the variant of Cape Verdean Creole spoken mainly in the Maio Island of Cape Verde. It belongs to the Sotavento Creoles branch. It numbers the entire island population which includes a small part which also speaks Portuguese, in 2005, the percentage was 1.36%. It is the eight and one of ... Read »


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    • Majhwar language

    • Majhwar is an unclassified language—possibly a dialect of Asuri—spoken in parts of Nepal and Sikkim. ... Read »


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    • Mangaya language

    • Mangaya (Buga) is a Ubangian language of South Sudan. The endonym is Bug. ... Read »


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    • Mawa language (Nigeria)

    • Mawa is an extinct and unattested language of Nigeria. It was apparently different from a language of Chad also known as Mawa, and so is unclassified. ... Read »


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    • Mbariman-Gudhinma language

    • Mbariman-Gudhinma (Rimang-Gudinhma, Parimankutinma), also known as Gugu Warra (Kuku-Wara), is an extinct dialect cluster of Queensland, Australia. ... Read »


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    • Medny Aleut language

    • Mednyj Aleut (also called Copper Island Creole or Copper Island Aleut) is a nearly extinct mixed language spoken on Bering Island. It is characterized by Aleut nouns and Russian verbs, each with the full inflectional complexity of the source languages. There are only five native speakers left. Mednyj Aleut is characte ... Read »


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    • Meff

    • Meff is a derogatory term used in north-west England, especially Liverpool. It is derived from the practice of hardened alcoholics drinking methylated spirits as they are untaxed and therefore cheaper. The word came to national prominence in 2015, when it was used to describe then UK Independence Party deputy leader P ... Read »


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    • Minoan language

    • Minoan language

      The language (or languages) of the ancient Minoan civilization of Crete was written in Cretan hieroglyphs and later in the Linear A syllabary. As the Cretan hieroglyphs are undeciphered and Linear A only partly deciphered, the Minoan language is unknown and unclassified: indeed, it cannot be known that the two scripts ... Read »


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    • Minoritized language

    • Minoritized language is a term of sociolinguistics that refers to a language that has suffered marginalization, persecution or even ban at some point in its history. It is a concept which highlights the presence of an enforcement action that leads to a cut in its use. It differs from the more widely used "minority lang ... Read »


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    • Mistralian norm

    • The Mistralian norm is a linguistic norm for the Occitan language. It was first used in a published work by Joseph Roumanille in 1853, and then by Frédéric Mistral in 1854. Its aim is to make Provençal Occitan orthography more logical, relying on a mix of traditional spelling and French spelling conventions. ... Read »


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    • Moghol language

    • Moghol (or Mogholi) is a Mongolic language once spoken in the region of Herat, Afghanistan, in the villages of Kundur and Karez-i-Mulla. The speakers were the Moghol people, who numbered 3,000 members in the 1970s. They descend from the remnants of Genghis Khan's Mongol army stationed in Afghanistan in the 13th century ... Read »


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    • Proto-Mongolic language

    • Proto-Mongolic is the hypothetical ancestor language of the modern Mongolic languages. It is very close to the Middle Mongol language, the language spoken at the time of Genghis Khan and the Mongol Empire. Most features of modern Mongolic languages can thus be reconstructed from Middle Mongol. An exception would be the ... Read »


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    • Monguor language

    • The Monguor language (Chinese: 土族语; pinyin: Tǔzúyǔ; also written Mongour and Mongor) is a Mongolic language of its Shirongolic branch and is part of the Gansu–Qinghai sprachbund. There are several dialects, mostly spoken by the Monguor people. A written script was devised for Huzhu Monguor ... Read »


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    • Monzombo language

    • Monzombo is a minor Ubangian language of the Congos. There are three varieties, Monzombo (Mondjembo), Kpala (Kwala), and Yango, which Ethnologue lists separately. It is not clear how distinct they are. ... Read »


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    • Negidal language

    • Negidal (also spelled Neghidal) is a language of the Tungusic family spoken in the Russian Far East, mostly in Khabarovskij Kraj, along the lower reaches of the Amur River. Negidal belongs to the Northern branch of Tungusic, together with Evenki and Even. It is particularly close to Evenki, to the extent that it is occ ... Read »


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    • Ngatikese language

    • Ngatikese, or Sapwuahfik, is a Micronesian language originating on Sapwuahfik atoll, Federated States of Micronesia. Of the 700 Ngatikese speakers, only about 450 live on Sapwuahfik. It was previously considered a dialect of Pohnpeian, but is not particularly intelligible with that language. It is currently considered ... Read »


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    • Ngindo language

    • Ngindo is a Bantu language of Tanzania. ... Read »


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    • North Baffin dialect

    • North Baffin dialect

      The North Baffin dialect (Qikiqtaaluk uannangani or Iglulingmiut) of Canadian Inuit is spoken on the northern part of Baffin Island, at Igloolik and the adjacent part of the Melville Peninsula, and in other Inuit communities in the far north of Nunavut, like Resolute, Grise Fiord, Pond Inlet, Clyde River, and Arctic Ba ... Read »


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    • North Korean standard language

    • North Korean standard language or Munhwaŏ (Chosŏn'gÅ­l: 문화어; Hancha: 文化語) is the North Korean standard version of Korean language. Munhwaŏ was adopted as the standard in 1966. The adopting proclamation stated that the Pyongan dialect spoken in the North Korean capital Pyon ... Read »


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    • Northern Portuguese

    • Northern Portuguese is the oldest dialect of the Portuguese language. It is spoken in coastal northern Portugal from Viana do Castelo to Porto and stretching inland as far as Braga. The region is considered the birthplace of the Portuguese language. It is popularly known as Nortenho (Northerner), but linguists traditio ... Read »


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    • Nyamwezi language

    • Nyamwezi is a major Bantu language of central Tanzania. It forms a dialect continuum with Sukuma, but is more distinct from other neighboring languages. ... Read »


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    • Nyika language

    • Nyika (Nyiha) is a Bantu language of Tanzania and Zambia. ... Read »


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    • Omok language

    • Omok is an extinct Yukaghir language of Siberia, part of a dialect continuum with the two surviving languages. It was last spoken perhaps as late as the 18th century. ... Read »


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    • On a white bus

    • On a white bus is a mnemonic device used to commit subordinating conjunctions of the English language to memory. Some letters in this phrase stand for more than one subordinating conjunction. ... Read »


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    • One-syllable article

    • A one-syllable article (Chinese: 同音文章; pinyin: TóngyÄ«n wénzhāng) is a type of constrained writing found in Chinese literature. It takes advantage of the large number of homophones in the Chinese language, particularly when writing in Classical Chinese, due to historic sound changes. Alth ... Read »


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    • OOAK

    • The abbreviation OOAK stands for the expression, "one of a kind." The term originates in yachting in 1949 to describe a regatta race in which ship builders were allowed to enter as many different models of yachts into the regatta as they manufactured, but no more than one of each model (hence, "one of a kind"). Since ... Read »


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    • Oroch language

    • The Oroch language is spoken by the Oroch people in Siberia. It is a member of the northern group of the Tungusic languages and is closely related to the Nanai language and Udege language. It is spoken in the Khabarovsk Krai (Komsomolsky, Sovetskaya Gavan, and Ulchsky districts). The language is split into three dialec ... Read »


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    • Oroqen language

    • Oroqen (also known as Orochon, Oronchon, Olunchun, Elunchun, Ulunchun) is a Northern Tungusic language spoken in the People's Republic of China. Dialects are Gankui and Heilongjiang. Gankui is the standard dialect. It is spoken by the Oroqen people of Inner Mongolia (predominantly the Oroqin Autonomous Banner) and Heil ... Read »


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    • Palpa language

    • The extinct Palpa language of Nepal is closely related to the Nepali language, and is sometimes considered a dialect of it. It has Kumauni influence, but has been classified as a dialect of Nepali language. ... Read »


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    • Paroemion

    • Paroemion is the repetition of usually initial consonant sounds in two or more neighboring words or syllables (as wild and woolly, threatening throngs). It is also called head rhyme or initial rhyme. It is also alliteration taken to an extreme where nearly every word in a sentence begins with the same consonant. An ex ... Read »


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    • Peng'im


    • POETS day

    • POETS day is a term used by workers in the United Kingdom and Australia to refer jocularly to Friday as the last day of the work week. The word "POETS" is an acronym for "Piss off early, tomorrow's Saturday": hence Friday becomes "Poets day". It is tradition to begin the POETS day at 3.30pm in the afternoon. Variations ... Read »


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    • Polyglossia

    • Polyglossia (pronunciation: /ˌpɒlɪˈɡlɒsɪə/)is a noun that refers to the coexistence of multiple languages (or distinct varieties of the same language) in one society or area. It was first used in the 1970s in the Academic journal "International Migration Review". Polyglossia is a useful term for ... Read »


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    • Pouye language

    • Pouye (Bouye) is a language spoken in Sandaun Province, Papua New Guinea, by a thousand people, and growing. ... Read »


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    • Proto-Abazgi language

    • Proto Abkhaz-Abaza (or Proto-Abazgi) is the reconstructed common ancestor of the Abkhaz and Abaza languages. The consonant system is reconstructed with a four-way phonation contrast in stops and affricates, and a two-way contrast in fricatives. The most noticeable changes are: ... Read »


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    • Proto-Eskimo language

    • Proto-Eskimo was the ancestor of the Eskimo languages. A reconstruction of the Proto-Eskimo sound system can be found in Fortescue et al. 1994:xi. ... Read »


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    • Proto-Eskimo–Aleut language


    • Proto-Malayo-Polynesian

    • The Proto-Malayo-Polynesian language (PMP) is the reconstructed ancestor of the Malayo-Polynesian languages, which is by far the largest branch (by current speakers) of the Austronesian language family. Proto-Malayo-Polynesian is by definition ancestral to all (certain) Austronesian languages spoken outside Taiwan, and ... Read »


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    • Proto-Northwest Caucasian language

    • Proto-Northwest Caucasian language mostly called PNWC (or Adyghe-Abazgi) is the reconstructed common ancestor of the Northwest Caucasian languages The most noticeable changes are: ... Read »


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    • Protrepsis and paraenesis

    • In rhetoric, protrepsis (Greek: πρότρεψις) and paraenesis (παραίνεσις) are two closely related styles of exhortation that are employed by moral philosophers. While there is a widely accepted distinction between the two that is employed by modern writers, classica ... Read »


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    • Pumpokol language

    • Pumpokol is one of the Yeniseian languages. It has been extinct since the 18th century. ... Read »


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    • Pyongan dialect

    • The Pyong'an dialect (Chosŏn'gÅ­l: 평안도 사투리; MR: p'yŏngando sat'uri), alternatively Northwestern Korean (Chosŏn'gÅ­l: 서북 방언; Hancha: 西北方言; RR: sŏbuk pangŏn), is the Korean dialect of the northwestern Korean peninsula ... Read »


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    • Qoqmončaq language


    • Roncalese dialect

    • Roncalese dialect

      Roncalese (in Basque: erronkariera, in Roncalese dialect: Erronkariko uskara) is an extinct Basque dialect once spoken in the comarca of Roncal-Salazar in Navarre, Spain. It is a subdialect of Eastern Navarrese in the classification of Koldo Zuazo. It had been classified as a subdialect of Souletin (otherwise spoken in ... Read »


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    • Rotvælsk


    • Russian dialects

    • Russian dialects are spoken variants of the Russian language. All the Russian dialects are divided in two principal chronological and geographic groups: 1. Northern Russian 2. Central Russian 3. Southern Russian Russian dialects usually preserve many archaic words and forms which dropped out of use or were rep ... Read »


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    • Safwa language

    • Safwa is a Bantu language spoken by the Safwa people of the Mbeya Region of Tanzania. Dialects are Guruka, Mbwila, Poroto, Songwe. ... Read »


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    • Sal Creole

    • Sal Creole is the name given to the variant of Cape Verdean Creole spoken mainly in the island of Sal of Cape Verde. It belongs to the Barlavento Creoles branch. The speakers of this form of Cape Verdean Creole are 15,000. Besides the main characteristics of Barlavento Creoles the Sal Creole has also the following ... Read »


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    • Salmon problem

    • The term salmon problem (also known by the German term Lachsargument) is used in Indo-European studies to refer to an outdated argument in favour of placing the Indo-European urheimat in the Baltic region (as opposed to the Eurasian Steppe), based on the cognate etymology of the respective words for salmon in Germanic ... Read »


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    • Sandha language

    • Sandha bhasha, the "language of twilight" (Hindi: संधा भाषा), is a literary style used to express inter-instrumental cognition by Siddha people. In Sandha, symbols are used to present inter-instrumental expressions. Most of the literature written in Sandha style by the Siddha peo ... Read »


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    • Sandnes-mÃ¥l


    • Scally (slang)

    • Scally is a derogatory term used in the Northwest of England especially around Liverpool. It roughly synonymous with Chav or Ned. The term is associated with youth with a particular style of dress. ... Read »


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    • Scheveningen dialect

    • Scheveningen dialect is a dialect of Dutch spoken in the Scheveningen district of The Hague. ... Read »


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    • Senzar language

    • Senzar is a supposed original language of the stanzas of Dzyan. It is referenced in multiple locations in works of Helena Blavatsky. In her Secret Doctrine Blavatsky calls Senzar "a tongue absent from the nomenclature of languages and dialects with which philology is acquainted" (SD, I, xxxvii). While The Theosophical ... Read »


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    • Å EÅ  (brother Sumerogram)


    • Shall-Zwall language

    • Shall-Zwall is a small dialect cluster of Plateau languages in Nigeria. ... Read »


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    • Shingini language

    • The Shingini language, Tsishingini or Cishingini (Chishingini), also Ashaganna, is a Kainji language of Nigeria spoken by the Kambari people. ... Read »


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    • Shua language

    • Shua /ˈʃuːə/, or Shwakhwe, is a Khoe language of Botswana. It is spoken in central Botswana (in Nata and its surroundings), and in parts of the Chobe District in the extreme north of Botswana. There are approximately 6,000 speakers (Cook 2004). The term Shwakhwe means people (khwe) from the salty area (shwa ... Read »


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    • Å i (cuneiform)


    • Sialum language

    • Sialum is a Papuan language of Morobe Province, Papua New Guinea. ... Read »


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    • Sierra Leonean English

    • Sierra Leonean English is the dialect of English spoken by Sierra Leoneans. Sierra Leonean English realizes /r/ as a voiced uvular fricative, or, more rarely, a uvular trill. This is rare among accents of English. ... Read »


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    • Simultaneous communication

    • Simultaneous communication, SimCom, or sign supported speech (SSS) is a technique sometimes used by deaf, hard-of-hearing or hearing sign language users in which both a spoken language and a manual variant of that language (such as English and manually coded English) are used simultaneously. While the idea of communica ... Read »


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Extras