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  • Language policy

    Language policy

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    • Arabization

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    • Bilingualism in Belgium

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    • Canada language policy

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    • Classical Language in India

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    • English-only movement in the United States

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    • Language conflict in India

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    • Language conflict in Pakistan

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    • Language law

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    • Language policy of the European Union

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    • Languages of international organizations

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    • Linguistic discrimination

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    • Linguistic minorities

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    • Linguistic rights

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    • Medium of instruction

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    • Official languages

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    • Orthography reform

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Orthography reform


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    • Language regulators

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    • Russification

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    • Serbo-Croatian language

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Serbo-Croatian language


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    • Slavicization

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    • Language policy

    • Many countries have a language policy designed to favor or discourage the use of a particular language or set of languages. Although nations historically have used language policies most often to promote one official language at the expense of others, many countries now have policies designed to protect and promote reg ... Read »


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    • Afrikaans language movement

    • The Afrikaans language movement began in 1875, with the effort by Stephanus Jacobus du Toit to have Afrikaans recognised as a separate language from the Dutch language. Die Patriot, the first Afrikaans newspaper, was first published in 1876. The Second Afrikaans Language Movement arose after the defeat of the Boer ... Read »


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    • Belarusization

    • Belarusization (Belarusian: Беларусізацыя) was a policy of protection and advancement of the Belarusian language and recruitment and promotion of ethnic Belarusians (a type of affirmative action program) within the government of Belarusian SSR and the Belarusian Communist Party, c ... Read »


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    • Bilingual sign

    • A bilingual sign (or, by extension, a multilingual sign) is the representation on a panel (sign, usually a traffic sign, a safety sign, an informational sign) of texts in more than one language. The use of bilingual signs is usually reserved for situations where there is legally administered bilingualism (in bilingual ... Read »


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    • Commissioner of Official Languages

    • A Commissioner of Official Languages is an official head of an office that is responsible for dealing with matters regarding a country's policy towards its Official Languages. Most commonly found in commonwealth countries. ... Read »


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    • Dual naming

    • Dual naming is a policy for the naming of geographical landmarks, in which an official name is adopted that combines two previous names. Usually, the context is a conflict over which of the two previous names is most appropriate. In several countries, dual naming is used where a native people and a colonial settler co ... Read »


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    • Ems Ukaz

    • The Ems Ukaz, or Ems Ukase (Russian: Эмский указ, Emskiy ukaz; Ukrainian: Емський указ, Ems’kyy ukaz), was a secret decree (ukaz) of Tsar Alexander II of Russia issued in 1876, banning the use of the Ukrainian language in print, with the exception of r ... Read »


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    • English Language Unity Act

    • The English Language Unity Act was first introduced in 2005. It hoped to establish English as the official language of the federal government of the United States. If passed it would require that all official functions and proceedings of federal and state government be conducted in English. It would also require that a ... Read »


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    • Executive Order 13166

    • On August 11, 2000, United States President Bill Clinton signed Executive Order 13166, "Improving Access to Services for Persons with Limited English proficiency". The Executive Order requires federal agencies to examine the services they provide, identify any need for services to those with limited English proficiency ... Read »


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    • Finvenkismo

    • Finvenkismo is an ideological current within the Esperanto movement dating back to L. L. Zamenhof, the initiator of Esperanto. The name is derived from the concept of a fina venko ("final victory") denoting the moment when Esperanto will be used as the predominant second language throughout the world. A finvenkist is t ... Read »


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    • Foreign languages in prisons

    • Some prisons have sought to limit inmates' abilities to communicate in foreign languages, such as send or receive correspondence in these languages, or receive printed publications in these languages. This is often justified on the grounds that it might enable inmates to plan escapes or other crimes, or may contain mat ... Read »


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    • German orthography reform of 1996

    • The German orthography reform of 1996 (Rechtschreibreform) was a change to German spelling and punctuation that was intended to simplify German orthography and thus to make it easier to learn, without substantially changing the rules familiar to users of the language. The reform was based on an international agreement ... Read »


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    • Ignatāne v. Latvia


    • Institute of the Peoples of the North

    • The Institute of the Peoples of the North (Russian: Институт Народов Севера) is a research and later educationary institute based in Saint Petersburg. Its objective is to examine topics related to the northern minorities in the Soviet Union, and to prepare ... Read »


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    • Khowar Language Movement


    • Kyōiku kanji


    • Language ideology

    • Language ideology (also referred to as linguistic ideology) is a concept used primarily within the fields of anthropology (esp. Linguistic anthropology), sociolinguistics, and cross-cultural studies to characterize any set of beliefs or feelings about languages as used in their social worlds. When recognized and explor ... Read »


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    • Language Inspectorate

    • Language Inspectorate

      Language Inspectorate (Estonian: Keeleinspektsioon) is a governmental body under the Ministry of Education of Estonia. The inspectorate was founded in 1990 as the State Language Board with the mandate to, as the Commissioner for Human Rights states, to facilitate the republic's legitimate expectation that people offeri ... Read »


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    • Language law of Slovakia

    • The state language law of Slovakia fixes the status and regulates the use of the Slovak language. It took force in 1995 and underwent a major amendment in 2009. The 2009 amendment has been severely criticized by Hungarians in Slovakia, as well as the government, civil organizations and general public of neighboring Hu ... Read »


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    • Language planning

    • Language planning is a deliberate effort to influence the function, structure, or acquisition of languages or language variety within a speech community. It is often associated with government planning, but is also used by a variety of non-governmental organizations, such as grass-roots organizations, and individuals. ... Read »


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    • Language policies of Canada's provinces and territories


    • Language policy in France

    • France has one official language, the French language. The French government does not regulate the choice of language in publications by individuals, but the use of French is required by law in commercial and workplace communications. In addition to mandating the use of French in the territory of the Republic, the Fren ... Read »


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    • Language policy in Latvia

    • Articles 4 and 114 of the Constitution of Latvia form the foundation for language policy in Latvia, declaring Latvian to be the official state language and affirming the rights of ethnic minorities to preserve and develop their languages. Latgalian and the Livonian language, in addition to latvian, are considered indig ... Read »


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    • Language policy in Ukraine

    • Language policy in Ukraine is based on its Constitution, international obligations, and 2012 law "On the principles of the state language policy" (before 2012, the 1989 law "On the languages in the Ukrainian SSR" was in force). The Ukrainian language is the state language of Ukraine. The State has to ensure the compre ... Read »


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    • Language politics

    • Language politics is the way language and linguistic differences between peoples are dealt with in the political arena. This could manifest as government recognition, as well as how language is treated in official capacities. Some examples: Language also in political matters used to parsue,to unify,to organise,to crit ... Read »


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    • Language policies of Francoist Spain

    • Language politics in Francoist Spain centered on attempts in Spain under Franco to increase the dominance of the Spanish language (Castilian) over the other languages of Spain. The regime of Francisco Franco had Spanish nationalism as one of its bases. Under his dictatorship, the Spanish language (known in some parts ... Read »


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    • Languages of Russia

    • Languages of Russia

      13-15% have foreign language knowledge Of all the languages of Russia, Russian is the only official language at the national level. There are 35 different languages which are considered official languages in various regions of Russia, along with Russian. There are over 100 minority languages spoken in Russia today. ... Read »


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    • Languages of the Roman Empire

    • Latin and Greek were the dominant languages of the Roman Empire, but other languages were important regionally. The language of the ancient Romans was Latin, which served as the "language of power". Latin was pervasive in the Roman Empire as the language of the law courts in the West, and of the military everywhere. Af ... Read »


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    • Languages of the Soviet Union

    • The languages of the Soviet Union are hundreds of different languages and dialects from several different language groups. In 1918, it was decreed that all nationalities in the Soviet Union had the right to education in their own language. The new orthography used the Cyrillic, Latin, or Arabic alphabet, depending on ... Read »


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    • Latvian constitutional referendum, 2012

    • A constitutional referendum on the "Amendments to the Constitution of the Republic of Latvia" was held on 18 February 2012. Proposed amendments included Articles 4, 18, 21, 101 and 104 of the Constitution of Latvia by adding the condition about Russian as the second official language, as well as prescribing two working ... Read »


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    • Marta Laureano

    • Martha Laureano is a Mexican-American woman from Amarillo, Texas, who was ordered by a court to speak English to her daughter. In the course of a routine custody-case, Laureno's ex-husband complained that their daughter did not get sufficient exposure to English since the mother spoke only Spanish at home; this, accor ... Read »


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    • Law on the language of the people of the Republic of Bashkortostan

    • The Law on the language of the people of the Republic of Bashkortostan is a law aimed at protecting and preserving the languages of the peoples of Bashkortostan. According to the law, all the signs and indicators should be in Bashkir and Russian. Substantive provisions of the law include the following sections. ... Read »


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    • Law on Use of Languages and Scripts of National Minorities

    • Law on Use of Languages and Scripts of National Minorities

      Law on Use of Languages and Scripts of National Minorities (Croatian: Zakon o uporabi jezika i pisma nacionalnih manjina) is law which defines use of minority languages in Croatia. Additionally Croatian Constitutional law on national minorities rights and The Law on Education in language and script of national minoriti ... Read »


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    • Legal recognition of sign languages

    • The legal recognition of sign languages differs widely. In some countries, the national sign language is an official state language, whereas in others it has a protected status in certain areas such as education. Extending legal recognition is one of the major concerns of the international Deaf community, however, sym ... Read »


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    • Linguistic purism

    • Linguistic purism or linguistic protectionism is the practice of defining or recognizing one variety of a language as being purer or of intrinsically higher quality than other varieties. Linguistic purism was institutionalized through language academies (of which the 1572 Accademia della Crusca set a model example in E ... Read »


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    • List of largest languages without official status

    • Below is list of languages without any official status (or a minority language) with more than a million speakers, ordered by the number of native speakers ... Read »


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    • List of linguistic rights in African constitutions

    • Linguistic rights in Africa are stated in constitutions which differ by country. These constitutions usually state the national language(s) and/or official language(s), and may or may not explicitly allow for other languages in the country. Most of the linguistic rights stated here are negative rights, which grant free ... Read »


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    • List of linguistic rights in European constitutions

    • Linguistic rights in Europe are stated in constitutions which differ by country. These constitutions usually state the national language or official language, and may or may not explicitly allow for other languages in the country. Most of the linguistic rights stated here are negative rights, which grant freedom of usa ... Read »


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    • List of municipalities of Finland in which Finnish is not the sole official language

    • There are 53 municipalities of Finland in which Finnish is not the sole official language. In Finland, as of December 31, 2013, 89.3% of the population speak Finnish, 5.3% Swedish and 0.04% Sami languages. Both Finnish and Swedish are official languages of Finland. Officially, a municipality is bilingual if the minorit ... Read »


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    • List of official languages by institution

    • This is a list of official languages for significant regional and international institutions. Different organisations sometimes refer to their principal languages of administration and communication as "working languages", whilst others refer to these as being "official". No distinction is made here, except where an or ... Read »


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    • List of official languages by country and territory

    • This is a complete list of the official languages of countries and dependent territories of the world. It includes all languages that have official language status either statewide or in a part of the state, or that have status as a national language, regional language, or minority language. (Languages of Andorra) ... Read »


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    • Lithuanian press ban

    • The Lithuanian press ban (Lithuanian: spaudos draudimas) was a ban on all Lithuanian language publications printed in the Latin alphabet in force from 1865 to 1904 within the Russian Empire, which controlled Lithuania at the time. Lithuanian-language publications that used Cyrillic were allowed and even encouraged. Th ... Read »


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    • Mandatory Swedish

    • In Finland, Swedish is a mandatory school subject for Finnish-speaking pupils in the last three years of the primary education (grades 6 to 9). This so-called other domestic language is also mandatory in high schools, vocational schools, and vocational universities. Furthermore, all university graduates must demonstrat ... Read »


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    • Medium of instruction

    • A medium of instruction (plural: usually mediums of instruction, but the archaic media of instruction is still used by some) is a language used in teaching. It may or may not be the official language of the country or territory. If the first language of students is different from the official language, it may be used a ... Read »


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    • Meyer v. Nebraska

    • Meyer v. Nebraska

      Meyer v. Nebraska, 262 U.S. 390 (1923), was a U.S. Supreme Court case that held that a 1919 Nebraska law restricting foreign-language education violated the Due Process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. World War I witnessed an extensive campaign against all things German, such as the performance of German music ... Read »


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    • Minister for Irish

    • The Minister for Irish was a position in the Government of the Irish Republic, the self-declared state which was established in 1919 by Dáil Éireann, the parliamentary assembly made up of the majority of Irish MPs elected in the 1918 general election. The portfolio was created to promote the use of the Irish lang ... Read »


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    • Minority language

    • A minority language is a language spoken by a minority of the population of a territory. Such people are termed linguistic minorities or language minorities. With a total number of 193 sovereign states recognized internationally (as of 2008) and an estimated number of roughly 5,000 to 7,000 languages spoken worldwide, ... Read »


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    • Montevideo Resolution

    • The Montevideo Resolution is the common name for Resolution IV.4.422-4224, passed in Montevideo, Uruguay on December 10, 1954 by the General Conference of UNESCO. The resolution was in support of Esperanto, an alternate international language, and recommended that the Director-General of UNESCO follow current developme ... Read »


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    • List of multilingual countries and regions

    • This is an incomplete list of areas with either multilingualism at the community level or at the personal level. There is a distinction between social and personal bilingualism. Many countries, such as Belarus, Belgium, Canada, India, Ireland, South Africa and Switzerland, which are officially multilingual, may have m ... Read »


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    • National language

    • A national language is a language (or language variant, e.g. dialect) that has some connection—de facto or de jure—with a people and the territory they occupy. There is little consistency in the use of this term. One or more languages spoken as first languages in the territory of a country may be referred to ... Read »


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    • National Security Language Initiative

    • The National Security Language Initiative is a program introduced by United States President George W. Bush on January 5, 2006 at the U.S. University President's Summit to develop the foreign language skills of American students, especially in "critical-need" foreign languages such as Arabic, Chinese, Russian, Hindi, a ... Read »


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    • Nepal Bhasa movement

    • Nepal Bhasa movement (Nepal Bhasa: नेपालभाषा आन्दोलन) refers to the struggle for linguistic rights by its speakers in Nepal in the face of opposition from the government and hostile neighbors. The campaign aims to increase the use of Nepal ... Read »


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    • Official bilingualism in Canada

    • The official languages of Canada are English and French, which "have equality of status and equal rights and privileges as to their use in all institutions of the Parliament and Government of Canada," according to Canada's constitution.Official bilingualism is the term used in Canada to collectively describe the polici ... Read »


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    • Official bilingualism in the public service of Canada

    • Because Canada has, for over two centuries, contained both English- and French-speakers, the question of the language used in the administration of public affairs has always been a sensitive issue. Among the aspect of this issue that have excited public attention from time to time are: The issue of proportional h ... Read »


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    • List of official languages

    • This is a list of official languages of sovereign countries. See List of official languages by institution. Afar: Afrikaans: Aja-Gbe: Akan (Akuapem Twi, Ashante Twi, Fante): Albanian: Amazigh: Amharic: Anii: Arabic (see also List of countries where Arabic is an official language): Armenian: Assamese: A ... Read »


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    • Official Languages Act 2003

    • The Official Languages Act 2003 (OLA; Irish: Acht na dTeangacha Oifigiúla 2003) is an Act of the Oireachtas of Ireland. The Official Languages Act sets out rules regarding use of the Irish language by public bodies, establishes the office of An Coimisinéir Teanga to monitor and enforce compliance by public bodies ... Read »


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    • Official languages of the United Nations

    • The official languages of the United Nations are the six languages that are used in UN meetings, and in which all official UN documents are written. In alphabetical order, they are: These languages are used at meetings of various UN organs, particularly the General Assembly (Article 51 of its Rules of Procedure), ... Read »


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    • Official Languages Ordinance

    • Official Languages Ordinance

      The Official Languages Ordinance is an ordinance of Hong Kong enacted for the purpose of specifying the status and use of official languages of the territory. Both Chinese and English are declared official languages with equal status in the ordinance, and are to be used in communication between the government and membe ... Read »


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    • Official multilingualism

    • Official multilingualism is the policy adopted by some states of recognizing multiple languages as official and producing all official documents, and handling all correspondence and official dealings, including court procedure, in these languages. It is distinct from personal multilingualism, the capacity of a person t ... Read »


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    • Official script

    • An official script is a writing system that is specifically designated to be official in the constitutions or other applicable laws of countries, states, and other jurisdictions. Akin to an official language, an official script is much rarer. It is used primarily where an official language is in practice written with t ... Read »


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    • Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts


    • Peeters directive

    • The Peeters directive (Dutch: Omzendbrief-Peeters, French: Circulaire Peeters), officially Circular BA 97/22 of 16 December 1997 concerning the use of languages in municipal councils of the Dutch language area, is a circulaire of the Flemish government regulating the use of languages in municipal councils in the Flemis ... Read »


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    • Plataforma per la Llengua

    • Plataforma per la Llengua

      La Plataforma per la Llengua (the Pro-Language Platform) is a non-governmental organisation born in 1993 in Barcelona (Catalonia), in order to defend and promote Catalan Language all over the Catalan-speaking territories in the European States where it is spoken: Spain, France, Andorra and Italy. Their activities inclu ... Read »


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    • Pleading in English Act 1362

    • Pleading in English Act 1362

      The Pleading in English Act 1362 (36 Edw. III c. 15), often rendered Statute of Pleading, was an Act of the Parliament of England. The Act complained that because the Anglo-Norman language was largely unknown by the common masses in England, the people had no knowledge of what was being said for or against them in the ... Read »


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    • Podkolzina v. Latvia

    • Podkolzina v. Latvia (46726/99) was a case argued before the European Court of Human Rights and decided in 2002. Mrs. I. Podkolzina, member of Equal Rights party was included in the list of the candidates of the National Harmony Party for 1998 parliamentary elections, submitted in July. At the time of the registra ... Read »


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    • Proceedings in Courts of Justice Act 1730

    • Proceedings in Courts of Justice Act 1730

      The Proceedings in Courts of Justice Act 1730 (4 Geo II. c. 26) was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain which made English (instead of Law French and Latin) the obligatory language for use in the courts of England and in the court of exchequer in Scotland. The Act followed a medieval law from 1362 (the Pleading i ... Read »


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    • Promote Mandarin Council

    • The Promote Mandarin Council is an organisation established in 1979 as part of then-PM Lee Kuan Yew's programme to promote Mandarin as the preferred language amongst Chinese Singaporeans. In 1966 the Singapore Government institutionalised a bilingual education policy, under which Singaporean students were required ... Read »


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    • Punjabi Language Movement

    • The Punjabi Language Movement (PLM) is a linguistic movement in Punjab, Pakistan aimed at reviving the Punjabi language, art, culture and literature in Pakistan. The Punjabi people constitute the largest ethnic group in Pakistan though Urdu is the national language and unlike Indian Punjab (where reading/writing Punjab ... Read »


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    • Raihman v. Latvia

    • Raihman v. Latvia (Communication No. 1621/2007) was a case decided by the United Nations Human Rights Committee in 2010 (UN Document CCPR/C/100/D/1621/2007). Mr. Raihman, Latvian national and member of Jewish and Russian-speaking minorities, was born in 1959. His name and surname were registered as "ЛеоР... Read »


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    • Regional language

    • A regional language is a language spoken in an area of a sovereign state, whether it be a small area, a federal state or province, or some wider area. Internationally, for the purposes of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, "regional or minority languages" means languages that are: Recognition of ... Read »


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    • Serbian language in Croatia

    • The Serbian language is one of the officially recognized minority languages in Croatia. It is primarily used by the Serbs of Croatia. The Croatian Constitution, Croatian Constitutional law on national minorities rights, Law on Education in language and script of national minorities and Law on Use of Languages and Scrip ... Read »


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    • Language planning and policy in Singapore

    • In Singapore, language planning is associated with government planning. In this top-down approach, the government influences the acquisition of languages and their respective functions within the speech community through the education system. Language planning aims to facilitate effective communication within the speec ... Read »


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    • South Ossetian referendum, 2011

    • A referendum on making Ossetian and Russian official languages was held in South Ossetia on 13 November 2011, alongside presidential elections. The referendum was originally scheduled for 11 September 2011, but on 12 August the decision was made to postpone it. Prior to the referendum the first section of the fourth a ... Read »


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    • Speak Good English Movement

    • The Speak Good English Movement (SGEM) is a Singapore Government campaign to "encourage Singaporeans to speak grammatically correct English that is universally understood". It was launched by then-Prime Minister Goh Chok Tong on 29 April 2000. The purpose was to ensure that Singaporeans recognise the importance of spea ... Read »


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    • Speak Mandarin Campaign

    • The Speak Mandarin Campaign (SMC; simplified Chinese: 讲华语运动; traditional Chinese: 講華語運動; pinyin: Jiǎng Huáyǔ Yùndòng; Wade–Giles: Chiang3 hua2 yü3 yün4 tung4) is an initiative by the government of Singapore to encourage the Singaporean Chinese ... Read »


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    • Standard Macedonian

    • Standard Macedonian or Literary Macedonian (Macedonian: Книжевен македонски јазик or Македонски литературен јазик) is the standard variety of the Macedonian language and off ... Read »


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    • Telugu language policy

    • Telugu language policy is an issue in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh, where Telugu is the first language of 93 percent of the population. Telugu-language advocates note a lack of incentivisation and government support for the language, and press for their linguistic rights for Telugu's greater official in the recog ... Read »


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    • Toubon Law

    • The Toubon Law (full name: law 94-665 of 4 August 1994 relating to usage of the French language) is a law of the French government mandating the use of the French language in official government publications, in all advertisements, in all workplaces, in commercial contracts, in some other commercial communication conte ... Read »


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    • United Nations Multilingual Terminology Database

    • The United Nations Multilingual Terminology Database is a linguistic tool which translates terminology and nomenclature used within the United Nations (UN) in the six official languages of the UN (Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish). The database contains more than 85,000 words and is updated daily. ... Read »


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    • United Nations Security Council Resolution 263

    • United Nations Security Council Resolution 263

      United Nations Security Council Resolution 263, adopted on January 24, 1969, after the General Assembly passed Resolution 2479 extolling the virtues of expanded working languages, the Council decided to include Russian and Spanish among the working languages of the Security Council. The resolution was adopted without ... Read »


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    • United Nations Security Council Resolution 345

    • United Nations Security Council Resolution 345

      United Nations Security Council Resolution 345, adopted on January 17, 1974, after a resolution from the General Assembly, the Council decided to expand that working languages of the Security Council to include Chinese. Along with Chinese, the other four working languages of the Council were English, French, Russian an ... Read »


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    • United Nations Security Council Resolution 528

    • United Nations Security Council Resolution 528

      United Nations Security Council Resolution 528, adopted on December 21, 1982, after the General Assembly passed Resolution 3190 extolling the virtues of expanded working languages, the Council decided to include Arabic among the working languages of the Security Council. No details of the voting were given, other than ... Read »


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    • Valuev Circular

    • The Valuev Circular (Russian: Валуевский циркуляр, Valuyevskiy tsirkulyar; Ukrainian: Валуєвський циркуляр, Valuievs’kyi tsyrkuliar) of 18 July 1863 was a secret decree (ukaz) of the Minister of Internal ... Read »


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    • Welsh Language Act 1967

    • Welsh Language Act 1967

      The Welsh Language Act 1967, is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which gave some rights to use the Welsh language in legal proceedings in Wales (including Monmouthshire) and gave the relevant Minister the right to authorise the production of a Welsh version of any documents required or allowed by the Act. ... Read »


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    • Welsh Language Act 1993

    • Welsh Language Act 1993

      The Welsh Language Act 1993, is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which put the Welsh language on an equal footing with the English language in Wales with regard to the public sector. The Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542 had made English the only language of the law courts and other aspects of public ad ... Read »


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    • Welsh Language Commissioner

    • The role of the Welsh Language Commissioner (Welsh: Comisiynydd y Gymraeg) was created by the Welsh Language (Wales) Measure 2011 on 1 April 2012 with the appointment of Meri Huws as Wales' first Commissioner. The Commissioner's work is politically independent. The Welsh Language Commissioner's main aim is to promote ... Read »


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    • Working language

    • A working language (also procedural language) is a language that is given a unique legal status in a supranational company, society, state or other body or organization as its primary means of communication. It is primarily the language of the daily correspondence and conversation, since the organization usually has me ... Read »


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    • World language

    • A world language is a language that is spoken internationally and is learned and spoken by a large number of people as a second language. A world language is characterized not only by the total number of speakers (native and second language speakers), but also by its geographical distribution, as well as use in interna ... Read »


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