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    Language

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    • Languages

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    • Language acquisition

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    • Language-related awards

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    • Language competitions

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    • Natural language and computing

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    • Documentary films about words and language

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    • Language and translation in fiction

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    • Language games

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    • Gender in language

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    • Language interpretation

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    • Linguistics

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    • Language mechanics

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    • Language and mysticism

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    • Oral communication

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Oral communication


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    • Philology

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    • Philosophy of language

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    • Language policy

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    • Self-reference

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    • Sociology of language

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    • Language software

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    • Speech and language pathology

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    • Statements

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    • Terminology

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    • Vocabulary

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    • Writing

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    • Language stubs

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    • Language

    • Language is the ability to acquire and use complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so, and a language is any specific example of such a system. The scientific study of language is called linguistics. Questions concerning the philosophy of language, such as whether words can represent expe ... Read »


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    • Ambiguities in Chinese character simplification

    • A relatively small number of Chinese characters known as (simplified Chinese): 简繁一对多; (traditional Chinese): 簡繁一對多 do not have a one-to-one mapping between their simplified and traditional forms. This is usually because the simplification process merged two or more dis ... Read »


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    • Angelic tongues

    • Angelic tongues are the languages supposedly used by angels. It usually refers to sung praise in Second Temple period Jewish materials. Throughout the Old Testament there is no indication that angels spoke (on earth) any other language than that of men. Nor any indication of heavenly tongues: Psa 148:2 "Praise ye ... Read »


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    • Articulatory approach for teaching pronunciation

    • The Articulatory approach to teaching pronunciation considers learning how to pronounce a second language to be a motor skill which most students are not in a position to develop based on self-evaluation of their production. The role of the teacher is therefore to provide feedback on students' performance as part of co ... Read »


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    • Artificial language

    • Artificial languages are languages of a typically very limited size which emerge either in computer simulations between artificial agents, robot interactions or controlled psychological experiments with humans. They are different from both constructed languages and formal languages in that they have not been consciousl ... Read »


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    • Closed-ended question

    • Respondents are asked to decide where they fit along a scale continuum. These questions contain an ordered set of answers. A common ordinal scale asks about levels of satisfaction. A closed-ended question contrasts with an open-ended question, which cannot be answered with a simple "yes" or "no", or with a specifi ... Read »


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    • Common English usage misconceptions

    • This list comprises widespread modern beliefs about English language usage that are documented by a reliable source to be myths or misconceptions. With no authoritative language academy, guidance on English language usage can come from many sources. This can create problems, as described by Reginald Close: Teachers a ... Read »


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    • Constructed language

    • A planned or constructed language (sometimes called a conlang) is a language whose phonology, grammar, and vocabulary have been consciously devised for human or human-like communication, instead of having developed naturally. It is also referred to as an artificial or invented language. There are many possible reasons ... Read »


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    • Counterword

    • A counterword (also spelled counter word and counter-word) is a word such as "so" that is frequently used to answer ("counter") in a reflex-like manner and that has due to this frequent use quickly taken on a new, much less specific or much looser meaning or is even almost meaningless or performs a completely new funct ... Read »


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    • Cultural emphasis

    • Cultural emphasis is defined as an important aspect of a culture which is often reflected though language and, more specifically, vocabulary (Ottenheimer, 2006, p. 266). This means that the vocabulary people use in a culture indicates what is important to that group of people. If there are a lot of words to describe ... Read »


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    • DeafVideo.tv

    • DeafVideo.tv is a website that allows users to vlog using American Sign Language (ASL). It was started and is hosted by Tayler Mayer (username: deafvideotv) through a site called Taylerinfomedia.com. DeafVideo.tv was started in 2007. It currently has over 4,000 vloggers who discuss everything from politics, current e ... Read »


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    • Dialect

    • The term dialect (from Latin , , from the Ancient Greek word , diálektos, "discourse", from , diá, "through" and , légō, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena: For example, most of the various regional Romance languages of Italy, often colloquially ... Read »


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    • Ergative–absolutive language


    • Escagraph

    • The term "escagraph" was first used in the 1980s by Dr. Larry R. Smith to identify and describe the many forms, past and present, of writing on food and letters as food. The term is a concatenation of esca (from Latin meaning "victuals" or "things to be eaten") and graph (after the Greek meaning: "mark" or the infinit ... Read »


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    • Evolutionary psychology of language

    • Evolutionary psychology of language is the study of the evolutionary history of language as a psychological faculty within the discipline of evolutionary psychology. There are many competing theories of how language evolved. It stems from the belief that language development could result from an adaptation, an exaptat ... Read »


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    • Feminist language reform

    • Feminist language reform or feminist language planning refers to the effort, often of political and grassroots movements, to change how language is used to gender people, activities and ideas on an individual and societal level. This initiative has been adopted in countries such as Sweden, Switzerland and Australia, an ... Read »


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    • First language

    • A first language (also native language, father tongue/mother tongue, arterial language, or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period. If there are multiple L1, the designation "first language" is used for the L1 spoken the best or the one that is the basis for sociolin ... Read »


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    • Flitto

    • Simon Lee CEO, Founder Flitto (Hangul: 플리토) is a global crowd-sourcing translation platform (iOS, Android, web), where you can request translations as you need or become a translator if you can speak more than one language. You can read various content, such as celebrity's social media, Contents, e-comm ... Read »


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    • Fluency

    • Fluency (also called volubility and eloquency) is the property of a person or of a system that delivers information quickly and with expertise. Fluency is a speech language pathology term that means the smoothness or flow with which sounds, syllables, words and phrases are joined together when speaking quickly. "F ... Read »


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    • Jean Gagnepain

    • Jean Gagnepain (November 16, 1923 – January 3, 2006) was a French linguist and anthropologist. Jean Gagnepain was born on November 16, 1923, in Sully-sur-Loire (Loiret, France). After obtaining an Agrégation in grammar, he carried on his study of language under the direction of Joseph Vendryes. He went to ... Read »


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    • Imprecise language

    • Often, informal, spoken language, "everyday language" is less precise than any more formal or academic languages. Language might be said to be imprecise because it exhibits one or more of the following features: While imprecise language is not desirable in various scientific fields, it may be helpful, illustrative or ... Read »


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    • Information and media literacy

    • Information and media literacy (IML) enables people to interpret and make informed judgments as users of information and media, as well as to become skillful creators and producers of information and media messages in their own right. Prior to the 1990s, the primary focus of information literacy has been research skil ... Read »


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    • Langmaker

    • Langmaker.com was a website run by Jeffrey Henning that acted as a database of conlangs, neographies, and other resources related to conlanging and conworlding. As of June 4, 2009, the site was offline. An unknown source has taken over the website, and hosts virus files. Langmaker began as Model Languages, a newsl ... Read »


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    • Languaculture

    • Languaculture is a term meaning that a language includes not only elements such as grammar and vocabulary, but also past knowledge, local and cultural information, habits and behaviours. The term was created by the American anthropologist Michael Agar. Agar used the term "languaculture" for the first time in his e ... Read »


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    • Language as violence

    • Language is a mechanism of communication that was constructed for the purpose of providing a shared environment with mutually understood terms and ideas. Language is both shaped by society and a shaper of society. The words people use to communicate ideas reflect the ideas people have, but also provide framework fo ... Read »


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    • Language complexity

    • Language complexity is a topic in linguistics which can be divided into several sub-topics such as phonological, morphological, syntactic, and semantic complexity. The subject also carries importance for language evolution. Although the concept of language complexity is an old one, the current interest has largely emer ... Read »


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    • Language Contact and Lexical Enrichment in Israeli Hebrew

    • Language Contact and Lexical Enrichment in Israeli Hebrew is a scholarly book written by linguist Ghil'ad Zuckermann, published in 2003 by Palgrave Macmillan. The book consists of 304 pages, including an index. It was the first monograph published within the series Palgrave Studies in Language History and Language Chan ... Read »


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    • Language Generation Center

    • Language Generation Center
      مركز جيل اللغات

      Language Generation Center is a multilingual institute, located in the capital of Jordan. The center was established in Dec 2012 for the purposes of teaching different languages. LGC offers multiple languages such as: German, Russian, Italian, Spanish, French, Greek, Bulgarian, English and Turkish for kids,youth and a ... Read »


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    • Language of mathematics

    • The language of mathematics is the system used by mathematicians to communicate mathematical ideas among themselves. This language consists of a substrate of some natural language (for example English) using technical terms and grammatical conventions that are peculiar to mathematical discourse (see Mathematical jargon ... Read »


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    • Language preservation

    • Language preservation is the effort to prevent languages from becoming unknown. A language is at risk of being lost when it no longer is taught to younger generations, while fluent speakers of the language (usually the elderly) die. Language is an important part of any society, because it enables people to communicate ... Read »


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    • Linear Unit Grammar

    • In linguistics, Linear Unit Grammar (LUG) is an approach that describes language in chunks that unfold in real time, based on the notion that language is a sequential stream of spoken or written words. It therefore eschews a hierarchical description of language and its labels are based on discourse functions rather tha ... Read »


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    • Linguistic Imperialism

    • Linguistic imperialism, or language imperialism, refers to "the transfer of a dominant language to other people". The transfer is essentially a demonstration of power—traditionally, military power but also, in the modern world, economic power—and aspects of the dominant culture are usually transferred along w ... Read »


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    • Linguistics

    • Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context. The earliest activities in the documentation and description of language have been attributed to the 4th century BCE Indian grammarian Pāṇini who wrote a formal description of t ... Read »


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    • List of languages in the Eurovision Song Contest

    • The following is a list of languages used in the Eurovision Song Contest since its inception in 1956, including songs (as) performed in finals and, since 2004, semi-finals. The rules concerning the language of the entries have been changed several times. In the past, the Contest's organizers have sometimes compelled c ... Read »


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    • Logos

    • Logos (UK /ˈloʊɡɒs, ˈlɒɡɒs/, US /ˈloʊɡoʊs/; Ancient Greek: , from lego "I say") is a term in western philosophy, psychology, rhetoric, and religion derived from a Greek word meaning "ground", "plea", "opinion", "expectation", "word", "speech", "account", "reason", "discourse", but i ... Read »


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    • Maithil

    • Maithil
      मैथिल

      Maithils (Tirhuta: মৈথিল, Devanagri: मैथिल, ) also known as Maithili people are an Indo-Aryan ethno-linguistic group who speak the Maithili language and inhabit the Mithila region, which is now situated mainly in Northern Bihar of India and some adjoining districts of t ... Read »


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    • Metafunction

    • The term metafunction originates in systemic functional linguistics and is considered to be a property of all languages. Systemic functional linguistics is functional and semantic rather than formal and syntactic in its orientation. As a functional linguistic theory, it claims that both the emergence of grammar and the ... Read »


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    • Musivisual language

    • In art, musivisual language is a semiotic system that is the synchronous union of music and image. The term was coined by Spanish composer Alejandro Román, and for over a century, has appeared in film and other media (television, video or multimedia). According to Román: Musivisual Language is a special lan ... Read »


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    • Natural language

    • In neuropsychology, linguistics and the philosophy of language, a natural language or ordinary language is any language that has evolved naturally in humans through use and repetition without conscious planning or premeditation. Natural languages can take different forms, such as speech, signing, or writing. They are d ... Read »


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    • Nonsense word

    • A nonsense word, unlike a sememe, may have no definition. Nonsense words can be classified depending on their orthographic and phonetic similarity with (meaningful) words. If it can be pronounced according to a language's phonotactics, it is a pseudoword. Nonsense words are used in literature for poetic or humorous eff ... Read »


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    • Open-ended question

    • An open-ended question cannot be answered with a "yes" or "no" response, or with a static response. Open-ended questions are phrased as a statement which requires a response. The response can be compared to information that is already known to the questioner. Examples of open-ended questions: ... Read »


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    • Origin of speech

    • Origin of speech

      The origin of speech in Homo sapiens is a widely debated and controversial topic. The problems relate to humans' unprecedented use of the tongue, lips and vocal organs as instruments of communication. Other animals vocalise, but do not use the tongue to modulate sounds. Although related to the more general problem ... Read »


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    • Orthology (language)

    • Orthology is the study of the right use of words in language. The word comes from Greek ortho- ("correct") and -logy ("science of"). This science is a place where psychology, philosophy, linguistics, and many other fields of learning come together. The most noted use of Orthology is for the selection of words for the l ... Read »


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    • Passive fluency

    • Passive fluency is where a person can fluently read and audibly understand a language whilst not having the ability to fluently speak or write the language. Passive fluency is often brought about by being raised in one language (which becomes the person's passive language) and being schooled in another language (which ... Read »


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    • Linguistic performance

    • The term linguistic performance was used by Noam Chomsky in 1960 to describe "the actual use of language in concrete situations". It is used to describe both the production, sometimes called parole, as well as the comprehension of language. Performance is defined in opposition to "competence"; the latter describes the ... Read »


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    • Pivot language

    • A pivot language, sometimes also called a bridge language, is an artificial or natural language used as an intermediary language for translation between many different languages – to translate between any pair of languages A and B, one translates A to the pivot language P, then from P to B. Using a pivot language ... Read »


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    • Polyglossia

    • Polyglossia (pronunciation: /ˌpɒlɪˈɡlɒsɪə/)is a noun that refers to the coexistence of multiple languages (or distinct varieties of the same language) in one society or area. It was first used in the 1970s in the Academic journal "International Migration Review". Polyglossia is a useful term for ... Read »


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    • Pre-Samnite language

    • Pre-Samnite was an ancient language spoken in southern Campania, in Italy. The name Pre-Samnite refers to the fact that the language was spoken in early times in an area that was later colonised by Samnites, who spoke Oscan. Pre-Samnite is recorded in a few short inscriptions dating from around 500 BC. The language bel ... Read »


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    • Problem of religious language

    • The problem of religious language considers whether it is possible to talk about God meaningfully if the traditional conceptions of God as being incorporeal, infinite, and timeless, are accepted. Because these traditional conceptions of God make it difficult to describe God, religious language has the potential to be m ... Read »


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    • Reply

    • A reply is a statement or acknowledgment made in response to an interrogative question, request or comment. Replies are communicated in a variety of ways, the most common being spoken or written, and act as a way of conveying relevant information and continuing a conversational exchange. A simple reply can take the fo ... Read »


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    • Rhema

    • Rhema (ῥῆμα in Greek) literally means an "utterance" or "thing said" in Greek. It is a word that signifies the action of utterance. In philosophy, it was used by both Plato and Aristotle to refer to propositions or sentences. In Christianity, it is used in reference to the concept of Rhematos Christou ... Read »


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    • Second language

    • A person's second language or L2, is a language that is not the native language of the speaker, but that is used in the locale of that person. In contrast, a foreign language is a language that is learned in an area where that language is not generally spoken. Some languages, often called auxiliary languages, are used ... Read »


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    • Shabda

    • Śábda is the Sanskrit word for "speech sound". In Sanskrit grammar, the term refers to an utterance in the sense of linguistic performance. In classical Indian philosophy of language, the grammarian Katyayana stated that shabda ("speech") is eternal (nitya), as is artha "meaning", and that they share a mutua ... Read »


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    • Sign language

    • A sign language (also signed language) is a language which chiefly uses manual communication to convey meaning, as opposed to acoustically conveyed sound patterns. This can involve simultaneously combining hand shapes, orientation and movement of the hands, arms or body, and facial expressions to express a speaker's th ... Read »


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    • Speech

    • Speech is the vocalized form of communication based upon the syntactic combination of lexicals and names that are drawn from very large (usually about 1,000 different words)vocabularies. Each spoken word is created out of the phonetic combination of a limited set of vowel and consonant speech sound units (phonemes). Th ... Read »


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    • Speech production

    • Speech production is the process by which thoughts are translated into speech. This includes the selection of words, the organization of relevant grammatical forms, and then the articulation of the resulting sounds by the motor system using the vocal apparatus. Speech production can be spontaneous such as when a person ... Read »


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    • Speech repetition

    • Speech repetition is the saying by one individual of the spoken vocalizations made by another individual. This requires the ability in the person making the copy to map the sensory input they hear from the other person's vocal pronunciation into a similar motor output with their own vocal tract. Such speech input outp ... Read »


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    • Spoken language

    • A spoken language is a language produced by articulate sounds, as opposed to a written language. Many languages have no written form and so are only spoken. An oral language or vocal language is a language produced with the vocal tract, as opposed to a sign language, which is produced with the hands and face. The term ... Read »


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    • Standard language

    • A standard language (also standard dialect or standardized dialect) is a language variety used by a group of people as a lingua franca and in their public discourse. Alternatively, varieties become standard by undergoing a process of standardization, during which it is organized for description in grammars and dictiona ... Read »


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    • Studia Linguarum

    • The Studia Linguarum (literally "Language Institutes") were the first attempt to study oriental languages by the Roman Catholic Church. The need to study oriental languages was affirmed by the General Chapter of the Dominican Order in Paris in 1236. The objective of the schools was to help the Dominicans liberate Chris ... Read »


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    • Sublanguage

    • A sublanguage is a subset of a language. Sublanguages occur in natural language, computer language, and relational databases. In Informatics, natural language processing, and machine translation, a sublanguage is the language of a restricted domain, particularly a technical domain. In mathematical terms, "a subset ... Read »


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    • Terministic screens

    • Terministic screen is a term in the theory and criticism of rhetoric. It involves the acknowledgment of a language system that determines an individual's perception and symbolic action in the world. Kenneth Burke develops the terministic screen in his book of essays called Language as Symbolic Action in 1966. He d ... Read »


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    • Transitional bilingualism

    • Transitional bilingualism is the shift from being bilingual, knowing two different languages, to only speaking one leading language. This usually happens over a period of time and can be seen within a few generations. There are families with immigrant grandparents who speak primarily their native language and some of t ... Read »


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    • Uncertain plural

    • An uncertain plural occurs when a writer does not know in advance whether a word should be written in the singular or plural. For English nouns, this may be demonstrated by enclosing the trailing s in parentheses, such as "book(s)". In the case of articles, "they" or "their" may be used to include a single individual, ... Read »


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    • Verbal language in dreams

    • Verbal language in dreams is the speech—most commonly in the form of a dialogue between the dreamer him/herself and other dream characters—which forms part of the overall (mostly imagistic) dream scenario. Historically, there have been abundant references to verbal language in dreams going back millennia. Ear ... Read »


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    • Vernacular orientation

    • Vernacular orientation refers to the status that a language is afforded by one of its mother-tongue speakers (Tiessen, 2003). This status is exhibited through the sociolinguistic behaviours of a mother-tongue speaker. A speaker who exhibits positive vernacular orientation is one who exhibits a preferred status for thei ... Read »


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    • Visual language

    • The visual language is a system of communication using visual elements. Speech as a means of communication cannot strictly be separated from the whole of human communicative activity which includes the visual and the term 'language' in relation to vision is an extension of its use to describe the perception, comprehens ... Read »


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    • Vocabulary

    • A vocabulary is a set of familiar words within a person's language. A vocabulary, usually developed with age, serves as a useful and fundamental tool for communication and acquiring knowledge. Acquiring an extensive vocabulary is one of the largest challenges in learning a second language. Vocabulary is commonly d ... Read »


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    • Writing

    • Writing is a medium of human communication that represents language and emotion through the inscription or recording of signs and symbols. In most languages, writing is a complement to speech or spoken language. Writing is not a language but a form of technology that developed as tools developed with human society. Wit ... Read »


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