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  • History of film

    History of film

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    • Centuries in film

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    • Decades in film

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    • Years in film

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    • History of animation

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    • Cinema museums

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    • Cinema pioneers

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    • Film controversies

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    • Documentary films about the film industry

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    • Film historians

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    • Film noir

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    • Film production districts

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    • Films made before the MPAA Production Code

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    • History of Nigerian cinema

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    • Hollywood history and culture

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    • History of James Bond

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    • Lost films

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    • Movements in cinema

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    • Multilingual films

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    • Phantasmagoria

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    • Precursors of film

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    • Film preservation

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    • Production of specific films

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    • History of racism in the cinema of the United States

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    • Rediscovered films

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    • Silent film

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    • Silent films

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    • Topics in film

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    • Transitional sound films

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    • Trick films

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    • History of film of the United States

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    • Years in home video

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    • History of film

    • The history of film began in the 1890s, when motion picture cameras were invented and film production companies started to be established. Because of the limits of technology, films of the 1890s were under a minute long and until 1927 motion pictures were produced without sound. The first decade of motion picture saw f ... Read »


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    • History of film technology

    • The history of film technology traces the development of film technology from the initial development of "moving pictures" at the end of 19th century to the present time. Motion pictures were initially exhibited as a fairground novelty and developed into one of the most important tools of communication and entertainmen ... Read »


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    • Table of years in film

    • The table of years in film is a tabular display of all years in film, for overview and quick navigation to any year. 1860 1861 1862 1863 1864 1865 1866 1867 1868 18691870 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 18791880 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 18891890 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 ... Read »


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    • 19th century in film

    • ... Read »


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    • 40,000 Years of Dreaming

    • 40,000 Years of Dreaming (White Fellas Dreaming: A Century of Australian Cinema) is an hour-long documentary film presented by George Miller and produced by the British Film Institute, as part of their Century of Cinema series. The film acts mainly as a collage of various pieces of Australian film, past and present, i ... Read »


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    • Adams Filmi

    • Adams-Filmi

      Adams Filmi Oy (previously Adamsin Filmitoimisto) was a Finnish film production company. Founded in 1912 by Abel Adams (1879–1938), the company was later merged with Fenno-Filmi which eventually became Fennada-Filmi. The Finnish Broadcasting Company bought Fennada-Filmi in 1982. When Adams Filmi Oy, O.Y. Kinosto a ... Read »


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    • Am Sklavenmarkt

    • Am Sklavenmarkt

      Am Sklavenmarkt (German: "at the slave market") is a short 1907 Austrian pornographic film directed by Johann Schwarzer (1880-1914) at his studio company. The film is 50 metres (160 ft) long. It is possibly the first Austrian film ever made and one of the earliest films to use erotic elements in Austrian films. Th ... Read »


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    • America's first motion picture industry


    • L'Arrivée d'un train en gare de La Ciotat


    • Australian Centre for the Moving Image

    • ACMI

      The Australian Centre for the Moving Image (ACMI) is a facility for the preservation, exhibition and promotion of Victorian, Australian and International screen content. It is located in Federation Square, in Melbourne, Australia. During the 2013-14 financial year, 1.3 million people visited the ACMI, the second-highes ... Read »


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    • B movies (Hollywood Golden Age)


    • B movies (The exploitation boom)

    • The 1960s and 1970s mark the golden age of the independent B movie, made outside of Hollywood's major film studios. As censorship pressures lifted in the early 1960s, the low-budget end of the American motion picture industry increasingly incorporated the sort of sexual and violent elements long associated with so-call ... Read »


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    • B movies (Transition in the 1950s)

    • The 1950s mark a significant change in the definition of the B movie. The transformation of the film industry due to court rulings that brought an end to many long-standing distribution practices as well as the challenge of television led to major changes in U.S. cinema at the exhibition level. These shifts signaled th ... Read »


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    • Bank Night

    • Bank Night was a popular fad lottery game franchise in the United States during the Great Depression. It was invented and marketed by Charles U. Yaeger, a former booking agent for 20th Century Fox. In 1936, Bank Night was played at 5,000 of America's 15,000 active theaters, and copies of it were played at countless mo ... Read »


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    • Bigelow v. RKO Radio Pictures, Inc.

    • Bigelow v. RKO Radio Pictures, Inc.

      Bigelow v. RKO Radio Pictures, Inc., 327 U.S. 251 (1946), was a decision by the United States Supreme Court allowing an action to recover compensatory damages under the antitrust statutes. The jury had returned a verdict for $120,000 in petitioner's favor, covering a five-year period where plaintiff suffered due to res ... Read »


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    • Biograph girl

    • Biograph Girl was a phrase associated with two early-20th-century actresses, Florence Lawrence and Mary Pickford, who made black-and-white silent films with Biograph Studios (American Mutoscope and Biograph Company). At that time, all studios refused to give actors on-screen film credit; they did not want them to gain ... Read »


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    • Bioscope show

    • A Bioscope show was a music hall and fairground attraction consisting of a travelling cinema. The heyday of the Bioscope was from the late 1890s until World War I. Bioscope shows were fronted by the largest fairground organs, and these formed the entire public face of the show . A stage was usually in front of the org ... Read »


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    • Black and White and Blue

    • Black and White and Blue: Erotic Cinema from the Victorian Age to the VCR

      Black and White and Blue: Erotic Cinema from the Victorian Age to the VCR is a 2007 book by Dave Thompson. The book is about the history of erotic films. The book received favorable reviews and is described as a "highly readable account" by Tucson Citizen. ... Read »


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    • Block booking

    • Block booking is a system of selling multiple films to a theater as a unit. Block booking was the prevailing practice among Hollywood's major studios from the turn of the 1930s until it was outlawed by the U.S. Supreme Court's decision in United States v. Paramount Pictures, Inc. (1948). Under block booking, "independe ... Read »


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    • Brewster Color

    • Brewster Color was an early subtractive color-model film process. A two color process was invented by Percy Douglas Brewster in 1913, based on the earlier work of William Friese-Greene. It attempted to compensate for previous methods' problems with contrast. Brewster introduced a three color process in 1935, in an uns ... Read »


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    • British and Colonial Films

    • British and Colonial Films was a British company making predominantly silent films, which operated in London between 1908 and 1924. It was also known by the abbreviation B & C. The British and Colonial Kinematograph Company was formed in 1908 by Albert Henry ("Bert") Bloomfield (c.1882-1933) and John Benjamin ("Mac") ... Read »


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    • Canadian Government Motion Picture Bureau

    • The Canadian Government Motion Picture Bureau was created in September 1918 by an order in council as the Exhibits and Publicity Bureau and was renamed the Canadian Government Motion Picture Bureau on April 1, 1923 . The body was under the administration of the federal Department of Trade and Commerce. The CGMPB was t ... Read »


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    • John Carbutt

    • John Carbutt (1832-1905) was the first person to use celluloid for photographic film. He was born in Sheffield, England on 2 December 1832. He moved to Chicago in 1853. Carbutt founded the Keystone Dry Plate Works in 1879 and was the first to develop sheets of celluloid coated with photographic emulsion for making ce ... Read »


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    • A Century of Cinema

    • A Century of Cinema is a 1994 documentary directed by Caroline Thomas about the art of filmmaking (coinciding with cinema's 100th anniversary), containing numerous interviews with some of the most influential film personalities of the 20th century. ... Read »


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    • Chronophone

    • The Chronophone is an apparatus patented by Léon Gaumont in 1902 to synchronise the Cinématographe (Chrono-Bioscope) with a disc Phonograph (Cyclophone) using a "Conductor" or "Switchboard". This sound-on-disc display was used as an experiment from 1902 to 1910. In January 1911, the industrial exploitation starte ... Read »


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    • Cinebox

    • The Cinebox was a coin-operated Italian 16mm film projector juke box type machine invented in 1959 that appeared in Europe to rival the French made Scopitone that appeared in 1960. The Cinebox was manufactured in Rome by Ottico Meccanica Italiana. In 1963 it appeared in the USA and was retitled Colorama in 1965. In 19 ... Read »


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    • Cinecolor

    • Cinecolor was an early subtractive color-model two color motion picture process, based upon the Prizma system of the 1910s and 1920s and the Multicolor system of the late 1920s and 1930s. It was developed by William T. Crispinel and Alan M. Gundelfinger, and its various formats were in use from 1932 to 1955. A bi- ... Read »


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    • Cinema Europe: The Other Hollywood

    • Cinema Europe: The Other Hollywood (1995) is a documentary film series produced by David Gill and silent film historian Kevin Brownlow. The six-part mini-series focuses on the origin of European cinema, from its infancy as a novelty created by French inventors Auguste and Louis Lumière to its flourishing as the ... Read »


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    • Cinema of Cuba

    • Cinema of Cuba

      Cinema arrived in Cuba at the beginning of the 20th century. Before the Cuban Revolution of 1959, about 80 full-length films were produced in Cuba. Most of these films were melodramas. Following the revolution, Cuba entered what is considered the "Golden age" of Cuban cinema. After being popularised by the brother ... Read »


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    • Cinema of Obsession

    • Cinema of Obsession: Erotic Fixation and Love Gone Wrong in the Movies by Dominique Mainon and James Ursini is a non-fiction book documenting the history of obsessive love, amour fou and erotic fixation in cinema. It begins with an overview of "mad love" in literature and myth, then moves quickly into an in-depth over ... Read »


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    • Cinéma pur


    • Cinematograph

    • A cinematograph is a motion picture film camera, which also serves as a film projector and printer. It was invented in the 1890s. The device was first invented and patented as the "Cinématographe Léon Bouly" by French inventor Léon Bouly on February 12, 1892. Bouly coined the term “cinematograph†... Read »


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    • Cinetrain

    • Cinetrain "Soyuzkino" - three railroad cars that during the first five-year plan have been adapted by director A. Medvedkin for rapid developing, processing and assembly of film, as well as the entire crew accommodation. Field equipment was installed in one of the cars. Like the armored train of the Civil War, Cinetra ... Read »


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    • Color motion picture film

    • Color motion picture film refers both to unexposed color photographic film in a format suitable for use in a motion picture camera, and to finished motion picture film, ready for use in a projector, which bears images in color. The first color cinematography was by additive color systems such as the one patented by Ed ... Read »


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    • Creation Cinema

    • The Creation Cinema series from Creation Books is a collection of books dealing with film history and pop culture. ... Read »


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    • Deathtripping

    • First published as Deathtripping: The Cinema of Transgression by Creation Books in 1995 and subsequently republished as Deathtripping: The Extreme Underground by Soft Skull Press, Deathtripping is a book by Jack Sargeant which examines the New York based, post-punk underground film movement known as the Cinema of Trans ... Read »


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    • Double feature

    • The double feature, also known as a double bill, was a motion picture industry phenomenon in which theatre managers would exhibit two films for the price of one, supplanting an earlier format in which one feature film and various short subject reels would be shown. Opera houses staged two operas together for the s ... Read »


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    • User:Dratman/sandbox


    • Early widescreen feature filmography

    • A widescreen aspect ratio was first seen in a movie in Paramount's Old Ironsides of 1926. A few years later in 1928 and '29, a fad broke out for such special features as widescreen and color. Color was the more common choice, being that it was projected the same as black and white while theaters needed wider screens an ... Read »


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    • Eastmancolor

    • Eastmancolor is a trade name used by Eastman Kodak for a number of related film and processing technologies associated with color motion picture production. Eastmancolor, first introduced in 1950, was one of the first widely successful "single-strip colour" processes, and eventually displaced the more cumbersome Techn ... Read »


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    • Eden Musée


    • Eidophusikon

    • The Eidophusikon (Greek: Ειδωφυσικον) was a piece of art, no longer extant, created by 18th century English painter Philip James de Loutherbourg. It opened in Leicester Square in February 1781. Described by the media of his day as "Moving Pictures, representing Phenomena of Nature", th ... Read »


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    • Electrotachyscope

    • The electrotachyscope is an 1887 invention of Ottomar Anschütz of Germany which presents the illusion of motion with transparent serial photographs, chronophotographs, arranged on a spinning wheel of fortune or mandala-like glass disc, significant as a technological development in the history of cinema. A Geissler ... Read »


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    • Cinema of Europe

    • Cinema of Europe refers to the film industries and films produced in the continent of Europe. Europeans were the pioneers of the motion picture industry, with several innovative engineers and artists making an impact especially at the end of the 19th century. Louis Le Prince became famous for his 1888 Roundhay Garden ... Read »


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    • Fennada-Filmi

    • Fennada-Filmi

      Fennada-Filmi was a Finnish film production company which was in operation from 1950 to 1982. It was one of the largest companies in its field in Finland from 1950s to 1970s. Mauno Mäkelä was the head of the company during its entire run. Fennada-Filmi had its foundation in the company Fenno-Filmi, which was ... Read »


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    • Fenno-Filmi

    • Fenno-Filmi was a Finnish film production company. The company was founded by film directors Yrjö Norta and Theodor Luts in 1942. Luts and Erkki Uotila were the co-directors of the first Fenno-Filmi production Salainen ase which premiered on 3 January 1943. Erehtyneet sydämet was released in April 1944, with Uot ... Read »


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    • Film as a Subversive Art

    • Film as a Subversive Art is a fully illustrated 1974 film history book by Amos Vogel with mini-essays on over 600 films. The book was re-printed with a new foreword and introduction in 2005. ... Read »


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    • Film Booking Offices of America

    • Film Booking Offices of America

      Film Booking Offices of America (FBO), also known as FBO Pictures Corporation, was an American film studio of the silent era, a producer and distributor of mostly low-budget films. The business began in 1918 as Robertson-Cole (U.S.), the American division of a British import–export company and Robertson-Cole was f ... Read »


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    • Film noir

    • Film noir

      Film noir (/fɪlm nwɑːr/; French pronunciation: ​[film nwaʁ]) is a cinematic term used primarily to describe stylish Hollywood crime dramas, particularly such that emphasize cynical attitudes and sexual motivations. Hollywood's classical film noir period is generally regarded as extending from the ea ... Read »


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    • Filmmaking in Colonial Nigeria

    • Filmmaking in Colonial Nigeria generally refers to an era in Nigerian cinema, usually spanning the 1900s through to the 1950s, when film production and exhibition or distribution were controlled by the British colonial Government. The history of cinema in Nigeria dates back to as early as the history of film itself; no ... Read »


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    • List of film noir titles

    • Film noir is not a clearly defined genre (see here for details on the characteristics). Therefore, the composition of this list may be controversial. To minimize dispute the films included here should preferably feature a footnote linking to a reliable, published source which states that the mentioned film is considere ... Read »


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    • The First Film

    • The First Film is a 2015 British documentary film about cinema pioneer Louis Le Prince, made by David Nicholas Wilkinson. It asserts that Le Prince, rather than the Lumiere brothers, was the true inventor of moving pictures, making his first film in Leeds in 1888 before his mysterious disappearance in 1890. Mark Kermo ... Read »


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    • Flip book

    • A flip book or flick book is a book with a series of pictures that vary gradually from one page to the next, so that when the pages are turned rapidly, the pictures appear to animate by simulating motion or some other change. Flip books are often illustrated books for children, but may also be geared towards adults and ... Read »


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    • Gasparcolor

    • Gasparcolor was a color film system, developed in 1933 by the Hungarian chemist Dr. Bela Gaspar (1898-1973). It used a subtractive 3-color process on a single film strip, one of the earliest to do so. During the 1930s and 1940s, it was used primarily in animation, notably by Oskar Fischinger (Muratti Gets in the Act, ... Read »


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    • General Film Company

    • The General Film Company was a motion picture distribution company in the United States. Between 1909 and 1920, the company distributed almost 12,000 silent era motion pictures. The General Film Company was formed by the Motion Picture Patents Company (MPPC) in an attempt to monopolize distribution. In 1909, the Gener ... Read »


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    • Gevacolor

    • Gevacolor is a color motion picture process. Gevacolor was established in 1948, originally based in Belgium and an affiliate of Agfacolor. The process and company flourished in the 1950s as it was suitable for on location shooting. Both the companies merged in 1964 to form Agfa-Gevaert, and continued producing film sto ... Read »


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    • Goat gland (filmmaking)

    • Goat gland was a term applied c. 1927–1929, during the period of transition from silent films to sound films. It referred to an already completed silent film to which one or more talkie sequences were added in an effort to make the otherwise redundant film more suitable for release in the radically altered ma ... Read »


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    • Golden Age of Nigerian cinema

    • Golden Age or Golden era are terms used in Nigerian film history to designate the motion picture industry of Nigeria from the late 1950s to the late 1980s. It captures the mode of visual and sound production, as well as the method of distribution employed during this period. This period began with the formal recognitio ... Read »


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    • Golden Age of Porn

    • The Golden Age of Porn, or porno chic, refers to a 15-year period (about 1969–1984) in commercial American pornography in which sexually-explicit films experienced positive attention from mainstream cinemas, movie critics, and the general public. It began with release of the 1969 film Blue Movie directed by Andy W ... Read »


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    • Greek epic in film

    • Greek mythology has consistently served as a source for many filmmakers due to its artistic appeal. Antiquity has been reimagined in many ways and these recreations have been met with great public success regardless of their individual achievements. The plot lines of epic poetry are even more appealing with their enthr ... Read »


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    • Green Sheet (filmmaking)

    • Before the formal application of film ratings by the MPAA CARA, the Green Sheet provided recommendations about age-suitability for major motion pictures in theatrical release. Discontinued shortly after the official MPAA ratings began, the Green Sheet used classifications based upon a panel of reviewers that represente ... Read »


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    • Grindhouse

    • A grindhouse is an American term for a theater that mainly shows exploitation films. According to historian David Church, this theater type was named after the "grind policy", a film-programming strategy dating back to the early 1920s which continuously showed films at cut-rate ticket prices that typically rose over th ... Read »


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    • Hale's Tours of the World


    • Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television

    • Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television  

      The Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television (ISSN 0143-9685; E-ISSN 1465-3451) is an academic journal dedicated to the study of media history. It is published quarterly by Routledge on behalf of the International Association for Media and History. The current editor-in-chief is James Chapman. It is an inte ... Read »


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    • History of animation

    • Animation refers to the creation of a sequence of images—drawn, painted, or produced by other artistic methods—that change over time to portray the illusion of motion. Before the invention of film, humans depicted motion in static art as far back as the paleolithic period. In the 19th century, several devices ... Read »


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    • History of cinema in the United States

    • This article delineates the history of cinema in the United States. The earliest documented account of an exhibition of projected motion pictures in the United States was in June 1894 in Richmond, Indiana by Charles Francis Jenkins. Jenkins used his Phantoscope to project his film before an audience of family, fri ... Read »


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    • History of the Kinetograph, Kinetoscope, and Kinetophonograph

    • History of the Kinetograph, Kinetoscope, and Kinetophonograph

      History of the Kinetograph, Kinetoscope, and Kinetophonograph is a book written by siblings William Kennedy Dickson and Antonia Dickson about the history of film. The brother Dickson wrote from his experiences working for Thomas Edison at his "Black Maria" studio in West Orange, New Jersey; Edison himself prefaced the ... Read »


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    • Hollywood blacklist

    • The Hollywood blacklist—as the broader entertainment industry blacklist is generally known—was the practice of denying employment to screenwriters, actors, directors, musicians, and other American entertainment professionals during the mid-20th century because they were accused of having Communist ties or sym ... Read »


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    • Hollywood Hex

    • Hollywood Hex is an in-depth history of "cursed movies". The book deals with deaths on-set, copycat crimes, obsessed fans, bizarre coincidences, and other incidents which lead a film to be called "cursed". The book's origins are in several essays by the author, Mikita Brottman. Brottman received her Ph.D. in Engli ... Read »


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    • Hollywood on the Tiber

    • Hollywood on the Tiber is a phrase used to describe the period in the 1950s and 1960s when the Italian capital of Rome emerged as a major location for international filmmaking attracting a large number of foreign productions to the Cinecittà studios. As opposed to the native Italian film industry, these films were m ... Read »


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    • A History of Horror

    • A History of Horror (also known as A History of Horror with Mark Gatiss) is a 2010 three-part documentary series made for the BBC by British writer and actor Mark Gatiss. It is a personal exploration of the history of horror film, inspired by Gatiss' lifelong enthusiasm for the genre. The documentary was directed by J ... Read »


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    • Hyperlink cinema

    • Hyperlink cinema is a term coined by author Alissa Quart, who used the term in her review of the film Happy Endings (2005) for the film journal Film Comment in 2005. Film critic Roger Ebert popularized the term when reviewing the film Syriana in 2005. These films are not hypermedia and do not have actual hyperlinks, bu ... Read »


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    • List of incomplete or partially lost films

    • The following is a list of notable films that are incomplete or partially lost. Films that were never completed in the first place do not qualify, nor do cuts made from films prior to release. For films for which no footage (including trailers) is known to have survived, see List of lost films. ... Read »


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    • Institut Lumière


    • International Mutoscope Reel Company

    • The International Mutoscope Reel Company was formed in the early 1920s to produce Mutoscope machines and the motion picture reels that the machines played, and continued to manufacture arcade machines, including the claw machine, until 1949. The mutoscope was a peep show-style movie viewer that was first manufactured ... Read »


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    • Henri Joly

    • Henri Joly (1866–1945) was a French inventor and businessman. He developed early versions of motion picture film, cameras, and projectors. Joly was born in Viomenil, Vosges in 1866. By 1889 he was a gymnastics instructor at the school of Joinville, and was introduced to the nascent moving-picture technology when ... Read »


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    • Kaiserpanorama

    • The Kaiserpanorama (or Kaiser-Panorama) is a form of stereoscopic entertainment medium used chiefly in the 19th and early 20th centuries, a precursor to film, invented by August Fuhrmann (1844 – 1925). It was patented by the inventor ca. 1890. There would be a number of viewing stations through which people would ... Read »


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    • Killing for Culture

    • Killing for Culture: An Illustrated History of Death Film from Mondo to Snuff (1994) is the first book in the Creation Cinema series and deals with death in film and media. Killing for Culture is a look into death on film including mondo films and snuff films. It's divided into three sections, each with its own fo ... Read »


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    • Kinemacolor

    • Kinemacolor was the first successful color motion picture process, used commercially from 1908 to 1914. It was invented by George Albert Smith of Brighton, England in 1906. He was influenced by the work of William Norman Lascelles Davidson and, more directly, Edward Raymond Turner. It was launched by Charles Urban's Ur ... Read »


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    • Kinematoscope

    • The Kinematoscope (a.k.a. Motoscope) was patented in 1861 (United States Patent 31357), a protean development in the history of cinema. The invention aimed to present the illusion of motion. The patent was filed by Coleman Sellers of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania as an "improvement in exhibiting stereoscopic pictures". C ... Read »


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    • Kinetoscope

    • The Kinetoscope is an early motion picture exhibition device. The Kinetoscope was designed for films to be viewed by one individual at a time through a peephole viewer window at the top of the device. The Kinetoscope was not a movie projector, but introduced the basic approach that would become the standard for all cin ... Read »


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    • Kinora

    • The Kinora was an early motion picture device, developed by the French inventors Auguste and Louis Lumière in 1895, while simultaneously working on the Cinematographe. It was patented in February 1896. Basically a miniature version of the mutoscope for home use, the Kinora worked very much like a flip book in the s ... Read »


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    • Koster and Bial's Music Hall


    • Limelight Department

    • The Limelight Department was one of the world's first film studios, beginning in 1898, operated by The Salvation Army in Melbourne, Australia. The Limelight Department produced evangelistic material for use by the Salvation Army, including lantern slides as early as 1891, as well as private and government contracts. In ... Read »


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    • John Barnes Linnett

    • John Barnes Linnett was a lithograph printer based in Birmingham, England. Although the French Pierre-Hubert Desvignes is generally credited with being the inventor of the flip book, Linnett was the first to patent the invention, in 1868, under the name of kineograph. Linnett died of pneumonia. His wife sold the patent ... Read »


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    • List of banned films

    • This is a list of banned films. For nearly the entire history of film production, certain films have been banned by film censorship or review organizations for political or moral reasons or for its controversial content, such as racism. Censorship standards vary widely by country, and can vary within an individual cou ... Read »


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    • List of cinematic firsts

    • This page lists chronologically the first achievements in cinema. The development of cinema is characterised by technological breakthroughs, from early experiments in the recording of day-to-day activity, experiments in colour, different formats and sound. From the 1970s, the development of computer-generated imagery h ... Read »


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    • List of lost films

    • For this list of lost films, a lost film is defined as one of which no part of a print is known to have survived. For films in which any portion of the footage remains (including trailers), see List of incomplete or partially lost films. Films may go missing for a number of reasons. One major contributing factor is th ... Read »


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    • List of Pre-Code films

    • Pre-Code Hollywood is the era in the American film industry between the introduction of sound in the late 1920s and the enforcement of the Motion Picture Production Code (Hays Code) censorship guidelines. Although the Code was adopted in 1930, oversight was poor and it did not become effectively enforced until July 1, ... Read »


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    • List of rediscovered films

    • This is a list of rediscovered films that, once thought lost, have since been discovered, in whole or in part. See List of incomplete or partially lost films and List of rediscovered film footage for films which were not wholly lost. Many films of the silent era have been lost. It was thought to have been destroy ... Read »


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    • Lost film

    • A lost film is a feature or short film that is no longer known to exist in any studio archives, private collections, or public archives, such as the U.S. Library of Congress. During most of the 20th century, U.S. copyright law required at least one copy of every American film to be deposited at the Library of Cong ... Read »


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    • Auguste and Louis Lumière


    • Magic lantern

    • The magic lantern or laterna magica is an early type of image projector employing painted pictures or photographs on sheets of glass, a lens, and a bright light source. It was mostly developed in the 17th century and commonly used for entertainment purposes. It was increasingly applied to educational purposes during th ... Read »


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    • Bolesław Matuszewski


    • Meat Is Murder (book)

    • Meat Is Murder: An Illustrated Guide To Cannibal Culture is a book originally published in 1998, which examines cannibalism in myth, true crime, and film. The author of Meat Is Murder!, Mikita Brottman received her Ph.D. in English Language and Literature from Oxford University, taught Comparative Literature at In ... Read »


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    • Miles Brothers

    • The four Miles brothers, Harry, Herbert, Joseph, and Earle C, were pioneers in American cinema. In 1902, they established one of the first motion picture exchanges in the United States. Their 1906 film, A Trip Down Market Street, is an historic 13-minute journey down Market Street in San Francisco from 8th Street to t ... Read »


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    • The Modern Amazons

    • The Modern Amazons: Warrior Women On-Screen (ISBN ) by Dominique Mainon and James Ursini, published by Hal Leonard/Limelight Editions is a non-fiction book documenting the evolution of the female action hero in cinema, television and pop-culture. From Barbarella to Barb Wire, the book surveys the public's interest with ... Read »


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    • Motion Picture Distributing and Sales Company

    • The Motion Picture Distributing and Sales Company was a major, national motion picture distribution company which operated in the United States between May 31, 1910 and the end of June, 1912. The company distributed almost 2,200 silent era motion pictures during its two-year existence. Its product came from the majorit ... Read »


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    • Motion Picture Patents Company

    • The Motion Picture Patents Company (MPPC, also known as the Edison Trust), founded in December 1908 and terminated 10 years later in 1918 after conflicts within the industry, was a trust of all the major American film companies (Edison, Biograph, Vitagraph, Essanay, Selig Polyscope, Lubin Manufacturing, Kalem Company, ... Read »


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    • Motion Picture Production Code

    • The Motion Picture Production Code was the set of industry moral guidelines that was applied to most United States motion pictures released by major studios from 1930 to 1968. It is also popularly known as the Hays Code, after Will H. Hays, who was the president of the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of Ameri ... Read »


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    • Moustapha Alassane, cinéaste du possible


    • Movie palace

    • A movie palace (or picture palace in the United Kingdom) is any of the large, elaborately decorated movie theaters built between the 1910s and the 1940s. The late 1920s saw the peak of the movie palace, with hundreds opened every year between 1925 and 1930. With the advent of television, movie attendance dropped and ma ... Read »


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    • Movie Star News

    • Movie Star News was a NYC landmark and is a collection of vintage pin-up, bondage, and Hollywood publicity photos amassed over the course of 73 years by Irving Klaw, his sister Paula Klaw and nephew Ira Kramer– nearly 3 million images and 250,000 negatives, including 1,500 prints of Bettie Page, known as the queen ... Read »


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    • Movietone News

    • Movietone News is a newsreel that ran from 1928 to 1963 in the United States, and – as British Movietone News – from 1929 to 1979 in the United Kingdom. It evolved from an earlier newsreel established by Fox Films called Fox News which was founded in 1919. It produced silent newsreels. When Fox entered t ... Read »


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    • Movietone sound system

    • The Movietone sound system is an optical sound-on-film method of recording sound for motion pictures that guarantees synchronization between sound and picture. It achieves this by recording the sound as a variable-density optical track on the same strip of film that records the pictures. Although sound films today use ... Read »


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    • Moving Image Source

    • Moving Image Source is a website of the Museum of the Moving Image (New York City) devoted to the history of film, television, and digital media. Made possible with support from the Hazen Polsky Foundation, it features original articles by leading critics, authors, and scholars; a calendar that highlights major retrosp ... Read »


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    • Mutoscope

    • The Mutoscope was an early motion picture device, invented by W.K.L. Dickson and Herman Casler and later patented by Herman Casler on November 21, 1894. Like Thomas Edison's Kinetoscope, it did not project on a screen and provided viewing to only one person at a time. Cheaper and simpler than the Kinetoscope, the syste ... Read »


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    • National Association of the Motion Picture Industry

    • The National Association of the Motion Picture Industry (NAMPI) was a regulatory body created by the Hollywood studios in 1916 to answer demands of censorship. The system consisted of a series of "Thirteen Points", a list of subjects and storylines they promised to avoid. The organization tried to prevent New York from ... Read »


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    • National Film Registry

    • National Film Registry

      The National Film Registry (NFR) is the United States National Film Preservation Board's (NFPB) selection of films for preservation in the Library of Congress. The NFPB, established by the National Film Preservation Act of 1988, was reauthorized by acts of Congress in 1992, 1996, 2005, and again in October 2008. The NF ... Read »


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    • National Media Museum

    • National Media Museum

      442,314 (2015) The National Media Museum (formerly the National Museum of Photography, Film and Television), located in Bradford, West Yorkshire, is part of the national Science Museum Group. The museum has seven floors of galleries with permanent exhibitions focusing on photography, television, animation, videogaming ... Read »


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    • List of neo-noir titles

    • The following is a list of films belonging to the neo-noir genre. ... Read »


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    • New Hollywood

    • New Hollywood, sometimes referred to as the "American New Wave", usually refers to a movement in American film history from the mid-to-late 1960s (Bonnie and Clyde, The Graduate) to the early 1980s (Heaven's Gate, One from the Heart) when a new generation of young filmmakers came to prominence in United States, influen ... Read »


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    • Northern Region Film and Television Archive

    • The North East Film Archive (NEFA) is a not-for-profit organisation which exists to collect, preserve and provide access to film, television and other moving image material related to the history of a region of England, which is defined as the Tees Valley area and the counties of Durham, Northumberland and Tyne and Wea ... Read »


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    • Oneiric (film theory)

    • In film theory, the term oneiric (/oʊˈnaɪrɪk/; "pertaining to dreams") refers to the depiction of dream-like states or to the use of the metaphor of a dream or the dream-state in the analysis of a film. Early film theorists such as Ricciotto Canudo (1879–1923) and Jean Epstein (1897–1953) arg ... Read »


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    • Ontario Motion Picture Bureau

    • The Ontario Motion Picture Bureau was established by the Government of Ontario in 1917 and was the first state-founded film organization in the world, preceding the Canadian Government Motion Picture Bureau by a year. Its mandate was to carry out “educational work for farmers, school children, factory workers and ... Read »


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    • Optical sound

    • Optical sound is a means of storing sound recordings on transparent film. Originally developed for military purposes, the technology first saw widespread use in the 1920s as a sound-on-film format for motion pictures. Optical sound eventually superseded all of other sound film technologies until the advent of digital s ... Read »


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    • A Personal Journey with Martin Scorsese Through American Movies

    • A Personal Journey with Martin Scorsese Through American Movies

      A Personal Journey with Martin Scorsese Through American Movies is a documentary film of 225 minutes in length, presented by Martin Scorsese and produced by the British Film Institute. In the film Martin Scorsese examines a selection of his favorite American films grouped according to four different types of directors ... Read »


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    • Phantasmagoria

    • Phantasmagoria ( American pronunciation , also fantasmagorie, fantasmagoria) was a form of horror theatre that used one or more magic lanterns to project frightening images such as skeletons, demons, and ghosts onto walls, smoke, or semi-transparent screens, typically using rear projection to keep the lantern out ... Read »


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    • Phantom ride

    • Phantom rides or panoramas were an early genre of film popular in Britain and the US at the end of the 19th century. Pre-dating true narrative, the films simply show the progress of a vehicle moving forwards, usually shot by strapping a cameraman to the front. The term phantom ride was applied because the position of t ... Read »


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    • Phonofilm

    • Phonofilm is an optical sound-on-film system developed by inventors Lee de Forest and Theodore Case in the 1920s. In 1919 and 1920, Lee De Forest, inventor of the audion tube, filed his first patents on a sound-on-film process, DeForest Phonofilm, which recorded sound directly onto film as parallel lines. These pa ... Read »


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    • Phonoscène


    • Photographophone

    • A photographophone is a device that was first developed by Ernst Ruhmer of Berlin, Germany in 1900. The Photographophone could record and reproduce speech and music through a celluloid film. The process started by speaking into a microphone. The electrical signal from the microphone through a transformer supplied elect ... Read »


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    • Photokinema

    • Photo-Kinema (some sources say Phono-Kinema) was a sound-on-disc system for motion pictures invented by Orlando Kellum. The system was first used for a small number of short films, mostly made in 1921. These films presented subjects such as actor Frederick Warde reading an original poem "A Sunset Reverie", labor l ... Read »


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    • Pleograph

    • Pleograph (Polish: Pleograf) was an early type of movie camera constructed in 1894, before those made by the Lumière brothers, by Polish inventor Kazimierz Prószyński. Similarly to the Lumière brothers cinematograph, Prószyński's pleograph has also been used as a projector. The apparatus used a recta ... Read »


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    • Polygoon (newsreel)

    • The Dutch Polygoon-Profilti was a cinema newsreel company in the Netherlands from 1919 to 1987. It started with weekly news items in the Dutch movie theaters and lasted until 1987 when it finally surrendered to television news shows. The company was founded in 1919 and then made in-between movies for the silent movies ... Read »


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    • Pre-Code crime films

    • The era of American film production from the early sound era to the enforcement of the Hays Code in 1934 is denoted as Pre-Code Hollywood. The era contained violence and crime in pictures which would not be seen again until decades later. Although the Hays office had specifically recommended removing profanity, the dru ... Read »


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    • Pre-Code Hollywood

    • Pre-Code Hollywood refers to the brief era in the American film industry between the introduction of sound pictures in 1929 and the enforcement of the Motion Picture Production Code censorship guidelines in mid-1934, usually labeled, albeit inaccurately, as the "Hays Code". Although the Code was adopted in 1930, oversi ... Read »


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    • Pre-Code sex films

    • Pre-Code sex films refers to movies made, in the pre-Code Hollywood era, between the introduction of sound in the late 1920s and the enforcement of the Motion Picture Production Code in 1934, which contained sexual references and images, that were contrary to the yet to be enforced Hays Code. Pre-Code sex films explore ... Read »


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    • Prizma

    • The Prizma Color system was a color motion picture process, invented in 1913 by William Van Doren Kelley and Charles Raleigh. Initially, it was a two-color additive color system, similar to its predecessor, Kinemacolor. However, Kelley eventually transformed Prizma into a bi-pack color system that itself became the pre ... Read »


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    • RCA Photophone

    • RCA Photophone was the trade name given to one of four major competing technologies that emerged in the American film industry in the late 1920s for synchronizing electrically recorded audio to a motion picture image. RCA Photophone was an optical sound, "variable-area" film exposure system, in which the modulated area ... Read »


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    • Sallie Gardner at a Gallop

    • Sallie Gardner at a Gallop, also known as The Horse in Motion, is a series of photographs consisting of a galloping horse, the result of a photographic experiment by Eadweard Muybridge on June 15, 1878. Sometimes cited as an early silent film, the series and later experiments like it were precursors to the development ... Read »


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    • Salon Indien du Grand Café


    • History of science fiction films

    • The history of science fiction films parallels that of the motion picture industry as a whole, although it took several decades before the genre was taken seriously. Since the 1960s, major science fiction films have succeeded in pulling in large audience shares, and films of this genre have become a regular staple of t ... Read »


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    • Scopitone

    • Scopitone is a type of jukebox featuring a 16 mm film component. Scopitone films were a forerunner of music videos. The Italian Cinebox/Colorama and Color-Sonics were competing, lesser-known technologies of the time. Based on Soundies technology developed during World War II, color 16 mm film clips with a magnetic sou ... Read »


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    • Screeno

    • Screeno (a portmanteau of "screen bingo") was a form of bingo played in American movie theaters during the Great Depression of the 1930s. To bolster attendance on slow weeknights, the neighborhood movie houses would feature the game in which audience members would have a chance to win cash prizes. The story is that man ... Read »


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    • Sejarah Film 1900–1950


    • Serial film

    • A serial, film serial, movie serial or chapter play, is a motion picture form popular during the first half of the 20th century, consisting of a series of short subjects exhibited in consecutive order at one theater, generally advancing weekly, until the series is completed. Generally, each serial involves a single set ... Read »


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    • Serpentine dance

    • The serpentine dance is a form of dance that was popular throughout the United States and Europe in the 1890s, becoming a staple of stage shows and early film. The Serpentine is an evolution of the skirt dance, a form of burlesque dance that had recently arrived in the United States from England. Skirt dancing was ... Read »


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    • Sound film

    • A sound film is a motion picture with synchronized sound, or sound technologically coupled to image, as opposed to a silent film. The first known public exhibition of projected sound films took place in Paris in 1900, but decades passed before sound motion pictures were made commercially practical. Reliable synchroniza ... Read »


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    • Sound-on-disc

    • The term Sound-on-disc refers to a class of sound film processes using a phonograph or other disc to record or play back sound in sync with a motion picture. Early sound-on-disc systems used a mechanical interlock with the movie projector, while more recent systems use timecode. ... Read »


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    • Sound-on-film

    • Sound-on-film refers to a class of sound film processes where the sound accompanying picture is physically recorded onto photographic film, usually, but not always, the same strip of film carrying the picture. Sound-on-film processes can either record an analog sound track or digital sound track, and may record the sig ... Read »


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    • Stag film

    • Stag film or Smokers are terms used to describe a type of pornographic film produced clandestinely in the first two-thirds of the 20th century. Typically, stag films had certain traits. They were brief in duration (about 12 minutes at most), were silent, depicted explicit or graphic sexual behavior intended to appeal t ... Read »


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    • Stereopticon

    • A stereopticon is a slide projector or "magic lantern", which has two lenses, usually one above the other. These devices date back to the mid 19th century, and were a popular form of entertainment and education before the advent of moving pictures. Americans William and Frederick Langenheim introduced stereopticon slid ... Read »


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    • Studio system

    • The studio system (which was used during a period known as the Golden Age of Hollywood) is a method of film production and distribution dominated by a small number of "major" studios in Hollywood. Although the term is still used today as a reference to the systems and output of the major studios, historically the term ... Read »


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    • Technicolor

    • Technicolor is the name applied to a series of color motion picture processes, the first version dating from 1916, and followed by improved versions over several decades. It was the second major color process, after Britain's Kinemacolor, and the most widely used color process in Hollywood from 1922 to 1952. Technicol ... Read »


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    • Theatrograph

    • R.W. Paul presented Britain's second film projector, and the first commercially produced 35mm projector, the Theatrograph, on 20 February 1896. It was first demonstrated at Finsbury Technical College. The use of Paul's Theatrograph in music halls up and down the country popularised early cinema in Britain. It was first ... Read »


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    • Salvador Toscano

    • Salvador Toscano

      Salvador Toscano Barragán (22 March 1872 – 14 April 1947), also known as Salvador Toscano, was a director, producer and distributor of early Mexican cinema films. He was Mexico's first filmmaker. Toscano was born in 1872 in Guadalajara, Jalisco. He began studying to become a mining engineer, however cha ... Read »


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    • Tri-Ergon

    • The Tri-Ergon sound-on-film system was patented from 1919 on by German inventors Josef Engl (1893–1942), Hans Vogt (1890–1979), and Joseph Massolle (1889–1957). The name Tri-Ergon was derived from Greek and means "the work of three." (See FilmSoundSweden website under External Links section below.) In 1 ... Read »


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    • Jean Tulard

    • Jean Tulard

      Jean Tulard (born 22 December 1933, Paris) is a French academic and historian, specialising in the history of cinema, of the French Consulate and the First French Empire. In April 2010, he became Commander of the Légion d'honneur. ... Read »


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    • United Pictures Corporation

    • United Pictures Corporation was an American film production company in the mid 1960s who specialized in the production of nine action and science fiction films shot economically with an eye for their product to be viewed in both theatrical release and purchased for television showing. The organization became part of Co ... Read »


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    • United States v. Paramount Pictures, Inc.

    • United States v. Paramount Pictures, Inc.

      United States v. Paramount Pictures, Inc., 334 US 131 (1948) (also known as the Hollywood Antitrust Case of 1948, the Paramount Case, the Paramount Decision or the Paramount Decree) was a landmark United States Supreme Court antitrust case that decided the fate of movie studios owning their own theatres and holding exc ... Read »


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    • Urban Bioscope

    • The Urban Bioscope, also known as the Warwick Bioscope was a film projector and movie camera developed by Walter Isaacs in 1897 for Charles Urban of the Warwick Trading Company. The projector used a beater movement. It has two names because it was created by Charles Urban and Walter Isaacs. It was a 35mm fast-pull-down ... Read »


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    • Video film era

    • The Video film era, also known as the home video era, is a period in Nigerian cinema, typically from the late 1980s/early 1990s to mid 2010s, when Nigerian films were made using affordable video format. The video boom era emerged after the downturn of the Golden era of the Nigerian cinema in the late 1980s. The term "H ... Read »


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    • Visual music

    • Visual music, sometimes called "colour music," refers to the use of musical structures in visual imagery, which can also include silent films or silent Lumia work. It also refers to methods or devices which can translate sounds or music into a related visual presentation. An expanded definition may include the translat ... Read »


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    • Vitaphone

    • Vitaphone

      Vitaphone was a sound film system used for feature films and nearly 1,000 short subjects made by Warner Bros. and its sister studio First National from 1926 to 1931. Vitaphone was the last major analog sound-on-disc system and the only one which was widely used and commercially successful. The soundtrack was not printe ... Read »


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    • Western Film Exchange

    • Western Film Exchange was founded in Milwaukee in July 1906 by John R. Freuler and Harry E. Aitken for the purpose of mass-producing and distributing Western films to movie theaters throughout the American midwest. One of over 100 such "exchanges," Western Film proved to be more successful than most, opening branch off ... Read »


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    • Who's Who of Victorian Cinema


    • Woman's film


    • Zoetrope

    • A zoetrope is one of several pre-film animation devices that produce the illusion of motion by displaying a sequence of drawings or photographs showing progressive phases of that motion. The name Zoetrope was composed from the Greek root words ζωή zoe, "life" and τρόπος tropos, "turning" ... Read »


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    • Zoopraxiscope

    • The zoopraxiscope is an early device for displaying motion pictures. Created by photographic pioneer Eadweard Muybridge in 1879, it may be considered the first movie projector. The zoopraxiscope projected images from rotating glass disks in rapid succession to give the impression of motion. The stop-motion images were ... Read »


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  • What Else?

    • History of film

Extras