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  • Human rights

    Human rights

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    • Human rights by continent

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    • Human rights by country

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    • Human rights by issue

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    • Human rights by region

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    • Children's rights


    • Men's rights


    • Women's rights


    • Human rights abuses

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    • Human rights activism

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    • Human rights awards

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    • Human rights case law

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    • Civil rights and liberties

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    • Human rights concepts

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    • Films about human rights

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    • History of human rights

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    • Human Rights Council Advisory Committee experts

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    • Indigenous rights

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    • Human rights instruments

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    • Human rights journals

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    • Human rights lawyers

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    • Human rights legislation

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    • Librarianship and human rights

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    • Human rights-related lists

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    • Members of the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

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    • Members of the Sub-Commission on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights

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    • Minorities

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    • Human rights organizations

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    • Prague Process

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    • Transitional justice

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    • Representatives of the United States to the United Nations Human Rights Council

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    • Human rights stubs

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    • Human rights

    • Human rights

      Human rights are moral principles or norms, which describe certain standards of human behaviour, and are regularly protected as legal rights in municipal and international law. They are commonly understood as inalienable fundamental rights "to which a person is inherently entitled simply because she or he is a human be ... Read »


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    • Vicariate of Solidarity Files and Archive Foundation

    • The Vicariate of Solidarity Files and Archive Foundation (Fundación de Documentación y Archivo de la Vicaría de la Solidaridad) is a non-governmental organization whose main goal is to preserve and manage the documents, publications, images, and media clippings collected by the former and by the organization t ... Read »


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    • 16 Days of Activism against Gender-based Violence

    • Online engineering (OE; sometimes also referred to as remote engineering) is a current trend in engineering and science, aiming to allow and organize a shared use of equipment and resources, but also specialized software (such as for example simulators). Reasons for the growing importance of sharing engineering resour ... Read »


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    • María Payá Acevedo


    • African Human Rights Law Journal

    • The African Human Rights Law Journal publishes peer-reviewed contributions dealing with human rights related topics of relevance to Africa, Africans, and scholars of Africa. The journal appears twice a year, in March and October. The journal is indexed in the International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBBS). ... Read »


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    • African Human Rights Moot Court Competition

    • The African Human Rights Moot Court Competition is an international moot court competition with a special focus on human rights in Africa. The competition is organised by the Centre for Human Rights, based at the University of Pretoria Faculty of Law in South Africa. Each year, the competition is hosted by a Law Facult ... Read »


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    • Airstrikes on hospitals in Yemen

    • A Saudi Arabian-led military intervention in Yemen began in 2015, in an attempt to influence the outcome of the Yemeni Civil War. Saudi Arabia, spearheading a coalition of nine Arab states, began carrying out airstrikes in neighbouring Yemen and imposing an aerial and naval blockade on 26 March 2015, heralding a milita ... Read »


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    • Alliance for Bangladesh Worker Safety

    • The Alliance for Bangladesh Worker Safety

      The Alliance for Bangladesh Worker Safety, also known as "the Alliance" or AFBWS, is a group of 28 major global retailers formed to develop and launch the Bangladesh Worker Safety Initiative, a binding, five-year undertaking with the intent of improving safety in Bangladeshi ready-made garment (RMG) factories after the ... Read »


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    • Americans for Limited Government

    • Americans for Limited Government (ALG), formerly Americans for Limited Terms (ALT) is a conservative 501(c)(4) political advocacy organization active in the United States. The organization describes itself as being involved with "identifying, exposing and working with Congress and state legislatures to prevent the cont ... Read »


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    • Amparo and habeas data in the Philippines

    • In the Philippines, amparo and habeas data are prerogative writs to supplement the inefficacy of the writ of habeas corpus (Rule 102, Revised Rules of Court). Amparo means 'protection,' while habeas data is 'access to information.' Both writs were conceived to solve the extensive Philippine extrajudicial killings and f ... Read »


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    • Anthropocentrism

    • Anthropocentrism (/ˌænθroʊpoʊˈsɛntrɪzəm/; from Greek Ancient Greek: ἄνθρωπος, ánthrōpos, "human being"; and Ancient Greek: κέντρον , kéntron, "center") the belief that considers human beings to be the most significant entity of the ... Read »


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    • Peggy Antrobus

    • Peggy Antrobus (born 1935) is a feminist activist, author, and scholar from the Caribbean. She served as Advisor on Women’s Affairs to the government of Jamaica, and as United Nations advisor to the Barbados Ministry of Social Transformation. She is a founder member of several feminist organisations, including the ... Read »


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    • Ashley Montagu Resolution

    • The Ashley Montagu Resolution refers to the petition to the World Court to end the genital modification and mutilation of children worldwide. Endorsement of the petition also includes the 1989 Universal Declaration on Circumcision, Excision, and Incision which holds that medically unnecessary surgical circumcisions, ... Read »


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    • Assistant Secretary of State for Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor

    • Assistant Secretary of State for Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor

      The Assistant Secretary of State for Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor is the head of the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor within the United States Department of State. The Assistant Secretary of State for Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor reports to the Under Secretary of State for Civilian Security, Dem ... Read »


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    • Asuda

    • Asuda for Combating Violence against Women is a women's rights NGO operating in Iraqi Kurdistan. The term Asuda means: "providing comfort". Asuda provides protection and support to victims of gender-based violence in Kurdistan (Iraq) as well as to women who have been forced to leave Iraqi Kurdistan regardless of t ... Read »


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    • Asylum seeker

    • An asylum seeker (also rarely called an asylee) is a person who flees his or her home country, 'spontaneously' enters another country and applies for asylum, i.e. the right to international protection, in this other country. An asylum seeker may be a refugee, a displaced person or a migrant, such as an economic migrant ... Read »


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    • Baha'i perspective on international human rights


    • Bay Area Council for Soviet Jews

    • The Bay Area Council for Soviet Jews (BACSJ) was founded in 1967 by Harold B. Light, Edward Tamler, Sidney Kluger, and Rabbi Moris Hershman as a grassroots human rights organization with a mission to advocate for Soviet Jewry's freedom of religion and the right to emigrate to Israel. BACSJ was one of the largest and mo ... Read »


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    • Because I Am a Girl (campaign)

    • Because I Am a Girl is an international campaign by the aid organization Plan. The campaign is made to address the issue of gender discrimination around the world. The goal of the campaign is to promote rights of girls and bring millions of girls out of poverty around the world. It is part of the organization's broader ... Read »


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    • Before We Say Goodbye

    • Before We Say Goodbye

      Before We Say Goodbye, first published as Prima di Lasciarsi, is a 2004 novel by Gabriella Ambrosio. The work is based on the 2002 Kiryat HaYovel supermarket bombing and narrates the final hours in the lives of the suicide bomber and her victims. It was first published in Italy in 2004 through Nutrimenti, and was later ... Read »


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    • Blood money (restitution)

    • Blood money, also called bloodwit, is money or some sort of compensation paid by an offender (usually a murderer) or his/her family group to the family or kin group of the victim. Blood money is, colloquially, the reward for bringing a criminal to justice. A common meaning in other contexts is the money-penalty pa ... Read »


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    • Catalina Botero Marino

    • Catalina Botero Marino (born 7 September 1965 in Bogotá) is a Colombian attorney who has been the Special Rapporteur for Freedom of Expression for the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR) since 2008. Botero is the daughter of an architect/designer and of an ecologist. She attended the Juan Ramón ... Read »


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    • Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam

    • The Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam (CDHRI) is a declaration of the member states of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference adopted in Cairo, Egypt, on 5 August 1990, (Conference of Foreign Ministers, 9–14 Muharram 1411H in the Islamic calendar) which provides an overview on the Islamic perspective ... Read »


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    • Capital punishment in Europe

    • The death penalty has been completely abolished in all European countries except for Belarus. The absolute ban on the death penalty is enshrined in both the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union (EU) and the European Convention on Human Rights of the Council of Europe, and is thus considered a central val ... Read »


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    • Central Monitoring System

    • The Central Monitoring System, abbreviated to CMS, is a centralized telephone interception provisioning system m installed by the Centre for Development of Telematics (C-DOT), an Indian Government owned telecommunications technology development centre, and operated by Telecom Enforcement Resource and Monitoring (TERM) ... Read »


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    • Child pirate

    • In keeping with the Paris Principles definition of a child soldier, the Roméo Dallaire Child Soldiers Initiative defines a child pirate' as any person below 18 years of age who is or who has been recruited or used by a pirate gang in any capacity, including children - boys and/or girls - used as gunmen in boarding p ... Read »


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    • Children's rights in New Zealand


    • Human rights violations by the CIA

    • This article deals with those activities of the Central Intelligence Agency that violate human rights. In 2003, Patricia Derian, who served as Assistant Secretary of State for Human Rights in the Carter Administration wrote, "Through these U.S. military and intelligence agencies the United States government is sen ... Read »


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    • CIRI Human Rights Data Project

    • From 2004-2014, the Cingranelli-Richards (CIRI) Human Rights Data Project annually rated the level of government respect for a variety of internationally recognized human rights. The final CIRI data set contains quantitative indicators of 15 human rights for 195 countries, annually from 1981-2011. The CIRI data were us ... Read »


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    • Citizen Armed Force Geographical Unit

    • The Citizen Armed Force Geographical Unit, variously called Citizens Armed Forces Geographical Unit, Civilian Armed Forces Geographical Unit and commonly referred to by its acronym CAFGU (pronounced "kahf-goo") is an irregular auxiliary force of the Armed Forces of the Philippines. The CAFGU was created on July 25 ... Read »


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    • List of civil rights leaders

    • Civil rights leaders are influential figures in the promotion and implementation of political freedom and the expansion of personal civil liberties and rights. They work to protect individuals and groups from political repression and discrimination by governments and private organizations, and seek to ensure the abilit ... Read »


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    • Civil rights referendum

    • A civil rights referendum or human rights referendum is any act of direct democracy which allows for a vote on the granting or amendment of current civil rights, liberties or associations as recognized by a government. Such referenda have frequently been proposed as a means by which the majority of the voting public in ... Read »


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    • Clemens Nathan Research Centre

    • The Clemens Nathan Research Centre (CNRC) is a human rights organisation that focuses on organising international conferences with speakers from multidisciplinary fields and on publishing edited books and conference proceedings. It was founded in 2004 when Clemens N. Nathan (1933-2015, and the Centre's first chairman) ... Read »


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    • Cognitive liberty

    • Cognitive liberty, or the "right to mental self-determination", is the freedom of an individual to control his or her own mental processes, cognition, and consciousness. It has been argued to be both an extension of, and the principle underlying, the right to freedom of thought. Though a relatively recently defined con ... Read »


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    • Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation in East Timor

    • The Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation in East Timor (more commonly known by its Portuguese acronym CAVR: Comissão de Acolhimento, Verdade e Reconciliação de Timor Leste) was an independent truth commission established in East Timor in 2001 under the UN Transitional Administration in East Timor ... Read »


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    • Commissioner for Older People for Northern Ireland

    • The Commissioner for Older People for Northern Ireland is set up as a non-departmental public body, established by the Commissioner for Older People Act (Northern Ireland) 2011. The Commissioner has a number of legal functions and powers directly linked to the legislation. The Commissioner's office is sponsored by the ... Read »


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    • Communication rights

    • Communication rights involve freedom of opinion and expression, democratic media governance, media ownership and media control, participation in one's own culture, linguistic rights, rights to education, privacy, assemble, and self-determination. They are also related inclusion and exclusion, quality and accessibility ... Read »


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    • Consistent life ethic

    • The consistent life ethic, or the consistent ethic of life is an ideology that opposes abortion, capital punishment, assisted suicide, and euthanasia. Adherents are opposed, at the very least, to unjust war, while some adherents also profess pacifism, or opposition to all war. The term was coined in 1983 by the Catholi ... Read »


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    • Corelative

    • Correlative ("corelative," UK spelling) is the term adopted by Wesley Newcomb Hohfeld to describe the philosophical relationships between fundamental legal concepts in jurisprudence. Hohfeld was concerned that there was some ambiguity in the explanation of the similarities and differences between concepts in law. Henc ... Read »


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    • Corporate accountability for human rights violations

    • Holding corporations accountable for either direct conduct or complicity for human rights violations has become an increasing area of attention in promoting human rights. Multinational corporations in particular have been singled out as important figures, for better or worse, in the maintenance of human rights given th ... Read »


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    • Cultural rights

    • The cultural rights movement has provoked attention to protect the rights of groups of people, or their culture, in similar fashion to the manner in which the human rights movement has brought attention to the needs of individuals throughout the world. Cultural Rights are rights related to art and culture, both un ... Read »


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    • Declaration of Delhi

    • The New Delhi Congress or Declaration of Delhi was an international gathering of over 185 judges, lawyers, and law professors from 53 countries all over the world, united as the International Commission of Jurists that took place in New Delhi, India in 1959. The theme of the New Delhi Congress was "The Rule of Law in a ... Read »


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    • Declaration of incompatibility

    • A declaration of incompatibility is a declaration issued by judges in the United Kingdom that they consider that the terms of a statute, or acts of public authorities, are incompatible with the UK's obligations under the Human Rights Act 1998, which incorporated the European Convention of Human Rights into the UK domes ... Read »


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    • Declaration of the Rights of the Child

    • The Declaration of the Rights of the Child, sometimes known as the Geneva Declaration of the Rights of the Child, is an international document promoting child rights, drafted by Eglantyne Jebb and adopted by the League of Nations in 1924, and adopted in an extended form by the United Nations in 1959. The text of t ... Read »


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    • Declaration of Tokyo

    • The Declaration of Tokyo is a set of international guidelines for physicians concerning torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment in relation to detention and imprisonment, which was adopted in October 1975 during the 29th General assembly of the World Medical Association, and later editoria ... Read »


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    • Declaration on Crimes of Communism

    • The Declaration on Crimes of Communism is a declaration signed on 25 February 2010 by several prominent European politicians, former political prisoners, human rights advocates and historians, which calls for the condemnation of communism. It concluded the international conference Crimes of the Communist Regimes, ... Read »


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    • Human rights and development

    • Human rights and development aims converge in many instances and are beneficial only to the government and not the people although there can be conflict between their different approaches. Today, a human rights-based approach is viewed by many as essential to achieving development goals. Historically, the "minority cla ... Read »


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    • Dropmire

    • Dropmire is a surveillance program by the United States's National Security Agency (NSA) aimed at surveillance of foreign embassies and diplomatic staff, including those of NATO allies. The program's existence was revealed in June 2013 by whistleblower Edward Snowden in The Guardian newspaper. The report reveals that a ... Read »


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    • Dublin Statement

    • The Dublin Statement on Water and Sustainable Development, also known as the Dublin Principles, was a meeting of experts on water related problems that took place on the 31st of January 1992 at the International Conference on Water and the Environment (ICWE), Dublin, Ireland, organised on 26–31 January 1992. The ... Read »


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    • Duties Beyond Borders

    • Duties Beyond Borders

      Duties Beyond Borders (full title: Duties Beyond Borders: On the Limits and Possibilities of Ethical International Politics) is a book by Stanley Hoffmann published in 1981 which focuses on the application of ethical principles to international relations. The book won the Le Prix Adolphe Bentinck for 1982 for "the book ... Read »


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    • Espen Barth Eide

    • Espen Barth Eide

      Espen Barth Eide (born 1 May 1964 in Oslo) is a Norwegian political scientist and managing director at World Economic Forum. He served as Norway's Minister of Defense in Stoltenberg's Second Cabinet from 11 November 2011 to 21 September 2012, and then as Minister of Foreign Affairs to 16 October 2013. Since December 20 ... Read »


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    • Elder rights

    • Elder rights are the rights of the aged, who in the United States are not recognized as a constitutionally protected class. Common rights issues faced by elders include age-related job discrimination (such as forced age of retirement), lack of access to medical treatments because of age or age-related obstacles, socie ... Read »


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    • Electoral integrity

    • Electoral integrity refers to international standards and global norms governing the appropriate conduct of elections. These standards have been endorsed in a series of authoritative conventions, treaties, protocols, and guidelines by agencies of the international community, notably by the decisions of the UN General ... Read »


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    • The Enough Moment

    • The Enough Moment: Fighting to End Africa's Worst Human Rights Crimes

      The Enough Moment: Fighting to End Africa's Worst Human Rights Crimes is the second book co-authored by actor Don Cheadle, and co-founder of the Enough Project and human rights activist, John Prendergast. Cheadle and Prendergast's first book, Not On Our Watch: The Mission to End Genocide in Darfur and Beyond, was publi ... Read »


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    • Ethnic penalty

    • Ethnic penalty in sociology is defined as the economic and non-economic disadvantages that ethnic minorities experience in the labour market compared to other ethnic groups. As an area of study among behavioral economists, psychologists, and sociologists, it ranges beyond discrimination to take non-cognitive factors in ... Read »


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    • European Inter-University Centre for Human Rights and Democratisation

    • The European Inter-University Centre for Human Rights and Democratisation (EIUC) is an interdisciplinary centre covering the area of human rights education and research formed by 41 universities from all European Union member states. The centre is located in Venice, Italy. The EIUC's activities include interdisciplina ... Read »


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    • European Network of National Human Rights Institutions

    • The European Network of National Human Rights Institutions (ENNHRI) is a membership international not-for-profit association (AISBL) under Belgian law. In 2013 it established its Permanent Secretariat in Brussels bringing together National Human Rights Institutions (NHRIs) from across the wider European region. Formerl ... Read »


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    • European Public Hearing on Crimes Committed by Totalitarian Regimes

    • Crimes Committed by Totalitarian Regimes are reports and proceedings of the European public hearing organised by the Slovenian Presidency of the Council of the European Union (January–June 2008) and the European Commission. The Hearing was organised in response to the request made by the Justice and Home Affairs ... Read »


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    • European Public Hearing on European Conscience and Crimes of Totalitarian Communism: 20 Years After

    • The European Public Hearing on European Conscience and Crimes of Totalitarian Communism: 20 Years After was a European public hearing organised by the Czech Presidency of the European Union in the European Parliament on 18 March 2009. The hearing was described by the Presidency as "the third step towards the establishm ... Read »


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    • Extraterritorial operation

    • An extraterritorial operation in international law is a law enforcement or military operation conducted outside the territory or jurisdiction of the state of the forces in operation, generally within the territory of another sovereign state. Under international law, these activities are generally highly restricted, and ... Read »


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    • Faces of Freedom

    • The "Faces of Freedom" photo exhibition is a collection of photographs captured by photo-journalist, filmmaker and human rights educator U. Roberto (Robin) Romano, during his travels to India, Nepal and Pakistan. Romano explores the exploitation of child labor in the production of handmade rugs in coordination with mul ... Read »


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    • Fairview (surveillance program)

    • Fairview is a secret program under which the National Security Agency cooperates with the American telecommunications company AT&T in order to collect phone, internet and e-mail data mainly of foreign countries' citizens at major cable landing stations and switching stations inside the United States. The FAIRVIEW progr ... Read »


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    • The Forgotten Prisoners

    • "There is a growing tendency all over the world to disguise the real grounds upon which 'non-conformists' are imprisoned." — Peter Benenson, "The Forgotten Prisoners", 28 May 1961. "Any person who is physically restrained (by imprisonment or otherwise) from expressing (in any form of words or symbols) an opinion ... Read »


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    • Free migration

    • Free migration or open immigration is the position that people should be able to migrate to whatever country they choose. Although the two are not the same issue, free migration is similar in spirit to the concept of free trade, and both are advocated by free market economists on the grounds that economics is not ... Read »


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    • Freedom from fear

    • Freedom from fear is listed as a fundamental human right according to The Universal Declaration of Human Rights. On January 6, 1941, American president Franklin D. Roosevelt called it one of the "Four Freedoms" at his State of the Union, which was afterwards therefore referred to as the "Four Freedoms Speech." In ... Read »


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    • Freedom in the World

    • Freedom in the World is a yearly survey and report by the U.S.-basednon-governmental organization Freedom House that measures the degree of civil liberties and political rights in every nation and significant related and disputed territories around the world. Freedom in the World was launched in 1973 by Raymond Ga ... Read »


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    • Freedom of the Press (report)

    • Freedom of the Press is a yearly report by US-based non-governmental organization Freedom House, measuring the level of freedom and editorial independence enjoyed by the press in nations and significant disputed territories around the world. The ratings process involves several dozen analysts (Freedom House staff ... Read »


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    • Freedom. A Plea

    • Freedom. A Plea

      Freedom. A Plea (German: Freiheit. Ein Plädoyer) is a book by Joachim Gauck, the President of Germany, released on 20 February 2012, the day after his nomination. In the book, consisting of 64 pages, Gauck describes his thoughts on freedom, democracy, human rights and tolerance. The book calls for the defense of fre ... Read »


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    • FreeThe20 campaign

    • FreeThe20 is a campaign to call attention to women who are political prisoners around the world. The campaign names twenty women who are imprisoned unjustly.Samantha Power, the U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations, started the campaign for the twentieth anniversary of the Beijing Declaration. The reason for the campa ... Read »


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    • The Girl Bunnies

    • The Girl Bunnies is a queer stop-motion animated series for young children, with the main characters being LGBTQI. It has screened in 21 countries and was part of the inaugural queer programming for families at Le Festival International Image et Nation in Montreal Canada. It garnered Audience Choice Awards in both Par ... Read »


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    • Shelly Grabe

    • Dr. Shelly Grabe (born 1974) is an Associate Professor in Social Psychology at the University of California Santa Cruz, where she has affiliations with Feminist Studies and Latin American and Latino Studies. Dr. Grabe is a scholar-activist whose research involves demonstrating how psychology can provide the currently m ... Read »


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    • Habeas corpus petitions of Guantanamo Bay detainees

    • The nature of international human rights law has been seemingly altered by Americans since the attacks on the twin towers on September 11, 2001. The Guantanamo Bay detention camp is one example of recent developments that seem to disregard long standing human rights. The United States of America (USA) has pursued a â ... Read »


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    • Habeas corpus

    • Habeas corpus (/ˈheɪbiəs ˈkɔːrpəs/; Medieval Latin meaning literally "You may have the body") is a recourse in law whereby a person can report an unlawful detention or imprisonment before a court, usually through a prison official. The writ of habeas corpus is known as "the great and efficacious w ... Read »


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    • The Haitian National Truth and Justice Commission

    • The Haitian National Truth and Justice Commission began its operations in April 1995 and ended in February 1996. Haiti's once diverse and lively civil society had been tarnished greatly as a result of the ousting of its first democratically-elected President, Jean-Bertrand Aristide, by its military forces. This deposin ... Read »


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    • Handschu agreement

    • Online engineering (OE; sometimes also referred to as remote engineering) is a current trend in engineering and science, aiming to allow and organize a shared use of equipment and resources, but also specialized software (such as for example simulators). Reasons for the growing importance of sharing engineering resour ... Read »


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    • High Commissioner on National Minorities

    • Created on July 8, 1992 by the Helsinki Summit Meeting of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE), now known as the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), the High Commissioner on National Minorities (HCNM) is charged with identifying and seeking early resolution of ethnic tensi ... Read »


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    • Homo sacer

    • Homo sacer (Latin for "the sacred man" or "the accursed man") is a figure of Roman law: a person who is banned and may be killed by anybody, but may not be sacrificed in a religious ritual. The meaning of the term sacer in Ancient Roman religion is not fully congruent with the meaning it took after Christianization, a ... Read »


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    • Honour for Women National Campaign

    • Honour for Women National Campaign

      The Honour for Women National Campaign is a nationwide movement in India to end violence against women. The movement was founded by women’s rights activist Manasi Pradhan in the year 2009. Launched under the aegis of OYSS Women, the movement galvanized in the aftermath of the 2012 Delhi gang rape incident. ... Read »


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    • Human Dimension Implementation Meeting

    • The Human Dimension Implementation Meeting is a human rights and democracy conference held by the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) on an annual basis in Warsaw (Poland). The two-week conference is attended by some 1000 government representatives, international experts, non-governmental organi ... Read »


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    • Human Freedom Index

    • The Human Freedom Index measures 76 distinct indicators of personal, civil, and economic freedom around the world. The Human Freedom Index is the most comprehensive index on freedom for a globally meaningful set of countries. Coauthors of the index are Ian Vásquez and Tanja Porčnik. The index is co-published by t ... Read »


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    • Human Rights and Climate Change

    • Human Rights and Climate Change is a conceptual and legal framework under which international human rights and their relationship to global warming are studied, analyzed, and addressed. The framework has been employed by governments, United Nations organs, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, human rig ... Read »


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    • Human Rights between the Sexes

    • Human Rights between the Sexes

      Human Rights between the Sexes is an analysis of the human rights of intersex people in 12 countries. It was written by Dan Christian Ghattas of the Internationalen Vereinigung Intergeschlechtlicher Menschen (the Organisation Intersex International (OII) in Germany) and published in October 2013 by the Heinrich Böll ... Read »


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    • Human Rights City

    • A Human Rights City is a municipality that refers explicitly to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international human rights standards and/or law in their policies, statements, and programs. Analysts have observed growing numbers of such cities since 2000... The Human Rights City initiative emerged fr ... Read »


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    • Human Rights Day

    • Human Rights Day

      Human Rights Day is celebrated annually across the world on 10 December every year. The date was chosen to honour the United Nations General Assembly's adoption and proclamation, on 10 December 1948, of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), the first global enunciation of human rights and one of the first ... Read »


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    • Human rights education

    • Human rights education is the teaching of the history, theory, and law of human rights in schools and educational institutions, as well as outreach to the general public. The United Nations General Assembly has proclaimed it as central to the achievement of the rights enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Huma ... Read »


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    • Human Rights Impact Assessment

    • Human Rights Impact Assessment is a process for systematically identifying, predicting and responding to the potential human rights impacts of a business operation, capital project, government policy, or trade agreement. It is designed to complement a company or government’s other impact assessment and due diligen ... Read »


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    • Human rights in cyberspace

    • Human rights in cyberspace is a relatively new and uncharted area of law. There is very little voice as to the way human rights should be treated in cyberspace. It is estimated that over 40% of the worlds population are Internet users. Like no other medium the Internet allows individuals the ability to broadly publish ... Read »


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    • Human Rights in World Context

    • Human Rights in World Context (German: Menschenrechte im Weltkontext) is a German language book containing cultural comparison study on Human Rights around the world. Its content includes places of origin of human rights, human Rights in smaller and larger religious communities and areas for action. The book was publ ... Read »


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    • Human rights literature

    • Human rights literature is a literary genre that deals with human rights issues, and thus - directly or indirectly - promotes values of human rights. The goal of human rights literature is to combine the literary driving force with the motivation for action, which is a fundamental and integral element of the struggle f ... Read »


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    • Human Rights Logo

    • The Human Rights Logo has its origin in the international "Logo for Human Rights" initiative, which was started in 2010. Its goal was to create an internationally recognized logo to support the global human rights movement. The winning logo was created by Predrag Stakić from Serbia. The Human Rights Logo combin ... Read »


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    • Human rights movement

    • Human rights movement refers to a nongovernmental social movement engaged in activism related to the issues of human rights. The foundations of the global human rights movement involve resistance to: colonialism, imperialism, slavery, racism, apartheid, patriarchy, and oppression of indigenous peoples. A key principle ... Read »


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    • Human Rights Network Uganda

    • Human Rights Network Uganda

      The Human Rights Network - Uganda (HURINET) is a Ugandan non-governmental organization (NGO) whose mission is foster the promotion, protection and respect of human rights in Uganda through linking and strengthening the capacity of member organizations. HURINET works towards having a Ugandan society free of human rights ... Read »


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    • Human Rights Tribunal of Quebec

    • Human Rights Tribunal of Quebec

      The Human Rights Tribunal of Quebec is a specialized first instance tribunal of the province of Quebec, in Canada, that has the jurisdiction to hear and judge litigations concerning discrimination and harassment based on the prohibited grounds stipulated in the Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms, as well as concernin ... Read »


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    • Humanitarian intervention

    • Humanitarian Intervention has been defined as a state's use of "military force (publicly stated that its use is for ending the violation of human rights) against another state." This definition may be too narrow as it precludes non-military forms of intervention such as humanitarian aid and international sanctions. On ... Read »


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    • The Hunger March

    • The Hunger March is the name of a happening and a series of sculptures made by Jens Galschiøt in 2001. The event was inspired by the 1990 movie The March, in which a horde of starving people marches towards Europe. The Hunger March is a reminder that, if the world's need and distress is not relieved, the despe ... Read »


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    • I Am Equal

    • I Am Equal

      I Am Equal is a photo documentary created by Jason Beckett and fashion photographer Matt Spencer in late 2009. The project has the stated intention of collecting more than 100,000 individual photos from 175 cities around the world and using them to build one of the largest photo mosaics in history. In 2011, the project ... Read »


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    • Identity politics

    • Identity politics, also called identitarian politics, refers to political positions based on the interests and perspectives of social groups with which people identify. Identity politics includes the ways in which people's politics may be shaped by aspects of their identity through loosely correlated social organizatio ... Read »


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    • Monique Ilboudo

    • Monique Ilboudo

      Monique Ilboudo (born 1959) is an author and human rights activist from Burkina Faso. As of 2012 she was Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of Burkina Faso to the Nordic and Baltic countries. Monique Ilboudo was born in Ouagadougou, Upper Volta in 1959. She studied law at the University of Ouagadougou, o ... Read »


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    • Immutable characteristic

    • An immutable characteristic is any sort of physical attribute which is perceived as being unchangeable, entrenched and innate. The term is often used to describe segments of the population which share such attributes and are contrasted from others by those attributes, and is used in human rights law to classify protect ... Read »


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    • Impunity

    • Impunity means "exemption from punishment or loss or escape from fines". In the international law of human rights, it refers to the failure to bring perpetrators of human rights violations to justice and, as such, itself constitutes a denial of the victims' right to justice and redress. Impunity is especially common in ... Read »


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    • Independence Club

    • The Independence Association (독립협회, 独立協会) was founded through the initiative of Philip Jaisohn (Seo Jae-pil) on July 2, 1896. At its founding it was recognized by the Korean Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Despite some remarkable achievements, by the late nineteenth century Korea fo ... Read »


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    • Index of Freedom in the World

    • The Index of Freedom in the World is an index of civil liberties published in late 2012 by Canada's Fraser Institute, Germany's Liberales Institut, and the U.S. Cato Institute. The index is the predecessor of the Human Freedom Index, which was published first in 2015. The coauthors of both indexes are Ian Vásquez an ... Read »


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    • Indigenous Peoples Law and Policy Program

    • The James E. Rogers College of Law at the University of Arizona has created an academic center for the study of indigenous peoples' cultures, histories, languages, laws, and human rights. The Indigenous Peoples Law and Policy (IPLP) Program furthers the research, training, and advocacy of Indian law and international ... Read »


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    • Infamous Decree

    • On March 17, 1808, Napoleon I created three decrees in a failed attempt to bring equality and to integrate the Jews into French society after the Jewish Emancipation of 1790-1791. The Infamous Decree, the third of the three, had adverse effects. Although the decrees´ aim was to emancipate the Jews into equal citizen ... Read »


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    • Institute for Human Rights and Development in Africa (IHRDA)

    • The Institute for Human Rights and Development in Africa (IHRDA) is an pan African non-governmental organisation whose primary work is the provision of pro bono legal counsel to victims of human rights violations. In its litigation mandate, IHRDA represents victims of human rights violations in cases before national co ... Read »


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    • Institute for International Law of Peace and Armed Conflict

    • The Institute for International Law of Peace and Armed Conflict (IFHV) at Ruhr University Bochum (Germany) is one of the leading research institutes on humanitarian law and humanitarian studies in Europe. It was founded in 1988 on the initiative of Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. mult. Knut Ipsen, then rector of Ruhr University Bo ... Read »


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    • Integrated Civilian Home Defense Forces

    • The Integrated Civilian Home Defense Forces, also called the Civilian Home Defense Force and commonly referred to by its acronym CHDF, was an irregular paramilitary force supervised and deployed by the heads of the local government in the Philippines — provincial governors, city and municipal mayors. The CHDF was ... Read »


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    • Internal passport

    • An internal passport is an identity document that may or may not be used by a country to control and monitor the internal movement and residence of its people. Internal passports have been used by Imperial Russia and its successor states, France, the Confederate States of America, the Soviet Union, the Ottoman Empire, ... Read »


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    • International Coalition to Stop Crimes Against Humanity in North Korea

    • The International Coalition to Stop Crimes Against Humanity in North Korea (ICNK) was formed on September 8, 2011. It comprises Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch and the International Federation for Human Rights and has support from over 40 organizations worldwide.North Korean human rights issues with which the ... Read »


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    • International Commission of Investigation on Human Rights Violations in Rwanda since October 1, 1990

    • The International Commission of Investigation on Human Rights Violations in Rwanda since October 1, 1990 was an international inquiry that investigated reported human rights abuses during the Rwandan Civil War. Sponsored by four international non-governmental organizations, the commission was not officially mandated by ... Read »


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    • International Day of the Disappeared

    • The International Day of the Disappeared on is a day created to draw attention to the fate of individuals imprisoned at places and under poor conditions unknown to their relatives and/or legal representatives. The impulse for the day came from the Latin American Federation of Associations for Relatives of Detained-Disa ... Read »


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    • International human rights law

    • International human rights law is the body of international law designed to promote human rights on social, regional, and domestic levels. As a form of international law, international human rights law is primarily made up of treaties, agreements between sovereign states sintered to have binding legal effect between th ... Read »


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    • International Human Rights Tribunal

    • The International Human Rights Tribunal (IHRT) was a symbolic tribunal which took place in Vienna, Austria, in June 1995. It was chaired by environmental and human rights activist Freda Meissner-Blau and Gerhard Oberschlick, editor of FORVM, and was dedicated to the persecution of lesbians, gays, bisexuals and transgen ... Read »


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    • International Partnership for Human Rights

    • International Partnership for Human Rights

      International Partnership for Human Rights (IPHR) is an international non-governmental human rights organization with its seat in Brussels, Belgium. It was established in the spring of 2008. It is a non-profit organization (NGO, registered with the Brussels Commercial Court as an association sans but lucratif, or (ASBL ... Read »


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    • International religious freedom caucus

    • The Congressional International Religious Freedom (IRF) Caucus is a bi-partisan group of nearly 60 members of the United States Congress who address religious persecution for people of any or no faith based on Article 18 of the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights. The IRF Caucus has always addressed religious fr ... Read »


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    • International Women's Year


    • Intra-household bargaining

    • Intra-household bargaining refers to negotiations that occur between members of a household in order to arrive at decisions regarding the household unit, like whether to spend or save, whether to study or work. Bargaining is traditionally defined in economic terms of negotiating conditions of a purchase or contract an ... Read »


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    • Investor-state dispute settlement

    • Investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS) or investment court system (ICS) is a system through which individual companies can sue countries for alleged discriminatory practices. The practice was made widely known through the Philip Morris v. Uruguay case, where the tobacco company Philip Morris sued Uruguay after having ... Read »


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    • Jeju 4.3 Committee

    • The National Committee for Investigation of the Truth about the Jeju 4.3 Events (4.3 Committee) was a truth commission in South Korea established in 2000. The commission aimed to investigate the Jeju 4.3 events, which refers to a "series of armed uprisings and counterinsurgency that occurred between 1948 and 1954 on Je ... Read »


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    • Ji Seong-ho

    • Ji Seong-ho is a North Korean defector who currently lives in South Korea, where he works to raise awareness about the situation in the North and to help fellow defectors. Ji grew up during the North Korean famine of the mid-1990s. In 1995, his grandmother died of starvation. “The family survived by eating th ... Read »


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    • Jim Macken

    • Jim Macken is a retired Australian judge, and human rights activist. In September 2016, Macken offered to trade places with a refugee at one of the concentration camps operated in Nauru or Manus under Australia's Pacific Solution policy. ... Read »


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    • John Humphrey Centre for Peace and Human Rights

    • The John Humphrey Centre for Peace and Human Rights is a human rights education organization headquartered in Edmonton, Alberta. It is one of the only human rights education organizations in Canada. It was founded in 1998 in honour of John Humphrey who helped draft the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The Jo ... Read »


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    • Jus inter gentes

    • Jus inter gentes, is the body of treaties, U.N. conventions, and other international agreements. Originally a Roman law concept, it later became a major part of public international law. The other major part is jus gentium, the Law of Nations (municipal law).Jus inter gentes, literally, means "law between the peoples". ... Read »


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    • Michael G. Kagan

    • Michael Geoffrey Kagan is an American human rights lawyer and scholar in the field of international refugee law. He played a leading role in the establishment of refugee legal aid programs that assist asylum-seekers applying for refugee status determination through the UN refugee agency. He helped to found or develop A ... Read »


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    • Zahra Kamalfar

    • Zahra Kamalfar is an Iranian refugee living in Canada. She was originally from the Muslim Dervish sector and her husband was executed in Iranian custody. After her husband's death, she fled the country with her son Davood and daughter Anna. From Turkey, they fled into Russia. From Russia, the family planned to go to Ge ... Read »


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    • Land law

    • Land law is the form of law that deals with the rights to use, alienate, or exclude others from . In many jurisdictions, these kinds of property are referred to as real estate or real property, as distinct from personal property. Land use agreements, including renting, are an important intersection of property and cont ... Read »


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    • Lao Human Rights Council

    • The Lao Human Rights Council, Inc. (LHRC) is a non-profit, non-partisan, non-governmental (NGO) refugee and human rights organization. It is based nationally, and internationally, with chapters in Colorado, Wisconsin and Minnesota. The Lao Human Rights Council, Inc. researches, and provides information and education re ... Read »


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    • Abdelhak Layada

    • Abdelhak Layada (Arabic: عبد الحق ليادة‎‎, born 1959), also known as Abu Adlane, was one of the founders of Algeria's militant Islamist group Armed Islamic Group (GIA) during the Algerian Civil War, and led it after the death of Mohamed Allel ("Moh Leveilly"). He declared ... Read »


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    • Lee Hyeon-seo

    • Lee Hyeon-seo

      Hyeonseo Lee (Korean: 이현서, born January 1980), best known for her book, The Girl with Seven Names, is a North Korean defector and activist who lives in South Korea, where she is a student. She escaped from North Korea and later guided her family to freedom from the country through China and Laos. Le ... Read »


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    • The Lexington Principles on the Rights of Detainees

    • The Lexington Principles on the Rights of Detainees (Lexington Principles) is a body of international due process principles that reflect the prevailing transnational norms in the area of detainee treatment. The Lexington Principles were completed and published on April 1, 2009. The instrument consists of 45 principles ... Read »


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    • List of Oslo Freedom Forum participants

    • The following is a list of persons who have attended the Oslo Freedom Forum. The list is categorized first by country of origin, then by profession and year. ... Read »


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    • Living wage

    • In public policy, a living wage is the minimum income necessary for a worker to meet their basic needs. This is not necessarily the same as subsistence, which refers to a biological minimum, though the two terms are commonly confused. These needs include shelter (housing) and other incidentals such as clothing and nutr ... Read »


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    • Living wage in the United States

    • The living wage in the United States vary by county and state and is the minimum income necessary for a worker to meet their basic needs. These needs include shelter (housing) and other incidentals such as clothing and nutrition. Living wage is the wage that a person working forty hours a week, with no additional inco ... Read »


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    • LOVEINT

    • LOVEINT is the practice of intelligence service employees making use of their extensive monitoring capabilities to spy on their love interest or spouse. The term was coined in resemblance to intelligence terminology such as SIGINT, COMINT or HUMINT. The term LOVEINT originated at the NSA, where approximately one s ... Read »


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    • Mad Pride

    • Mad Pride is a mass movement of the users of mental health services, former users, and their allies. The first known event specifically organized as a Pride event by people who identify as psychiatric survivors/consumer/ex-patients was in Toronto, Canada when it was called "Psychiatric Survivor Pride Day", held on Sept ... Read »


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    • Mandy Sanghera

    • Mandy Sanghera is an international human rights activist. Since 1990 she has been supporting victims and survivors of honour based violence and cultural abuse such as female genital mutilation, forced marriages, Faith Based Abuse and witchcraft. As a human rights activist, Sanghera has worked across many demographics, ... Read »


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    • Mass surveillance

    • Mass surveillance is the intricate surveillance of an entire or a substantial fraction of a population in order to monitor that group of citizens. The surveillance is often carried out by governments or governmental organisations, but may also be carried out by corporations, either on behalf of governments or at their ... Read »


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    • Medical experimentation in Africa

    • African countries have been sites for clinical trials by large pharmaceutical companies, raising human rights concerns. Incidents of unethical experimentation, clinical trials lacking properly informed consent, and forced medical procedures have been claimed and prosecuted. The Pfizer drug, Trovan was used in a cl ... Read »


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    • Medical neutrality

    • Medical Neutrality refers to a principle of noninterference with medical services in times of armed conflict and civil unrest: physicians must be allowed to care for the sick and wounded, and soldiers must receive care regardless of their political affiliations; all parties must refrain from attacking and misusing medi ... Read »


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    • Igor Mel'čuk


    • Memorialization

    • Memorialization generally refers to the process of preserving memories of people or events. It can be a form of address or petition, or a ceremony of remembrance or commemoration. Memorialization is a universal need for both those being memorialized and those who are grieving. Although historically it was limited ... Read »


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    • Mental health tribunal

    • A mental health tribunal is a specialist tribunals (hearings) empowered by law to adjudicate disputes about mental health treatment, primarily by conducting independent reviews of patients diagnosed with mental disorders who are detained in psychiatric hospitals, or under outpatient commitment, and who may be subject t ... Read »


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    • Diana Tietjens Meyers

    • Diana Meyers is a philosopher working in the philosophy of action and in the philosophy of feminism. Meyers is Professor Emerita of Philosophy at the University of Connecticut. Diana Meyers holds a Bachelor's degree from the University of Chicago and a Master's degree and PhD from The Graduate Center, CUNY. She mo ... Read »


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    • The Milan Charter

    • The Milan Charter is a document that sets out the principles and objectives on the subject of nutrition, environmental sustainability and human rights. It was proposed at Expo 2015 during the Milan Universal Exposition (1 May - 31 October 2015), and on 16 October 2015 it was presented to the Secretary-General of the U ... Read »


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    • Militarization of police

    • Militarization of police refers to the use of military equipment and tactics by law enforcement officers. This includes the use of armored personnel carriers, assault rifles, submachine guns, flashbang grenades,grenade launchers,sniper rifles, and Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) teams. The militarization of law enfo ... Read »


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    • Minority group

    • A minority group refers to a category of people differentiated from the social majority, those who hold the majority of positions of social power in a society, and it may be defined by law. Rather than a relational "social group", as the term would indicate, "minority group" refers to the above-described. The different ... Read »


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    • Miscarriage of justice

    • A miscarriage of justice primarily is the conviction and punishment of a person for a crime they did not commit. The term can also apply to errors in the other direction—"errors of impunity", and to civil cases. Most criminal justice systems have some means to overturn, or "quash", a wrongful conviction, but this ... Read »


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    • Morocco's Equity and Reconciliation Commission


    • Mothers of the Movement

    • Mothers of the Movement is a group of women whose African American children have been killed by the police or by gun violence. Seven women in the group spoke at the July 2016 Democratic National Convention in Philadelphia in support of Hillary Clinton's candidacy for President. In August 2016, several members appeared ... Read »


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    • New Zealand contributions to human rights instruments


    • Nirbhaya Samaroh

    • Nirbhaya Samaroh

      Nirbhaya Samaroh is an annual dance and music festival held by the Honour for Women National Campaign to raise awareness on women’s rights. The festival named after the 2012 Delhi gang rape victim is presented as a tribute to all victims of Violence against women. The festival founded by women’s rights activ ... Read »


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    • Nirbhaya Vahini

    • Nirbhaya Vahini is a volunteer unit of the Honour for Women National Campaign. It was founded in January 2014 to help mobilize public opinion and launch a sustained campaign for the implementation of the movement’s Four-Point charter of demand. Nirbhaya Vahini is composed of thousands of volunteers drawn from all ... Read »


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    • Nursing home residents' rights


    • Freedom Nyamubaya

    • Freedom Nyamubaya (1958? - 5 July 2015) was a poet, dancer, farmer, feminist, and freedom fighter from Zimbabwe. She is known as one of Zimbabwe's celebrated "guerilla fighter-poets", with two published collections of her poems. During the Zimbabwe War of Liberation, she served as one of the few female field operation ... Read »


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    • Oration on the Dignity of Man

    • The Oration on the Dignity of Man (De hominis dignitate) is a famous public discourse pronounced in 1486 by Pico della Mirandola, an Italian scholar and philosopher of the Renaissance. It has been called the "Manifesto of the Renaissance". Pico, who belonged to the family that had long dwelt in the Castle of Mirandola ... Read »


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    • Oslo Freedom Forum

    • Oslo Freedom Forum

      Oslo Freedom Forum (OFF) is a series of global conferences run by the New York-based non-profit Human Rights Foundation under the slogan “Challenging Power.” OFF was founded in 2009 as a one-time event and has taken place annually ever since. One of the key objectives of the conferences is to bring together n ... Read »


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    • Outline of rights

    • The following outline is provided as an overview of and introduction to rights: Rights – normative principles, variously construed as legal, social, or moral freedoms or entitlements. ... Read »


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    • OYSS Women

    • OYSS Women

      OYSS Women is a non-profit organization engaged in empowering women in India. It was founded in 1987 by women’s rights activist Manasi Pradhan. The organization undertakes activities in the field of women education, vocational training, leadership development, women’s rights enforcement, self-defense tra ... Read »


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    • People's joint association


    • Philosophy of human rights

    • The philosophy of human rights attempts to examine the underlying basis of the concept of human rights and critically looks at its content and justification. Several theoretical approaches have been advanced to explain how and why the concept of human rights developed. One of the oldest Western philosophies on human r ... Read »


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    • PNG solution


    • Politics as Usual: What Lies Behind the Pro-Poor Rhetoric

    • Politics as Usual: What Lies Behind the Pro-Poor Rhetoric

      Politics as Usual is a 2010 book by Thomas Pogge. The book is a discussion on issues of global significance and their relationship to poverty. Politics as Usual is based on previously compiled essays. Pogge's book present an alternate view than the one where "Education, health-care, technology, and political participat ... Read »


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    • Post-Conflict Research Center

    • Post-Conflict Research Center

      The Post-Conflict Research Center (PCRC) is a Sarajevo-based non-governmental organization, which aims to nurture an enabling environment for sustainable peace and facilitate the restoration of inter-ethnic relationships in Bosnia-Herzegovina. PCRC’s expertise consists of innovative multimedia projects and creativ ... Read »


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    • Prague Declaration on European Conscience and Communism

    • Prague Declaration on European Conscience and Communism

      The Prague Declaration on European Conscience and Communism (also known as the Prague Declaration), which was signed on 3 June 2008, was a declaration initiated by the Czech government and signed by prominent European politicians, former political prisoners and historians, among them former Czech President Václav Ha ... Read »


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    • Presumption of innocence

    • The presumption of innocence, sometimes referred to by the Latin expression Ei incumbit probatio qui dicit, non qui negat (the burden of proof is on the one who declares, not on one who denies), is the principle that one is considered innocent unless proven guilty. In many states, presumption of innocence is a legal r ... Read »


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    • Preventive detention

    • Preventive detention is an imprisonment that is putatively justified for non-punitive purposes. A related, but different form of detention, is detention of suspects or remand. In contrast to preventive detention, detention of suspects must quickly be followed by a criminal charge (or happen after the charge). In most ... Read »


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    • Principles for the Protection of Persons with Mental Illness

    • The Principles for the Protection of Persons with Mental Illness and the Improvement of Mental Health Care ('MI Principles') were adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1991. They provide agreed but non-legally-binding basic standards that mental health systems should meet and rights that people diagnosed wi ... Read »


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    • Prisoners' rights in international law


    • Privacy

    • Privacy is the ability of an individual or group to seclude themselves, or information about themselves, and thereby express themselves selectively. The boundaries and content of what is considered private differ among cultures and individuals, but share common themes. When something is private to a person, it usually ... Read »


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    • Public interest

    • Public interest, according to the Random House Dictionary, is "1. the welfare or well-being of the general public; commonwealth. 2. appeal or relevance to the general populace: a news story of public interest." Economist Lok Sang Ho in his Public Policy and the Public Interest (Routledge, 2012, published 2011) argues ... Read »


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    • Public interest law

    • Public interest law loosely, refers to legal practices undertaken to help poor or marginalized people, or to effect change in social policies in the public interest, on 'not for profit' terms (pro bono publico). In general terms it means a legal action initiated in the court of law for the protection of Public Interest ... Read »


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    • Refrain Club

    • Refrain Club(자제단) was a Korean civic group and self-governing body club, founder of Park Jung-yang and Yun Phil-oh, Lee Chin-ho. It was founded by the Anti-March 1st Movement. Refrain club's Korean spelling is Chachedan and Chache Club(자제단, 자제회). In March 1919, Japan ruled ... Read »


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    • Refugee Council

    • Refugee Council

      The Refugee Council is the United Kingdom's leading organisation working with refugees and asylum seekers. The organisation provides support and advice to refugees and asylum seekers, as well as support for other refugee and asylum seeker organisations. The Refugee Council also produces a large number of reports and ed ... Read »


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    • Regional human rights regimes

    • Regional human rights regimes are relatively independently coherent human rights sub-regimes. that are nested within the larger frame work of International human rights practise. Three principle regional human rights instruments can be identified, the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights, the American Conventio ... Read »


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    • Reparations (transitional justice)

    • Reparations are broadly understood as compensation given for an abuse or injury. The colloquial meaning of reparations has changed substantively over the last century. In the early 1900s, reparations were interstate exchanges (see war reparations): punitive mechanisms determined by treaty and paid by the surrendering s ... Read »


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    • Right of self-defense

    • The right of self-defense (also called, when it applies to the defense of another, alter ego defense, defense of others, defense of a third person) is the right for persons to use reasonable force or defensive force, for the purpose of defending one's own life or the lives of others, including, in certain circumstances ... Read »


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    • Right to be heard

    • The right to be heard (also children's participation) is a child rights principle as defined by the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. According to Article 12 of the Convention, children have the right to express their views in all matters affecting them and their views have to be given due weight in accordance ... Read »


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    • Right to clothing

    • The right to adequate clothing, or the right to clothing, is recognized as a human right in various international human rights instruments; this, together with the right to food and the right to housing, are parts of the right to an adequate standard of living as recognized under Article 11 of the International Covenan ... Read »


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    • Right to disconnect

    • The right to disconnect is a proposed human right regarding the ability of people to not respond to work e-mail or messages during non-work hours. The government of France passed the El Khomri law to reform working conditions for French people. The law included a chapter titled "The Adaptation of Work Rights to the Di ... Read »


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    • Right to family life

    • The right to family life is the right of all individuals to have their established family life respected, and to have and maintain family relationships. This right is recognised in a variety of international human rights instruments, including Article 16 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 23 of the I ... Read »


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    • Right to homeland

    • The right to homeland is according to some legal scholars a universal human right, which is derived from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, including its Article 9. The concept evolved in German jurisprudence and is recognized in German constitutional law to a certain degree. Notable proponents of the concept i ... Read »


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    • Right to personal identity

    • The right to personal identity is recognised in international law through a range of declarations and conventions. From as early as birth, an individual’s identity is formed and preserved by registration or being bestowed with a name. However, personal identity becomes more complex as an individual develops a soul ... Read »


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    • Right to petition

    • The right to petition government for redress of grievances is the right to make a complaint to, or seek the assistance of, one's government, without fear of punishment or reprisals. The Article 44 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union ensures the right to petition to the European Parliament. The ri ... Read »


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    • Right to privacy

    • The right to privacy is an element of various legal traditions which may restrain both government and private party action that threatens the privacy of individuals. Over 150 national constitutions mention this right (click here to read the provisions). Since the global surveillance disclosures of 2013, the inalienabl ... Read »


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    • Right to protest

    • The right to protest is a perceived human right arising out of a number of recognized human rights. While no human rights instrument or national constitution grants the absolute right to protest, such a right to protest may be a manifestation of the right to freedom of assembly, the right to freedom of association, and ... Read »


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    • Right to sexuality

    • The right to sexuality incorporates the right to express one's sexuality and to be free from discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation. In specific, it relates to the human rights of people of diverse sexual orientation, including lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people, and the protection of tho ... Read »


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    • Rights of the Roma in the European Union

    • The European Union is committed to upholding Human Rights and sees this as a core and essential part of its role. As such the EU seeks to protect and defend these rights within member states and in interactions with non-members. The Roma are one of the largest minority group within the EU numbering over six million pe ... Read »


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    • Ritual servitude

    • Ritual servitude is a practice in Ghana, Togo, and Benin where traditional religious shrines (popularly called fetish shrines in Ghana) take human beings, usually young virgin girls, in payment for services or in religious atonement for alleged misdeeds of a family member. In Ghana and in Togo, it is practiced by the E ... Read »


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    • Rule of Law in Armed Conflicts Project

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    • Sari Squad

    • Sari Squad is the name chosen for themselves by a group of women, mainly of south Asian origin, who helped to defend multicultural clubs and gatherings in London, United Kingdom, from racist attacks in the early 1980s. The name "sari" refers to the well known South Asian female garment. British media used the appellat ... Read »


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    • Self-executing right

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    • SEXINT

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    • Sexualization

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    • Azadeh N. Shahshahani

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    • Anup Singh Choudry

    • Anup Singh Choudry

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    • Social role valorization

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  • What Else?

    • Human rights

Extras