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  • Language acquisition

    Language acquisition

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    • Developmental psycholinguists

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    • Language education journals

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    • Learning to read

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    • Linguistic error

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    • Second-language acquisition

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    • Language acquisition

    • Language acquisition is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language, as well as to produce and use words and sentences to communicate. Language acquisition is one of the quintessential human traits, because non-humans do not communicate by using language. Language acquisition us ... Read »


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    • Accent reduction

    • Accent reduction, also known as elocution, accent modification, accent neutralization, or deaccentation, is a systematic approach for learning or adopting a new accent. It is the process of learning the sound system (or phonology) of a language or dialect. The method involves several steps, which include identifying de ... Read »


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    • Analogical change

    • In language, an analogical change is the process of inventing a new in conformity with some part of the language system that you already know. For instance, child learns pairs like dog/dogs, cat/cats and is then able to form other plurals. The way in which analogy can lead to a change is seen when the child learns wor ... Read »


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    • Anglophone pronunciation of foreign languages

    • The following is a list of common non-native pronunciations that English speakers make when trying to speak foreign languages. Many of these are due to transfer of phonological rules from English to the new language as well as differences in grammar and syntax that they encounter. This article uses International Phone ... Read »


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    • Artificial grammar learning

    • Artificial grammar learning (AGL) is a paradigm of study within cognitive psychology and linguistics. Its goal is to investigate the processes that underlie human language learning by testing subjects' ability to learn a made-up grammar in a laboratory setting. It was developed to evaluate the processes of human langua ... Read »


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    • Babbling

    • Babbling is a stage in child development and a state in language acquisition during which an infant appears to be experimenting with uttering articulate sounds, but does not yet produce any recognizable words. Babbling begins shortly after birth and progresses through several stages as the infant's repertoire of sounds ... Read »


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    • Baby sign language

    • Baby sign language is the use of manual signing allowing infants and toddlers to communicate emotions, desires, and objects prior to spoken language development. With guidance and encouragement signing develops from a natural stage in infants development known as gesture. These gestures are taught in conjunction with s ... Read »


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    • Basis of articulation

    • In phonetics the basis of articulation is the default position or standard settings of a speaker's organs of articulation when ready to speak. An alternative term is articulatory setting. Different languages each have their own basis of articulation, which means that native speakers will share a certain position of ton ... Read »


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    • Bilingual memory

    • Bilingualism is the regular use of two fluent languages, and bilinguals are those individuals who need and use two (or more) languages in their everyday lives. A person's bilingual memories are heavily dependent on the person's fluency, the age the second language was acquired, and high language proficiency to both lan ... Read »


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    • CHILDES

    • The Child Language Data Exchange System (CHILDES) is a corpus established in 1984 by Brian MacWhinney and Catherine Snow to serve as a central repository for first language acquisition data. Its earliest transcripts date from the 1960s, and it now has contents (transcripts, audio, and video) in 26 languages from 130 di ... Read »


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    • Code-mixing

    • Code-mixing is the mixing of two or more languages or language varieties in speech. Some scholars use the terms "code-mixing" and "code-switching" interchangeably, especially in studies of syntax, morphology, and other formal aspects of language. Others assume more specific definitions of code-mixing, but these specif ... Read »


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    • Code-switching

    • In linguistics, code-switching occurs when a speaker alternates between two or more languages, or language varieties, in the context of a single conversation. Multilinguals, speakers of more than one language, sometimes use elements of multiple languages when conversing with each other. Thus, code-switching is the use ... Read »


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    • Cognitive advantages of bilingualism

    • A bilingual person can traditionally be defined as an individual who uses (understands and produces) two (or more) languages on a regular basis. A bilingual person's initial exposure to both languages may have started in early childhood, e.g. before age 3, but exposure may also begin later in life. While some people as ... Read »


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    • Communicative competence

    • Communicative competence is a term in linguistics which refers to a language user's grammatical knowledge of syntax, morphology, phonology and the like, as well as social knowledge about how and when to use utterances appropriately. The term was coined by Dell Hymes in 1966, reacting against the perceived inadequacy o ... Read »


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    • Competition model

    • The Competition Model is a psycholinguistic theory of language acquisition and sentence processing developed by Elizabeth Bates and Brian MacWhinney. The Competition Model posits that the meaning of language is interpreted by comparing a number of linguistic cues within a sentence, and that language is learned through ... Read »


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    • Complete Feedback

    • Complete Feedback is one of Charles Hockett's 16 Design features of language which states that speakers are able to hear what they are saying. Through their auditory channels they are able to receive feedback on what they are vocalizing. ... Read »


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    • Crib talk

    • Crib talk or crib speech is pre-sleep monologue made by young children while in bed. This starts somewhere around one-and-a-half years and usually ends by about two-and-a-half years of age, though children can continue longer. It consists of conversational discourse with turn-taking often containing semantically and sy ... Read »


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    • Critical period hypothesis

    • The critical period hypothesis is the subject of a long-standing debate in linguistics and language acquisition over the extent to which the ability to acquire language is biologically linked to age. The hypothesis claims that there is an ideal time window to acquire language in a linguistically rich environment, after ... Read »


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    • Developmental linguistics

    • Developmental linguistics is the study of the development of linguistic ability in an individual, particularly the acquisition of language in childhood. It involves research into the different stages in language acquisition, language retention, and language loss in both first and second languages, in addition to the ar ... Read »


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    • Distributional semantics

    • Distributional semantics is a research area that develops and studies theories and methods for quantifying and categorizing semantic similarities between linguistic items based on their distributional properties in large samples of language data. The basic idea of distributional semantics can be summed up in the so-cal ... Read »


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    • Dunstan Baby Language

    • Dunstan Baby Language is a claim about infantile vocal reflexes as signals, in humans. The claim is that across cultures and linguistic groups there are five sounds, each with a meaning, that are used by infants before the language acquisition period. The hypothesis was developed by Australian former mezzo-soprano, Pri ... Read »


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    • Enactment effect

    • The enactment effect, also called self-performed task effect (SPT effect) is a term that was created in the early 80's to describe the fact that verb phrases are memorized better if a learner performs the described action during learning, compared to just getting the verbal information or seeing someone else perform t ... Read »


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    • Errors in early word use

    • Errors in early word use or developmental errors are mistakes that children commonly commit when first learning language. Language acquisition is an impressive cognitive achievement attained by humans. In the first few years of life, children already demonstrate general knowledge and understanding of basic patterns in ... Read »


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    • European Day of Languages

    • The European Day of Languages is 26 September, as proclaimed by the Council of Europe on 6 December 2001, at the end of the European Year of Languages (2001), which had been jointly organised by the Council of Europe and the European Union. Its aim is to encourage language learning across Europe. The general objec ... Read »


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    • Extensive reading

    • Extensive reading, free reading, book flood, or reading for pleasure is a way of language learning, including foreign language learning, through large amounts of reading. As well as facilitating acquisition and learning of vocabulary, it is believed to increase motivation through positive affective benefits. It is beli ... Read »


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    • Fast mapping

    • In cognitive psychology, fast mapping is the term used for the hypothesized mental process whereby a new concept is learned (or a new hypothesis formed) based only on a single exposure to a given unit of information. Fast mapping is thought by some researchers to be particularly important during language acquisition in ... Read »


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    • First language

    • A first language (also native language, father tongue/mother tongue, arterial language, or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period. If there are multiple L1, the designation "first language" is used for the L1 spoken the best or the one that is the basis for sociolin ... Read »


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    • Fis phenomenon

    • Fis phenomenon is a phenomenon of child language acquisition that demonstrates that perception of phonemes occurs earlier than the ability of the child to produce those phonemes. It is also illustrative of a larger theme in child language acquisition: that skills in linguistic comprehension generally precede correspond ... Read »


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    • Genie (feral child)

    • Genie (feral child)

      Genie (born 1957) is the pseudonym for a feral child who was a victim of severe abuse, neglect, and social isolation. Her circumstances are prominently recorded in the annals of linguistics and abnormal child psychology. When she was a baby her father concluded that she was severely mentally retarded, a view which inte ... Read »


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    • Gestures in language acquisition

    • Gestures are a form of non-verbal communication that include movements of the hands, arms, and/or other parts of the body. Children can use gesture to communicate before they have the ability to use spoken words and phrases. In this way gestures can prepare children to learn a spoken language, creating a bridge from pr ... Read »


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    • Jean Berko Gleason

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      Jean Berko Gleason (born 1931) is a professor emerita in the Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences (formerly the Department of Psychology) at Boston University, a psycholinguist who has made fundamental contributions to the understanding of language acquisition in children, aphasia, gender differences in langu ... Read »


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    • Good language learner studies

    • The good language learner (GLL) studies are a group of academic studies in the area of second language acquisition that deal with the strategies that good language learners exhibit. The rationale for the studies was that there is more benefit from studying the habits of successful language learners than there is from s ... Read »


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    • Graded reader

    • Graded readers are "easy reading" books used to support the extensive reading approach to teaching English as a second or foreign language, and other languages. While many graded readers are written for native speaker children, more often they are targeted at young adults and above, since children's books are already w ... Read »


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    • Heritage language learning

    • Heritage language learning or heritage language acquisition is the act of learning a heritage language from an ethnolinguistic group that traditionally speaks the language, or from those whose family historically spoke the language. According to a commonly accepted definition by Valdés, heritage languages are genera ... Read »


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    • Human Speechome Project

    • The Human Speechome Project, (speechome to rhyme with "genome"), is an effort to closely observe and model the language acquisition of a child over the first three years of life. The project was conducted at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Media Laboratory by the Associate Professor Deb Roy with an array o ... Read »


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    • Identity and Language Learning

    • A significant construct in language learning research, identity is defined as "how a person understands his or her relationship to the world, how that relationship is structured across time and space, and how the person understands possibilities for the future". Recognizing language as a social practice, identity highl ... Read »


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    • Individual variation in second-language acquisition

    • Individual variation in second-language acquisition is the study of why some people learn a second language better than others. Unlike children who acquire a language, adults learning a second language rarely reach the same level of competence as native speakers of that language. Some may stop studying a language befor ... Read »


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    • Input hypothesis

    • The input hypothesis, also known as the monitor model, is a group of five hypotheses of second-language acquisition developed by the linguist Stephen Krashen in the 1970s and 1980s. Krashen originally formulated the input hypothesis as just one of the five hypotheses, but over time the term has come to refer to the fiv ... Read »


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    • Intensive reading

    • Extensive reading, free reading, book flood, or reading for pleasure is a way of language learning, including foreign language learning, through large amounts of reading. As well as facilitating acquisition and learning of vocabulary, it is believed to increase motivation through positive affective benefits. It is beli ... Read »


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    • Inter-University Program for Chinese Language Study

    • The Inter-University Program for Chinese Language Studies at Tsinghua University (Chinese: 清华IUP中文中心) is a prestigious Mandarin Chinese study center in Beijing associated with University of California, Berkeley. IUP started in Taipei, Taiwan in 1963 and was known as Stanford Center. In 199 ... Read »


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    • Interaction hypothesis

    • The Interaction hypothesis is a theory of second-language acquisition which states that the development of language proficiency is promoted by face-to-face interaction and communication. The idea existed in the 1980s, but is usually credited to Michael Long for his 1996 paper The role of the linguistic environment in s ... Read »


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    • Interface hypothesis

    • The interface hypothesis in adult second language acquisition is an attempt to explain non-target-like linguistic behavior that persists even among highly advanced speakers. The hypothesis was first put forward by Antonella Sorace. The hypothesis posits that for adult second language learners, acquiring grammatical pr ... Read »


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    • Interface position

    • The interface position is a concept in second language acquisition that describes the various possible theoretical relationships between implicit and explicit knowledge in the mind of a second language learner.Tacit knowledge is language knowledge that learners possess intuitively but are not able to put into words; ex ... Read »


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    • Interlanguage

    • Interlanguage is the term for an ideolect that has been developed by a learner of a second language (or L2) who has not yet reached proficiency. A learner's interlanguage preserves some features of their first language (or L1), and can also overgeneralize some L2 writing and speaking rules. These two characteristics of ... Read »


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    • International Association for the Study of Child Language

    • The International Association for the Study of Child Language (IASCL) is an academic society for first language acquisition researchers. It was founded in 1970 by a group of prominent language acquisition researchers to promote international and interdisciplinary cooperation in the study of child language. Its major ac ... Read »


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    • Joint attention

    • Joint attention or shared attention is the shared focus of two individuals on an object. It is achieved when one individual alerts another to an object by means of eye-gazing, pointing or other verbal or non-verbal indications. An individual gazes at another individual, points to an object and then returns their gaze t ... Read »


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    • Language acquisition by deaf children

    • In the United States, one in a thousand children is born profoundly deaf. Despite their inability to hear at birth, communication and language acquisition are fundamental to their general cognitive development and their engagement with their surroundings. While most deaf children in the developed world receive hearing ... Read »


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    • Language bioprogram theory

    • The language bioprogram theory or language bioprogram hypothesis (LBH) is a theory arguing that the structural similarities between different creole languages cannot be solely attributed to their superstrate and substrate languages. As articulated mostly by Derek Bickerton,creolization occurs when the linguistic exposu ... Read »


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    • Language delay

    • Language delay is a failure in children to develop language abilities on the usual age appropriate for their developmental timetable. Language delay is distinct from speech delay, in which the development of the mechanical and motor aspects of speech production is delayed. Oral communication is a two-stage process. Th ... Read »


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    • Language deprivation

    • Language deprivation is associated with the lack of linguistic stimuli that are necessary for the language acquisition processes in an individual, usually in a very impoverished environment. Experiments involving language deprivation are very scarce due to the ethical controversy associated with it. Roger Shattuck, an ... Read »


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    • Language development

    • Language development is a process starting early in human life. Infants start without language, yet by 10 months, babies can distinguish speech sounds and engage in babbling. Some research has shown that the earliest learning begins in utero when the fetus starts to recognize the sounds and speech patterns of its mothe ... Read »


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    • Language learning strategies

    • Language learning strategies is a term referring to the processes and actions that are consciously deployed by language learners to help them to learn or use a language more effectively. They have also been defined as ‘thoughts and actions, consciously chosen and operationalized by language learners, to assist the ... Read »


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    • Language proficiency

    • Language proficiency or linguistic proficiency is the ability of an individual to speak or perform in an acquired language. As theories among pedagogues as to what constitutes proficiency go, there is little consistency as to how different organizations classify it. Additionally, fluency and language competence are gen ... Read »


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    • Linguistic development of Genie


    • Linguistic distance

    • Linguistic distance is how different one language or dialect is from another. Although there is no uniform approach to quantifying linguistic distance between languages, the concept is used in a variety of linguistic situations, such as learning additional languages, historical linguistics, language-based conflicts and ... Read »


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    • Linguistics in education

    • Linguistics in education refers to a small but growing field of linguistics which advocates a greater use of linguistic theory and linguistic curriculum in primary and secondary education. Due to changes in national standards for K-12 education in the United States during the 1960s, grammar was largely dropped fro ... Read »


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    • Linkword

    • Linkword is a mnemonic system promoted by Michael Gruneberg since at least the early 1980s for learning languages based on the similarity of the sounds of words. The process involves creating an easily visualized scene that will link the words together. One example is the Russian word for cow (корова, ... Read »


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    • List of common misconceptions about language learning

    • The subject of language learning is subject to several misconceptions. The general public tend to rely on their own intuitions about language learning, in ways they would not with other technical subjects such as physics (a phenomenon known as folk linguistics). However, these intuitions are often contradicted by the s ... Read »


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    • List of language self-study programs

    • Self-study programs allow learning without having a teacher present, and the courses can supplement or replace classroom instruction. Universities use self-study programs for less-commonly taught languages, where having professors is not feasible. Self-study programs are available on paper, audio files, video files, co ... Read »


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    • Mama and papa

    • In linguistics, mama and papa is the sequences of sounds /ma/, /mama/ and similar ones known to correspond to the word for "mother" and "father" in many languages of the world. The basic kinship terms mama and papa are said to comprise a special case of false cognates. The cross-linguistic similarities between these t ... Read »


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    • Manual babbling

    • Manual babbling is a linguistic phenomenon that has been observed in deaf children and children born to deaf parents and appears at the early stages of language acquisition. It is characterized by repetitive movements that are confined to a limited area in front of the body similar to the sign-phonetic space used in si ... Read »


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    • Metalinguistic awareness

    • Metalinguistic awareness refers to the ability to objectify language as a process as well as an artifact. The concept of metalinguistic awareness is helpful in explaining the execution and transfer of linguistic knowledge across languages (e.g. code switching as well as translation among bilinguals). Metalinguistics ca ... Read »


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    • Modern Language Aptitude Test

    • The Modern Language Aptitude Test was designed to predict a student’s likelihood of success and ease in learning a foreign language. The Modern Language Aptitude Test (MLAT) was developed to measure foreign language learning aptitude. Language learning aptitude does not refer to whether or not an individual can o ... Read »


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    • MOGUL framework

    • The MOGUL framework is a research framework aiming to provide a theoretical perspective on the nature of language. MOGUL (Modular On-line Growth and Use of Language) draws on the common ground underlying various related areas of cognitive science including psycholinguistics, theoretical linguistics, first- and second-l ... Read »


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    • Monolingual learner's dictionary


    • Multi-competence

    • Multi-competence is a concept in second language acquisition formulated by Vivian Cook that refers to the knowledge of more than one language in one person's mind. From the multicompetence perspective, the different languages a person speaks are seen as one connected system, rather than each language being a separate s ... Read »


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    • Multilingualism

    • Multilingualism is the use of two or more languages, either by an individual speaker or by a community of speakers. It is believed that multilingual speakers outnumber monolingual speakers in the world's population. More than half of all Europeans claim to speak at least one other language in addition to their mother t ... Read »


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    • Mutual exclusivity (psychology)

    • Mutual exclusivity is a word learning constraint that involves the tendency to assign one label/name, and in turn avoid assigning a second label, to a single object. Mutual exclusivity is often discussed as one of three main lexical constraints, or word learning biases, that are believed to play major roles in word lea ... Read »


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    • Nativization

    • Nativization is the process whereby a language gains native speakers. This happens necessarily where a second language used by adult parents becomes the native language of their children. Nativization has been of particular interest to linguists, and to creolists more specifically, where the second language concerned i ... Read »


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    • Non-native pronunciations of English

    • Non-native pronunciations of English result from the common linguistic phenomenon in which non-native users of any language tend to carry the intonation, phonological processes and pronunciation rules from their first language or first languages into their English speech. They may also create innovative pronunciations ... Read »


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    • One person, one language

    • The “one person, one language” approach is a popular method adopted by parents attempting to raise simultaneous bilingual children. With the “one person, one language” approach, each parent consistently speaks only one of the two languages to the child. For instance, the child’s mother might sp ... Read »


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    • Order of acquisition

    • The order of acquisition is a concept in language acquisition describing the specific order in which all language learners acquire the grammatical features of their first language. This concept is based on the observation that all children acquire their first language in a fixed, universal order, regardless of the spec ... Read »


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    • Parallel text

    • A parallel text is a text placed alongside its translation or translations. Parallel text alignment is the identification of the corresponding sentences in both halves of the parallel text. The Loeb Classical Library and the Clay Sanskrit Library are two examples of dual-language series of texts. Reference Bibles may c ... Read »


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    • Passive speaker (language)

    • A passive speaker (also referred to as a receptive bilingual or passive bilingual) is a category of speaker who has had enough exposure to a language in childhood to have a native-like comprehension of it, but has little or no active command of it. Such speakers are especially common in language shift communities wher ... Read »


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    • Pedagogical grammar

    • A pedagogical grammar is a modern approach in linguistics intended to aid in teaching an additional language. This method of teaching is divided into the descriptive: grammatical analysis, and the prescriptive: the articulation of a set of rules. Following an analysis of the context in which it is to be used, one gram ... Read »


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    • Perception of English /r/ and /l/ by Japanese speakers


    • Phonological development

    • Sound is at the beginning of language learning. Children have to learn to distinguish different sounds and to segment the speech stream they are exposed to into units – eventually meaningful units – in order to acquire words and sentences. Here is one reason that speech segmentation is challenging: When you r ... Read »


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    • Pimsleur Language Programs

    • Pimsleur Language Programs

      Pimsleur Language Programs is an American language learning company that develops and publishes courses based on the Pimsleur method. Dr. Paul Pimsleur, a professor and expert in applied linguistics and a founding member of the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL), wrote the original 5 cou ... Read »


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    • Plato's Problem


    • Plurilingualism

    • Plurilingualism is a situation wherein a person who has competence in more than one language can switch between languages – from one language to another and vice versa – according to the circumstances at hand for the purpose of coping with a social matter. There is a distinction between plurilingualism and mu ... Read »


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    • Poverty of the stimulus

    • In linguistics, the poverty of the stimulus (POS) is the assertion that natural language grammar is unlearnable given the relatively limited data available to children learning a language, and therefore that this knowledge is supplemented with some sort of innate linguistic capacity. Nativists claim that humans are bo ... Read »


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    • Processability theory

    • Processability theory is a theory and a model of second language acquisition developed by Manfred Pienemann that touches the linguistic structures that surface in the learning of a second language. The theory has been used as a framework by several scientists from Europe and Australia. Processability theory is part of ... Read »


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    • Prosodic bootstrapping

    • Prosodic Bootstrapping (also known as Phonological Bootstrapping) in linguistics refers to the hypothesis that learners of a primary language (L1) use prosodic features such as pitch, tempo, rhythm, amplitude, and other auditory aspects from the speech signal as a cue to identify other properties of grammar, such as sy ... Read »


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    • Regularization (linguistics)

    • Regularization is a linguistic phenomenon observed in language acquisition, language development and language change typified by the replacement of irregular forms in morphology or syntax by regular ones. Examples are "gooses" instead of "geese" in child speech and replacement of the Middle English plural form for "cow ... Read »


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    • Acculturation Model

    • In second-language acquisition, the Acculturation Model is a theory proposed by John Schumann to describe the acquisition process of a second language (L2) by members of ethnic minorities that typically include immigrants, migrant workers, or the children of such groups. This acquisition process takes place in natural ... Read »


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    • Second language writing

    • Second-language writing is the study of writing performed by non-native speakers/writers of a language as a second or foreign language. In addition to disseminating research through the Journal of Second Language Writing, scholars in the field regularly participate in three academic conferences, the Symposium on Secon ... Read »


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    • Second-language acquisition

    • Second-language acquisition (SLA), second-language learning, or L2 (language 2) acquisition, is the process by which people learn a second language. Second-language acquisition is also the scientific discipline devoted to studying that process. The field of second-language acquisition is a subdiscipline of applied ling ... Read »


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    • Semantic bootstrapping

    • Semantic bootstrapping is a linguistic theory of child language acquisition which proposes that children can acquire the syntax of a language by first learning and recognizing semantic elements and building upon, or bootstrapping from, that knowledge. This theory proposes that children, when acquiring words, will recog ... Read »


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    • Bootstrapping (linguistics)

    • Bootstrapping is a term used in language acquisition in the field of linguistics. It refers to the idea that human beings are born innately equipped with a mental faculty that forms the basis of language, and that allows children to effortlessly acquire language. As a process, bootstrapping can be divided into differen ... Read »


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    • Semanticity

    • Semanticity is one of Charles Hockett's 16 design features of language. Semanticity refers to the use of arbitrary or nonarbitrary signals to transmit meaningful messages. Semantics is the meaning of words. Therefore, semanticity is its noun form. ... Read »


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    • Sequential bilingualism

    • Sequential bilingualism occurs when a person becomes bilingual by first learning one language and then another. The process is contrasted with simultaneous bilingualism, in which both languages are learned at the same time. There is variation in the period in which learning must take place for bilingualism to be consi ... Read »


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    • Simultaneous bilingualism

    • Simultaneous bilingualism is a form of bilingualism that takes place when a child becomes bilingual by learning two languages from birth. According to Annick De Houwer, in an article in The Handbook of Child Language, simultaneous bilingualism takes place in "children who are regularly addressed in two spoken languages ... Read »


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    • Skill-based theories of second-language acquisition

    • Skill-based theories of second-language acquisition are theories of second-language acquisition based on models of skill acquisition in cognitive psychology. These theories conceive of second-language acquisition as being learned in the same way as any other skill, such as learning to drive a car or play the piano. Tha ... Read »


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    • Social interactionist theory

    • Social interactionist theory is an explanation of language development emphasizing the role of social interaction between the developing child and linguistically knowledgeable adults. It is based largely on the socio-cultural theories of Soviet psychologist, Lev Vygotsky. Approach to language acquisition research ... Read »


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    • Social Media Language Learning

    • Social Media Language Learning (SMLL) links interactive social media channels to language learning. This enables students to develop communication and language skills. Social media consist of interactive forms of media that allow users to interact with and publish to each other, generally by means of the internet. Dail ... Read »


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    • Speaker types

    • Within the linguistic study of endangered languages, sociolinguists distinguish between different speaker types based on the type of competence they have acquired of the endangered language. Often in situations where a community is gradually shifting away from an endangered language to a majority language, not all spea ... Read »


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    • Speech acquisition

    • Speech acquisition focuses on the development of spoken language by a child. Speech consists of an organized set of sounds or phonemes that are used to convey meaning while language is an arbitrary association of symbols used according to prescribed rules to convey meaning. While grammatical and syntactic learning can ... Read »


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    • Speech delay

    • Speech delay, also known as alalia, refers to a delay in the development or use of the mechanisms that produce speech.Speech, as distinct from language, refers to the actual process of making sounds, using such organs and structures as the lungs, vocal cords, mouth, tongue, teeth, etc. Language delay refers to a delay ... Read »


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    • Speech repetition

    • Speech repetition is the saying by one individual of the spoken vocalizations made by another individual. This requires the ability in the person making the copy to map the sensory input they hear from the other person's vocal pronunciation into a similar motor output with their own vocal tract. Such speech input outp ... Read »


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    • Statistical language acquisition

    • Statistical language acquisition, is a branch of developmental psycholinguistics, that studies the process by which humans develop the ability to perceive, produce, comprehend, and communicate with natural language in all of its aspects (phonological, syntactic, lexical, morphological, semantic) through the use of gene ... Read »


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    • Statistical learning in language acquisition

    • Statistical learning is the ability for humans and other animals to extract statistical regularities from the world around them to learn about the environment. Although statistical learning is now thought to be a generalized learning mechanism, the phenomenon was first identified in human infant language acquisition. ... Read »


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    • Syntactic bootstrapping

    • Syntactic bootstrapping is a theory in linguistics which proposes that children learn word meanings by recognizing the syntactic categories (such as nouns, adjectives, etc.) and structure of their language. Children have innate knowledge of the links between syntactic and semantic categories and can use their observati ... Read »


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    • Telegraphic speech

    • Telegraphic speech, according to linguistics and psychology, is speech during the two-word stage of language acquisition in children, which is laconic and efficient. The name derives from the fact that someone sending a telegram was generally charged by the word. To save money, people typically wrote their telegrams i ... Read »


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    • Threshold hypothesis

    • The threshold hypothesis is a hypothesis concerning second language acquisition set forth in a study by Cummins (1976) that stated that a minimum threshold in language proficiency must be passed before a second-language speaker can reap any benefits from language. It also states that, in order to gain proficiency in a ... Read »


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    • Universal grammar

    • Universal grammar (UG) in linguistics, is the theory of the genetic component of the language faculty, usually credited to Noam Chomsky. The basic postulate of UG is that language is hard-wired into the brain. It is sometimes known as "mental grammar", and stands opposed to other "grammars", e.g. prescriptive, descript ... Read »


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    • Vocabulary development

    • Vocabulary development is a process by which people acquire words. Babbling shifts towards meaningful speech as infants grow and produce their first words around the age of one year. In early word learning, infants build their vocabulary slowly. By the age of 18 months, infants can typically produce about 50 words and ... Read »


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    • Vocal-Auditory Channel

    • The vocal-auditory channel describes the way vocal signals can be used to produce language. The speaker uses a vocal tract (containing most of the speech organs) to produce speech sounds, and the hearer employs an auditory apparatus (the sense of hearing) to receive and process the speech sounds. This is why human lang ... Read »


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    • Word learning biases

    • Word learning biases are certain biases or assumptions that allow children to quickly rule out unlikely alternatives in order to effectively process and learn word meanings. They begin to manifest themselves around 18 months, when children begin to rapidly expand their vocabulary. These biases are important for childre ... Read »


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    • Word lists by frequency

    • Word lists by frequency are lists of a language's words grouped by frequency of occurrence within some given text corpus, either by levels or as a ranked list, serving the purpose of vocabulary acquisition. A word list by frequency "provides a rational basis for making sure that learners get the best return for their v ... Read »


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    • Wordly Wise

    • Wordly Wise 3000 is an American series of workbooks published by Educators Publishing Service for the teaching of spelling and vocabulary. Books A through C (for grades 2–4) introduce 300 words and books 1–9 (grades 4–12) 3,000 words, all with exercises. As well as spelling and meaning, the books cover t ... Read »


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    • Yabla

    • Yabla Inc. is an online computer-assisted language learning (CALL) company featuring interactive videos of various difficulty levels and genres (including television dramas, music videos, animation, interviews, and grammar/vocabulary lessons). Yabla is currently available in Spanish, French, Italian, German, Mandarin C ... Read »


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  • What Else?

    • Language acquisition

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