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  • History of philosophy

    History of philosophy

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    • Ancient philosophy

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    • Medieval philosophy

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    • Modern philosophy

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    • Contemporary philosophy

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    • Ancient philosophy

    • This page lists some links to ancient philosophy. In Western philosophy, the spread of Christianity in the Roman Empire marked the ending of Hellenistic philosophy and ushered in the beginnings of Medieval philosophy, whereas in Eastern philosophy, the spread of Islam through the Arab Empire marked the end of Old Irani ... Read »


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    • Medieval philosophy

    • Medieval philosophy is the philosophy in the era now known as medieval or the Middle Ages, the period roughly extending from the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century C.E. to the Renaissance in the 16th century. Medieval philosophy, understood as a project of independent philosophical inquiry, began in Ba ... Read »


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    • Modern philosophy

    • Modern philosophy is philosophy developed in the modern era and associated with modernity. It is not a specific doctrine or school (and thus should not be confused with Modernism), although there are certain assumptions common to much of it, which helps to distinguish it from earlier philosophy. The 17th and early 20t ... Read »


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    • Contemporary philosophy

    • Contemporary philosophy is the present period in the history of Western philosophy beginning at the end of the 19th century with the professionalization of the discipline and the rise of analytic and continental philosophy. The phrase "contemporary philosophy" is a piece of technical terminology in philosophy that ref ... Read »


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    • Philosophy by period

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    • 18th-century philosophy

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    • 19th-century philosophy

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    • 20th-century philosophy

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    • Age of Enlightenment

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    • History of ethics

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    • Historians of philosophy

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    • History of ideas

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    • Linguistic turn

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    • History of logic

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    • Natural philosophy

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    • Persecution of philosophers

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    • Philosophers by period

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    • Philosophical movements

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    • Works about the history of philosophy

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    • Years in philosophy

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    • History of philosophy images

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    • 17th-century philosophy

    • 17th-century philosophy in the Western world is generally regarded as being the start of modern philosophy, and a departure from the medieval approach, especially Scholasticism. Early 17th-century philosophy is often called the Age of Reason or Age of Rationalism and is considered to succeed the Renaissance philosophy ... Read »


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    • 19th-century philosophy

    • In the 19th century the philosophies of the Enlightenment began to have a dramatic effect, the landmark works of philosophers such as Immanuel Kant and Jean-Jacques Rousseau influencing new generations of thinkers. In the late 18th century a movement known as Romanticism began; it validated strong emotion as an authent ... Read »


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    • Age of Enlightenment

    • The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in French: le Siècle des Lumières, lit. 'the Century of Lights'; and in German: Aufklärung, 'Enlightenment') was an intellectual movement which dominated the world of ideas in Europe in the 18th century. The Enlightenment includ ... Read »


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    • Alphabet of human thought

    • The alphabet of human thought is a concept originally proposed by Gottfried Leibniz that provides a universal way to represent and analyze ideas and relationships by breaking down their component pieces. All ideas are compounded from a very small number of simple ideas which can be represented by a unique character. ... Read »


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    • Aristotelian Society

    • The Aristotelian Society for the Systematic Study of Philosophy, more generally known as the Aristotelian Society, was founded at a meeting on 19 April 1880, at 17 Bloomsbury Square. Aristotelian Society resolved "to constitute a society of about twenty and to include ladies; the society to meet fortnightly, on Mo ... Read »


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    • Atomism

    • Atomism (from Greek ἄτομον, atomon, i.e. "uncuttable", "indivisible") is a natural philosophy that developed in several ancient traditions. The atomists theorized that nature consists of two fundamental principles: atom and void. Unlike their modern scientific namesake in atomic theory, philosophica ... Read »


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    • Axial Age

    • Axial Age (also Axis Age, from German: Achsenzeit) is a term coined by German philosopher Karl Jaspers after Victor von Strauß (1859) and Ernst von Lasaulx (1870) in the sense of a "pivotal age" characterizing the period of ancient history from about the 8th to the 3rd century BC. Then, according to Jaspers' conce ... Read »


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    • James Brusseau

    • James Brusseau is a philosopher specializing in contemporary Continental philosophy, history of philosophy and ethics. In 1994 Brusseau joined the faculty of Philosophy and Letters at the Mexican National University in Mexico City teaching graduate courses in Philosophy and Comparative Literature. He has also taught in ... Read »


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    • Calculus ratiocinator

    • The Calculus ratiocinator is a theoretical universal logical calculation framework, a concept described in the writings of Gottfried Leibniz, usually paired with his more frequently mentioned characteristica universalis, a universal conceptual language. There are two contrasting points of view on what Leibniz mean ... Read »


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    • Casualism

    • Casualism is the philosophical view that the universe, its creation and development is solely based on randomness. The concept can be traced back to Epicurus (341 BC – 270 BC). It has to be noted that most of the original sources dealing with the concept have been lost and most material today is based on Diogenes ... Read »


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    • Conatus

    • In early philosophies of psychology and metaphysics, conatus (/koʊˈneɪtəs/;Latin for "effort; endeavor; impulse, inclination, tendency; undertaking; striving") is an innate inclination of a thing to continue to exist and enhance itself. This "thing" may be mind, matter or a combination of both. Over the mil ... Read »


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    • Condition (philosophy)

    • Comprehensive treatment of the word "condition" requires emphasizing that it is ambiguous in the sense of having multiple normal meanings and that its meanings are often vague in the sense of admitting borderline cases. According to the 2007 American Philosophy: an Encyclopedia, in one widely used sense, conditions ar ... Read »


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    • The Copernican Question

    • The Copernican Question

      The Copernican Question: Prognostication, Skepticism, and Celestial Order is a 704-page book written by Robert S. Westman and published by University of California Press (Berkeley, Los Angeles, London) in 2011. This book is a broad historical overview of scholarly responses to Copernicus’s De revolutionibus by the ... Read »


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    • The Copernican Revolution (book)

    • Cover of the first edition
      Author Thomas S. Kuhn Country United States Language English Subject History of astronomy Published 1957 (Harvard University Press) Media type
    • The Copernican Revolution: Planetary Astronomy in the Development of Western Thought

      The Copernican Revolution is a 1957 book by Thomas Kuhn, in which Kuhn provides an analysis of the Copernican Revolution, documenting the pre-Ptolemaic understanding through the Ptolemaic system and its variants until the eventual acceptance of the Keplerian system. Kuhn argues that the Ptolemaic system provided broad ... Read »


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    • Copernican Revolution (metaphor)

    • The Copernican Revolution was the paradigm shift from the Ptolemaic model of the heavens, which described the cosmos as having Earth stationary at the center of the universe, to the heliocentric model with the Sun at the center of the Solar System. Beginning with the publication of Nicolaus Copernicus’s De revolut ... Read »


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    • Double truth

    • Double-truth theory is the view that religion and philosophy, as separate sources of knowledge, might arrive at contradictory truths without detriment to either. In medieval Europe, the Church was specifically opposed to "Latin Averroists" (see Averroës), such as the prominent Averroist Siger of Brabant. It sou ... Read »


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    • Doxography

    • Doxography (Greek: δόξα - "an opinion, a point of view" + γράφειν - "to write, to describe") is a term used especially for the works of classical historians, describing the points of view of past philosophers and scientists. The term was coined by the German classical scholar Hermann Al ... Read »


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    • Great Tew Circle

    • The Great Tew Circle was a group of clerics and literary figures who gathered in the 1630s at the manor house of Great Tew, Oxfordshire in southern England, and in London.Lord Clarendon referred to the Circle as "A college situate in a purer air", referring to its pursuit of truth away from the partisan passions of the ... Read »


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    • History of hermeneutics

    • Hermeneutics is the theory and methodology of interpretation. The tradition of Western hermeneutics starts in the writings of Aristotle and continues to the modern era. In De Interpretatione, Aristotle offers a theory which lays the groundwork for many later theories of interpretation and semiotics: Equally impor ... Read »


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    • History of ethics

    • Ethics is the branch of philosophy that examines right and wrong moral behavior, moral concepts (such as justice, virtue, duty) and moral language. Various ethical theories pose various answers to the question "What is the greatest good?" and elaborate a complete set of proper behaviors for individuals and groups. Ethi ... Read »


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    • History of the concept of creativity

    • The ways in which societies have perceived the concept of creativity have changed throughout history, as has the term itself. The ancient Greek concept of art (in Greek, "techne" — the root of "technique" and "technology"), with the exception of poetry, involved not freedom of action but subjection to rules. In Ro ... Read »


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    • Hypokeimenon

    • Hypokeimenon (Greek: ὑποκείμενον), later often material substratum, is a term in metaphysics which literally means the "underlying thing" (Latin: subiectum). To search for the hypokeimenon is to search for that substance which persists in a thing going through change—its basic e ... Read »


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    • Intellectual history

    • Intellectual history refers to the historiography of ideas and thinkers. This history cannot be considered without the knowledge of the men and women who created, discussed, wrote about, and in other ways were concerned with ideas. Intellectual history as practiced by historians is parallel to the history of philosophy ... Read »


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    • International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science

    • The International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science (HOPOS) is a philosophical organization for promoting the study of the history of philosophy of science. The society promotes exchange of ideas among scholars through meetings, journals, and online. It maintains an active email listserv, HOPOS-G. The j ... Read »


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    • Junto (club)

    • The Junto, also known as the Leather Apron Club, was a club for mutual improvement established in 1727 by Benjamin Franklin in Philadelphia. The Leather Apron Club's purpose was to debate questions of morals, politics, and natural philosophy, and to exchange knowledge of business affairs. They were also a charitable or ... Read »


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    • Kraft Circle

    • The Kraft Circle was a student society of philosophers at the Institut für Österreichische Geschichtsforschung of the University of Vienna devoted to "considering philosophical problems in a nonmetaphysical manner and with special reference to the findings of the sciences". Its chairman and leading professor was ... Read »


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    • League of peace

    • League of peace (Latin: foedus pacificum) is an expression coined by Immanuel Kant in his work "Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch". The league of peace should be distinguished from a peace treaty (pactum pacis) because a peace treaty prevents or terminates only one war, while the league of peace seeks to end all ... Read »


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    • Lebensphilosophie

    • Lebensphilosophie ("philosophy of life" or life-philosophy in German) is a philosophical school of thought which emphasises the meaning, value and purpose of life as the foremost focus of philosophy. Inspired by the critique of rationalism in the works of Arthur Schopenhauer, Søren Kierkegaard, and Friedrich Ni ... Read »


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    • Linguistic turn

    • The linguistic turn was a major development in Western philosophy during the early 20th century, the most important characteristic of which is the focusing of philosophy and the other humanities primarily on the relationship between philosophy and language. Very different intellectual movements were associated with th ... Read »


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    • List of intellectuals of the Enlightenment

    • This is a list of intellectuals from the Age of Enlightenment. ... Read »


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    • Mean speed theorem

    • In the 14th-century, the Oxford Calculators of Merton College and French collaborators such as Nicole Oresme proved the mean speed theorem, also known as the Merton Rule of uniform acceleration, or the Merton mean speed theorem. It essentially says that: a uniformly accelerated body (starting from rest, i.e., zero init ... Read »


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    • Modern Greek Enlightenment

    • The Modern Greek Enlightenment (Greek: Διαφωτισμός, Diafotismos, "enlightenment," "illumination") was the Greek expression of the Age of Enlightenment. The Greek Enlightenment was given impetus by the Greek predominance in trade and education in the Ottoman Empire. Greek merchants ... Read »


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    • Willy Moog

    • Willy Moog (also: Wilhelm or Willi Moog; born 22 January 1888 in Neuengronau (community of Sinntal) – 24 October 1935 in Braunschweig) was a German philosopher and educator. Willy Moog studied from 1906 to 1909 in Berlin, Munich and Gießen; his areas of primary focus were Germanic Studies and Philosophy. H ... Read »


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    • Natural philosophy

    • Natural philosophy or philosophy of nature (from Latin philosophia naturalis) was the philosophical study of nature and the physical universe that was dominant before the development of modern science. It is considered to be the precursor of natural science. From the ancient world, starting with Aristotle, to the 19th ... Read »


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    • Noetics

    • In philosophy, noetics is a branch of metaphysical philosophy concerned with the study of mind as well as intellect. Noetic topics include the doctrine of the agent/patient intellect (Aristotle, Averroes) and the doctrine of the Divine Intellect (Plotinus). Since the 1970s and the foundation of the Institute of Noetic ... Read »


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    • Oxford Calculators

    • The Oxford Calculators were a group of 14th-century thinkers, almost all associated with Merton College, Oxford; for this reason they were dubbed "The Merton School". These men took a strikingly logico-mathematical approach to philosophical problems. The key "calculators", writing in the second quarter of the 14th cent ... Read »


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    • Oxford Franciscan school

    • The Oxford Franciscan school was the name given to a group of scholastic philosophers that, in the context of the Renaissance of the 12th century, gave special contribution to the development of science and scientific methodology during the High Middle Ages. This group includes such names as Robert Grosseteste, Roger B ... Read »


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    • Pantheism controversy

    • The pantheism controversy (German: Pantheismusstreit) was an event in German cultural history that lasted between 1785–1789 which had an impact throughout Europe. A conversation between the German philosopher Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi and the German dramatist Gotthold Ephraim Lessing in 1780 led Jacobi to a protr ... Read »


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    • Philosophical progress

    • A prominent question in metaphilosophy is that of whether philosophical progress occurs, and more so, whether such progress in philosophy is even possible. It has even been disputed, most notably by Ludwig Wittgenstein, whether genuine philosophical problems actually exist. The opposite has also been claimed, most nota ... Read »


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    • Philosophy in 90 Minutes series

    • The Philosophy in 90 Minutes series, written by Paul Strathern, is a series of short introductory biographical overviews on well-known philosophers, set in brief historical context, along with brief impressions of their philosophies. The books are also produced in audio format; read by narrator Robert Whitfield. The se ... Read »


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    • Philosophy in Malta

    • Philosophy in Malta refers to the philosophy of Maltese nationals or those of Maltese descent, whether living in Malta or abroad, whether writing in their native Maltese language or in a foreign language. Though Malta is not more than a tiny European island in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, for the last six centu ... Read »


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    • Physics (Aristotle)

    • The Physics (Greek: Φυσικὴ ἀκρόασις Phusike akroasis; Latin: Physica, or Physicae Auscultationes, meaning "lectures on nature") of Aristotle is one of the foundational books of Western science and philosophy. As Martin Heidegger once wrote; The Physics is a lecture in whic ... Read »


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    • Platonism in Islamic Philosophy

    • Medieval Islamic philosophy was steeped in both Aristotelianism and Neoplatonism from its 9th-century beginnings with Al-Kindi, but the influence of Neoplatonism becomes more clearly visible in the 10th and 11th centuries with Al-Farabi and Avicenna. Al-Farabi expanded on Plato’s concept of an ideal city ruled by ... Read »


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    • History of philosophy in Poland

    • The history of philosophy in Poland parallels the evolution of philosophy in Europe in general. Polish philosophy drew upon the broader currents of European philosophy, and in turn contributed to their growth. Among the most momentous Polish contributions were made, in the thirteenth century, by the Scholastic philosop ... Read »


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    • Positivism

    • Positivism is a philosophical theory stating that positive knowledge is based on natural phenomena and their properties and relations. Thus, information derived from sensory experience, interpreted through reason and logic, forms the exclusive source of all authoritative knowledge. Positivism holds that valid knowledge ... Read »


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    • Positivism dispute

    • The positivism dispute (German: Positivismusstreit) was a political-philosophical dispute between the critical rationalists (Karl Popper, Hans Albert) and the Frankfurt School (Theodor Adorno, Jürgen Habermas) in 1961, about the methodology of the social sciences. It grew into a broad discussion within German sociol ... Read »


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    • Postpositivism

    • In philosophy and models of scientific inquiry, postpositivism (also called postempiricism) is a metatheoretical stance that critiques and amends positivism. While positivists believe that the researcher and the researched person are independent of each other, postpositivists accept that theories, background, knowledge ... Read »


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    • Pragmatic ethics

    • Pragmatic ethics is a theory of normative philosophical ethics. Ethical pragmatists, such as John Dewey, believe that some societies have progressed morally in much the way they have attained progress in science. Scientists can pursue inquiry into the truth of a hypothesis and accept the hypothesis, in the sense that t ... Read »


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    • Rational animal

    • The term rational animal (Latin: animal rationale or animal rationabile) refers to a classical definition of humanity or human nature, associated with Aristotelianism. While the Latin term itself originates in medieval scholasticism, it reflects the Aristotelian view of man as distinguished by a rational principle ... Read »


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    • Rationalism

    • In epistemology, rationalism is the view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification". More formally, rationalism is defined as a methodology or a theory "in which the criterion of the truth is not sensory but intellectual an ... Read »


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    • Representative Men

    • Representative Men is a collection of seven lectures by Ralph Waldo Emerson, published as a book of essays in 1850. The first essay discusses the role played by "great men" in society, and the remaining six each extoll the virtues of one of six men deemed by Emerson to be great: ... Read »


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    • D'Alembert’s Dream


    • Role ethics

    • Role ethics is an ethical theory based on family roles. Unlike virtue ethics, role ethics is not individualistic. Morality is derived from a person's relationship with their community. The ethics of Confucianism is an example of role ethics. Confucian role ethics centers around filial piety or xiao, a respect for fami ... Read »


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    • Scottish Enlightenment

    • The Scottish Enlightenment (Scots: Scots Enlichtenment, Scottish Gaelic: Soillseachadh na h-Alba) was the period in 18th and early 19th century Scotland characterised by an outpouring of intellectual and scientific accomplishments. By the eighteenth century, Scotland had a network of parish schools in the Lowlands and ... Read »


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    • Virtue ethics

    • Virtue ethics (or aretaic ethics/ˌærəˈteɪɪk/, from Greek (arete)) is a term that refers to normative ethical theories which emphasize virtues of mind and character. Virtue ethicists discuss the nature and definition of virtues and other related problems. For example, how are virtues acquired? How are ... Read »


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    • Wagnerism

    • Wagnerism has a number of meanings: The first two of these aspects were promoted, often in distorted form, by the Nazi regime in Germany. Adolf Hitler argued that "Germany would be impossible without Wagner and all he represents." ... Read »


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    • Wildness

    • Wildness, in its literal sense, is the quality of being wild or untamed. Beyond this, it has been defined as a quality produced in nature, as that which emerges from a forest, and as a level of achievement in nature. More recently, it has been defined as "a quality of interactive processing between organism and nature ... Read »


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    • Wittgenstein's Poker


    • World riddle

    • The term "world riddle" or "world-riddle" has been associated, for over 100 years, with Friedrich Nietzsche (who mentioned Welträthsel in several of his writings) and with the biologist-philosopher Ernst Haeckel, who, as a professor of zoology at the University of Jena, wrote the book Die Welträthsel in 1895†... Read »


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