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    Historiography

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    • Historiography by topic

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    • Historiography by country

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    • Historicity

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    • Historiographers

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    • Modernity

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    • Prosopography

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    • Historical revisionism

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    • Works about historiography

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    • Historiography

    • Historiography is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic discipline, and by extension is any body of historical work on a particular subject. The historiography of a specific topic covers how historians have studied that topic using particular sources, techniques, and theoretical ap ... Read »


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    • Academic history

    • An academic history can be a large, multivolume work such as the Cambridge Modern History, written collaboratively under some central editorial control. In the 19th century, the idea appeared in universities that a definitive history could be written of a major region of the world for a great span of time in a similar ... Read »


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    • Ages of Man

    • The Ages of Man are the stages of human existence on the Earth according to Greek mythology and its subsequent Roman interpretation. Both Hesiod and Ovid offered accounts of the successive ages of humanity, which tend to progress from an original, long-gone age in which humans enjoyed a nearly divine existence to the ... Read »


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    • Annales Petaviani

    • The Annales Petaviani (AP) is one of the so-called "minor annals group", three related Reichsannalen, year-by-year histories of the Carolingian empire composed in Latin. They are named after the former owner of the manuscript, the French Jesuit Denis Pétau (1583–1652), whose name, in Latin, is Dionysius Petaviu ... Read »


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    • Annales School

    • The Annales School (French pronunciation: ​[a'nal]) is a group of historians associated with a style of historiography developed by French historians in the 20th century to stress long-term social history. It is named after its scholarly journal Annales d'histoire économique et sociale, which remains the mai ... Read »


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    • Archival research

    • Archival research is a type of primary research which involves seeking out and extracting evidence from original archival records. These records may be held either in institutional archive repositories, or in the custody of the organisation (whether a government body, business, family, or other agency) that originally ... Read »


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    • Archontology

    • Archontology is the study of historical offices and important positions in state, international, political, religious and other organizations and societies. It includes chronology, succession of office holders, their biographies and related records. Political science and history would be void and misunderstood wit ... Read »


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    • Ars historica

    • Ars Historica was a genre of humanist historiography in the later Renaissance. It produced a small library of treatises underscoring the stylistic aspects of writing history as a work of art, but also introducing the contributions of philology and textual criticism in its precepts and evaluations. At the summit of ... Read »


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    • Artis Historicae Penus

    • Artis Historicae Penus (Treasury of the Art of History, 1579) is a compilation of 18 ars historica works brought out in 1579 by the late Renaissance Basel printer Pietro Perna. This compendium in octavo appeared in 2 volumes with a copious index. A third volume adds the final work by Antonio Riccoboni (), often miss ... Read »


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    • Bannatyne Club

    • The Bannatyne Club, named in honour of George Bannatyne and his famous anthology of Scots literature the Bannatyne Manuscript, was a text publication society founded by Sir Walter Scott to print rare works of Scottish interest, whether in history, poetry, or general literature. It printed 116 volumes in all. It was dis ... Read »


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    • Biographical evaluation

    • Biographical evaluation (Arabic: عِلْمُ الرِّجال‎, translit. `Ilm al-Rijāl‎), literally meaning 'Knowledge of Men' but more commonly understood as the Science of Narration, refers to a discipline of Islamic religious studies within hadith terminology in which th ... Read »


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    • Biography: A Brief History

    • Biography: A Brief History is a book by Nigel Hamilton that portrays, through historiography, the history of biography, and shows how biographers have portrayed and interpreted individuals' lives. The book examines the historical evolution of the biography from the ancient world to the present, from the Epic of Gilgame ... Read »


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    • Borussian myth

    • The Borussian myth or Borussian legend is the name given by 20th-century historians of German history to the earlier idea that German unification was inevitable, and that it was Prussia's destiny to accomplish it. The Borussian myth is an example of a teleological argument. Borussia is the Latin name for Prussia. ... Read »


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    • Calendar of Regrets

    • Calendar of Regrets

      Calendar of Regrets is a postmodern novel by Lance Olsen, published by Fiction Collective Two in 2010. Calendar of Regrets is a collage novel comprising twelve interconnected narratives, one for each month of the year, all pertaining to notions of travel—through time, space, narrative, and death. The narrati ... Read »


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    • Cambridge School of historiography

    • The Cambridge School of historiography was a school of thought which approached the study of the British Empire from the imperialist point of view. It emerged especially at the University of Cambridge in the 1960s. John Andrew Gallagher (1919-80) was especially influential, particularly in his article with Ronald Robin ... Read »


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    • Chronicle of Fredegar

    • The Chronicle of Fredegar is the conventional title used for a 7th-century Frankish chronicle that was probably written in Burgundy. The author is unknown and the attribution to Fredegar dates only from the 16th century. The chronicle begins with the creation of the world and ends in AD 642. There are also a few re ... Read »


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    • Comparative historical research

    • Comparative historical research is a method of social science that examines historical events in order to create explanations that are valid beyond a particular time and place, either by direct comparison to other historical events, theory building, or reference to the present day. Generally, it involves comparisons of ... Read »


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    • Comparative history

    • Comparative history is the comparison of different societies which existed during the same time period or shared similar cultural conditions. The comparative history of societies emerged as an important specialty among intellectuals in the Enlightenment in the 18th century, as typified by Montesquieu, Voltaire, Adam S ... Read »


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    • Conjectural history

    • Conjectural history is a type of historiography isolated in the 1790s by Dugald Stewart, who termed it "theoretical or conjectural history", as prevalent in the historians and early social scientists of the Scottish Enlightenment. As Stewart saw it, such history makes space for speculation about causes of events, by po ... Read »


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    • Conjectural portrait

    • A conjectural portrait is a portrait made of a historical figure for whom no authentic contemporary portrait is available. The depiction, then, may be variously informed by written accounts of physical appearance, conjecture based on the subject's culture and background, and/or the artist's conception of the subject's ... Read »


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    • Consensus history

    • Consensus history is a style of American historiography that emphasizes the basic unity of American values and downplays conflict as superficial and lacking in complexity. The movement was especially influential in the 1950s and 1960s. Prominent leaders included Richard Hofstadter, Louis Hartz, Daniel J. Boorstin and D ... Read »


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    • Contemporary history

    • Contemporary history is a subset of modern history which describes the historical period from approximately 1945 to the present. The term "contemporary history" has been in use at least since the early 19th century. Contemporary history is politically dominated by the Cold War (1945–91) between the United States ... Read »


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    • Corporate liberalism

    • Corporate liberalism is a thesis in US historiography where the corporate elite become "both the chief beneficiaries of and the chief lobbyists for the supposedly anti-business regulations". The idea is that both owners of corporations as well as high up government officials came together to become the class of elites. ... Read »


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    • Counterfactual history

    • Counterfactual history, also sometimes referred to as virtual history, is a form of historiography that attempts to answer "" questions known as counterfactuals. Black and MacRaild provide this definition: "It is, at the very root, the idea of conjecturing on what did not happen, or what might have happened, in order t ... Read »


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    • Criterion of dissimilarity

    • The criterion of dissimilarity (also called criterion of discontinuity) is used in Biblical criticism to determine if a statement attributed to Jesus may be authentic. It is often used as a shorthand for the criterion of double dissimilarity. The criterion states that if a saying attributed to Jesus is dissimilar to th ... Read »


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    • Criterion of embarrassment

    • The criterion of embarrassment is a critical analysis of historical accounts in which accounts embarrassing to the author are presumed to be true because the author would have no reason to invent an embarrassing account about themselves. Some Biblical scholars have used this criterion in assessing whether the New Testa ... Read »


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    • Criterion of multiple attestation

    • The criterion of multiple attestation or independent attestation is a tool used by Biblical scholars to help determine whether certain actions or sayings by Jesus in the New Testament are from Historical Jesus. Simply put, the more independent witnesses that report an event or saying, the better. See Criteria of authen ... Read »


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    • Deep history

    • Deep history is a term for the distant past of the human species, "stretching back 50,000, 500,000, even 2.6 million years to the earliest humans". As an intellectual discipline, deep history encourages scholars in anthropology, archaeology, primatology, genetics and linguistics to work together to write a common narra ... Read »


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    • Dershowitz–Finkelstein affair


    • Dictionary of Art Historians

    • The Dictionary of Art Historians (DAH) is an online encyclopedia of topics relating to art historians, art critics and their dictionaries. The mission of the project is to provide free, reliable, English-language information on published art historians. The DAH was started in 1986 as a notecard project indexing art hi ... Read »


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    • Diocles of Peparethus

    • Diocles of Peparethus (Greek: Διοκλῆς; fl. late 4th – early 3rd century BC) was a historian from the Greek island of Peparethus. His works are lost, but they included histories of Persia and Rome: Quintus Fabius Pictor and Plutarch acknowledge their debts to the latter as a source for their ... Read »


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    • Diplomatics

    • Diplomatics (in American English, and in most anglophone countries), or diplomatic (in British English), is a scholarly discipline centred on the critical analysis of documents: especially, historical documents. It focuses on the conventions, protocols and formulae that have been used by document creators, and uses the ... Read »


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    • Document theft

    • Document theft is the crime of stealing documents of historical, literary, or cultural interest from public or private archives, often for the purpose of sale to private collectors. In many cases, document thieves occupy positions of trust, or have established records of legitimate accomplishment, prior to their crime ... Read »


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    • Dominant narrative

    • Dominant narrative can be used to describe the lens in which history is told by the perspective of the dominant culture. This term has been described as an "invisible hand" that guides reality and perceived reality. Dominant narrative can refer to multiple aspects of life, such as history, politics, or different activi ... Read »


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    • Dunning School

    • The Dunning School refers to a group of historians who shared a historiographical school of thought regarding the Reconstruction period of American history (1865–1877). The Dunning School viewpoint favored conservative elements in the south (the Redeemers, plantation owners and former Confederates) and disparaged ... Read »


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    • Ecclesiastical history of the Catholic Church

    • Ecclesiastical history of the Catholic Church refers to the history of the Catholic Church as an institution, written from a particular perspective. There is a traditional approach to such historiography. The generally identified starting point is Eusebius of Caesarea, and his work Church History. Since there is no as ... Read »


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    • Effect of reality

    • The effect of reality (French: effet de réel) is a textual device identified by Roland Barthes the purpose of which was to establish literary texts as realistic. Barthes first suggested this concept in his 1968 essay "The Reality Effect," in which he argues that untheorized descriptive "residues" of the text produce ... Read »


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    • Engaged theory

    • Engaged theory is a methodological framework for understanding social complexity. It takes social life or social relations as its base category, with 'the social' always understood as grounded in 'the natural', including humans as embodied beings. Engaged theory provides a framework that moves from detailed empirical a ... Read »


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    • English Historical Documents

    • English Historical Documents (EHD) is a series of publications of source material on English history by the academic publisher Eyre and Spottiswoode, now part of Oxford University Press. Some later volumes were published by Routledge. The original general editor was David C. Douglas, professor of history at the Univers ... Read »


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    • Epigraphy Museum of Tripoli

    • The Epigraphy Museum of Tripoli is a museum located in Tripoli, Libya. ... Read »


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    • Ethiopian Regiment

    • Ethiopian Regiment

      American Revolutionary War Lord Dunmore's Ethiopian Regiment or Ethiopian Regiment was the name given to a British colonial military unit organized during the American Revolution by John Murray, 4th Earl of Dunmore, and last Royal Governor of Virginia. It has nothing to do with the present day country of Ethiopia. Com ... Read »


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    • Ethnohistory

    • Ethnohistory is the study of cultures and indigenous peoples' customs by examining historical records as well as other sources of information on their lives and history. It is also the study of the history of various ethnic groups that may or may not still exist. The term is most commonly used in writing about the hist ... Read »


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    • Geistesgeschichte

    • Geistesgeschichte (from German Geist, "spirit" [here connoting the metaphysical realm, in contradistinction to the material], and Geschichte, "history", "science") is a concept in the history of ideas denoting the branch of study concerned with the undercurrents of cultural manifestations, within the history of a peopl ... Read »


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    • Gender: A Useful Category of Historical Analysis

    • "Gender: A Useful Category of Historical Analysis" is a 1986 paper by Joan Wallach Scott, originally published in the American Historical Review (AHR), and reprinted as part of Scott's 1989 book Gender and the Politics of History. It is one of the most cited papers in the history of the AHR. In 2008, the AHR focused it ... Read »


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    • Golden Age

    • The term Golden Age (Greek: χρύσεον γένοςchryseon genos) comes from Greek mythology and legend and refers to the first in a sequence of four or five (or more) Ages of Man, in which the Golden Age is first, followed in sequence, by the Silver, Bronze, Heroic, and then the present (Iro ... Read »


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    • Golden age (metaphor)

    • A golden age is a period in a field of endeavor when great tasks were accomplished. The term originated from early Greek and Roman poets, who used it to refer to a time when mankind lived in a better time and was pure (see Golden Age). The ancient Greek philosopher Hesiod introduced the term in his Works and Days, whe ... Read »


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    • Great Man theory

    • The Great Man theory is a 19th-century idea according to which history can be largely explained by the impact of "great men", or heroes; highly influential individuals who, due to either their personal charisma, intelligence, wisdom, or political skill used their power in a way that had a decisive historical impact. Th ... Read »


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    • Head in Flames

    • Head in Flames

      Head in Flames is a postmodern novel by Lance Olsen, published by Chiasmus Press in 2009. Head in Flames is a collage novel built on a triadic structure. First Vincent van Gogh speaks briefly (sometimes only a sentence, sometimes a handful) in the first person in a Times font. Next Theo van Gogh does the same in t ... Read »


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    • Herstory

    • Herstory is history written from a feminist perspective, emphasizing the role of women, or told from a woman's point of view. It is a neologism coined as a pun with the word "history", as part of a feminist critique of conventional historiography, which in their opinion is traditionally written as "his story", i.e., fr ... Read »


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    • Hispanismo

    • Hispanismo or Hispanicism is an ideology, school of thought and historiographic current centered on Spanish heritage. In Hispanic America it is similar but opposite to indigenismo. The view of hispanismo holds that "countries" should not deny their cultural roots because in doing so they are denying themselves. In the ... Read »


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    • Historia Compostelana

    • "Aragonese deliver the castle to the queen. Oh!!, How much military glory gave to Galicians that day when the Aragonese king escaped in front of them!. But much was more excellent and cheerful when the brave forces of Galicia protected Castile and its knights from attack by enemies and forced to take back the Castle oc ... Read »


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    • Historiae Ecclesiasticae Tripartitae Epitome

    • Historiae Ecclesiasticae Tripartitae Epitome, the abridged history (in twelve books) of the early Christian Church known as the Tripartite History, was the standard manual of Church history in Medieval Europe. The work was compiled, under the direction of Cassiodorus, in about 510 CE, by his assistant Epiphanius Schol ... Read »


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    • Historian's fallacy


    • Historic recurrence

    • Historic recurrence is the repetition of similar events in history. The concept of historic recurrence has variously been applied to the overall history of the world (e.g., to the rises and falls of empires), to repetitive patterns in the history of a given polity, and to any two specific events which bear a striking s ... Read »


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    • Historical anthropology

    • Historical anthropology is a historiographical movement which applies methodologies and objectives from Social and Cultural Anthropology to the study of historical societies. Like most such movements, it is understood in different ways by different scholars, and to some may be synonymous with the history of mentalities ... Read »


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    • Historical document

    • Historical documents are original documents that contain important historical information about a person, place, or event and can thus serve as primary sources as important ingredients of the historical methodology. Significant historical documents can be deeds, laws, accounts of battles (often given by the victors or ... Read »


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    • Historical method

    • Historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians use primary sources and other evidence, including the evidence of archaeology, to research and then to write histories in the form of accounts of the past. The question of the nature, and even the possibility, of a sound historical method is ... Read »


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    • Historical subject

    • Nietzsche's critique of the historical subject is based in the rejection of an existing substance in favor of forces and wills combining to form combinations, sometimes in the form of a consciousness. Heidegger later traced the concept of subject to the metaphysical concept of ousia to demonstrate the impossibility of ... Read »


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    • Historical thinking

    • Historical thinking is defined by many education resources as a set of reasoning skills that students of history should learn as a result of studying history. Sometimes called historical reasoning skills, historical thinking skills are frequently described in contrast to history content such as names, dates, and places ... Read »


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    • Historicity

    • Historicity is the historical actuality of persons and events, meaning the quality of being part of history as opposed to being a historical myth, legend, or fiction. Historicity focuses on the truth value of knowledge claims about the past (denoting historical actuality, authenticity, and factuality). The historicity ... Read »


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    • Historicity (philosophy)

    • Historicity in philosophy is the idea or fact that something has an historical origin and developed through history: concepts, practices, values. This is opposed to the belief that the same thing, in particular normative institutions or correlated ideologies, are natural or essential and thus exist universally. Histor ... Read »


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    • Historiographic metafiction

    • Historiographic metafiction is a term coined by Canadian literary theorist Linda Hutcheon in the late 1980s. The term is used for works of fiction which combine the literary devices of metafiction with historical fiction. Works regarded as historiographic metafiction are also distinguished by frequent allusions to othe ... Read »


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    • Historiography and Historiophoty

    • Historiography and Historiophoty is the name of an essay by historian and literary critic Hayden White first published in 1988 in The American Historical Review. In the essay Hayden coins the term Historiophoty to describe the "representation of history and our thought about it in visual images and filmic discourse". H ... Read »


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    • Historiography of Albania

    • The Historiography of Albania (Albanian: Historiografia e Shqipërisë) or Albanian historiography (Albanian: Historiografia shqiptare) refers to the studies, sources, critical methods and interpretations used by scholars to study the history of Albania. Theodor Anton Ippen, who would become a consul of Austri ... Read »


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    • Historiography of Colonial Spanish America

    • The historiography of Spanish America has a long history, dating back to revisionist accounts of the conquest, Spaniards’ eighteenth-century attempts to understand the apparent decline in its empire and ways to revive it, and American-born Spaniards (creoles') search for identity separate from Spain's and the crea ... Read »


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    • Historism

    • Historism is a philosophical and historiographical theory, founded in 19th-century Germany (as Historismus) and especially influential in 19th- and 20th-century Europe. It pronounces the historicity of humanity and its binding to tradition. Historist historiography rejects historical teleology and bases its explanatio ... Read »


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    • History of the Great War

    • History of the Great War Based on Official Documents by Direction of the Committee of Imperial Defence

      Military history The History of the Great War Based on Official Documents by Direction of the Committee of Imperial Defence (abbreviated to History of the Great War or British Official History) is a series of 109 volumes, covering the war effort of the British state during the First World War. It was produced by the H ... Read »


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    • History of the Second World War

    • The History of the Second World War is the official history of Britain's contribution to the Second World War and was published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office (HMSO). This immense project was sub-divided into areas to ease publication. Military operations are covered in the United Kingdom Military Series, the Unite ... Read »


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    • History Workshop Journal

    • Language English Publication details Publisher
      Oxford University Press (United Kingdom)
      Publication history
      1976-present Frequency biannual 0.659 Indexing ISSN 1363-3554 (print)
      1477-4569 (web)
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    • History Workshop Journal  

      The History Workshop Journal was launched in 1976 by Raphael Samuel and others involved in the History Workshop movement. This is a scholarly journal published by Oxford University Press. Originally sub-titled "A Journal of Socialist Historians", it later changed the sub-title to "A Journal of Socialist and Feminist Hi ... Read »


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    • Humanistic historiography

    • Humanistic historiography A method in historiography. This method is based on the principles of humanism The new style of [humanistic] historiography was established by the Florentine History of Bruni [published from 1416-1449], and certain characteristics of the model still determined the treatment of political histo ... Read »


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    • Kriminalgeschichte des Christentums

    • Kriminalgeschichte des Christentums (In English Criminal History of Christianity) is the main work of the author and church critic Karlheinz Deschner. It describes the misconduct attributed to various Christian churches, denominations, sects, and leagues, as well as its representatives and Christian sovereigns during C ... Read »


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    • List of historians by area of study

    • This is a list of historians categorized by their area of study. See also List of historians. See also List of Canadian historians. See also Category:Historians of the United States See also Category:Historians of Latin America History of newspapers and magazines, History of radio, History of television, and Hi ... Read »


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    • List of history journals

    • This list of history journals presents representative academic journals pertaining to the field of history and historiography. It includes scholarly journals listed by journal databases and professional associations such as: JSTOR, Project MUSE, the Organization of American Historians, the American Historical Associati ... Read »


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    • Long nineteenth century

    • The long nineteenth century, is a term coined for the period between the years 1789 and 1914 by British Marxist historian and author Eric Hobsbawm. The concept is an adoption of Fernand Braudel's 1949 notion of Le long seizième siècle ( the Long sixteenth century 1450–1640). and "a recognized category of lit ... Read »


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    • Marxist historiography

    • Marxist or historical materialist historiography is a school of historiography influenced by Marxism. The chief tenets of Marxist historiography are the centrality of social class and economic constraints in determining historical outcomes. Marxist historiography has made contributions to the history of the working cl ... Read »


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    • Mediatisation

    • In politics and law, mediatisation (pronunciation: /miːdiətaɪˈzeɪʃən/) is the loss of immediacy. Immediacy is the status of persons not subject to local lords, but only to a higher authority directly, such as the Holy Roman Emperor. In a feudal context, it is the introduction of an intervening leve ... Read »


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    • Metahistorical romance

    • Metahistorical Romance is a term describing postmodern historical fiction, defined by Amy J. Elias in Sublime Desire: History and Post-1960s Fiction. Elias defines metahistorical romance as a form of historical fiction continuing the legacy of historical romance inaugurated by Sir Walter Scott but also having ties to c ... Read »


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    • Migration Period

    • Migration Period

      The Migration Period was a time of widespread migrations within or into Europe in the middle of the first millennium AD. It has also been termed the Völkerwanderung (German) and, from the Roman and Southern European perspective the Barbarian Invasions. Many of the migrations were movements of Germanic, Slavic, and o ... Read »


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    • Modern history

    • Modern history, the modern period or the modern era, is the global historiographical approach to the timeframe after the Post-classical history. Modern history can be further broken down into periods: Some events, while not without precedent, show a new way of perceiving the world. The concept of modernity interprets ... Read »


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    • Modernity

    • Modernity is a term of art used in the humanities and social sciences to designate both a historical period (the modern era), as well as the ensemble of particular socio-cultural norms, attitudes and practices that arose in post-medieval Europe and have developed since, in various ways and at various times, around the ... Read »


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    • Muhammad Ardabili

    • Muhammad Ardabili (Persian: محمد ابن علی اردبیلی) was an eminent shia transmitters of Muslim tradition in seventeenth century. His complete name was muhammad Son of Ali Ardabili. there is little information about his life and personality. He was originally from Ar ... Read »


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    • Narrative history

    • Narrative history is the practice of writing history in a story-based form. It is generally distinguished from a purely analytical form of history. Though history is considered a social science, the story-based nature of history allows for the inclusion of a greater or lesser degree of narration in addition to an analy ... Read »


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    • Narrative network

    • A narrative network is a system which represents complex event sequences or characters’ interactions as depicted by a narrative text. Network science methodology offers an alternative way of analysing the patterns of relationships, composition and activities of events and actors studied in their own context. Netwo ... Read »


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    • Historiography and nationalism

    • Historiography is the study of how history is written. One pervasive influence upon the writing of history has been nationalism, a set of beliefs about political legitimacy and cultural identity. Nationalism has provided a significant framework for historical writing in Europe and in those former colonies influenced by ... Read »


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    • Nationalization of history

    • Nationalization of history is the term used in historiography to describe the process of separation of "one's own" history from the common universal history, by way of perceiving, understanding and treating the past that results with construction of history as history of a nation. If national labeling of the past is no ... Read »


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    • Nietzsche's Kisses


    • Nouvelle histoire

    • The term new history from the French term nouvelle histoire, was coined by Jacques Le Goff and Pierre Nora, leaders of the third generation of the Annales School, in the 1970s. The movement can be associated with cultural history, history of representations and histoire des mentalités. The new history movement's in ... Read »


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    • Official history

    • An official history is a work of history which is sponsored, authorised or endorsed by its subject. The term is most commonly used for histories which are produced for a government. The term also applies to commissions from non-state bodies as company histories, i.e. histories of commercial companies. An official biogr ... Read »


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    • Oral history

    • External video

      Oral history is the collection and study of historical information about individuals, families, important events, or everyday life using audiotapes, videotapes, or transcriptions of planned interviews. These interviews are conducted with people who participated in or observed past events and whose memories and percepti ... Read »


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    • Oral History Society

    • The Oral History Society promotes the collection, preservation and use of recorded memories of the past. As well as offering practical advice and support, the Society aims to raise standards in oral history practices across a range of activities and disciplines. Through an annual conference, other meetings, a web sit ... Read »


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    • Ottoman Decline Thesis

    • The Ottoman Decline Thesis or Ottoman Decline Paradigm (Turkish: Osmanlı Gerileme Tezi) refers to a now-obsolete historical narrative which had once been used to explain the history of the Ottoman Empire. According to the Decline Thesis, following a golden age associated with the reign of Sultan Suleiman the Magnifi ... Read »


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    • Philosophical progress

    • A prominent question in metaphilosophy is that of whether philosophical progress occurs, and more so, whether such progress in philosophy is even possible. It has even been disputed, most notably by Ludwig Wittgenstein, whether genuine philosophical problems actually exist. The opposite has also been claimed, most nota ... Read »


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    • Philosophy of history

    • The term philosophy of history refers to the theoretical aspect of history, in two senses. It is customary to distinguish critical philosophy of history from speculative philosophy of history. Critical philosophy of history is the "theory" aspect of the discipline of academic history, and deals with questions such as t ... Read »


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    • Plausible Worlds

    • Plausible Worlds: Possibility and Understanding in History and the Social Sciences is a 1991 book by Geoffrey Hawthorn, professor of sociology at the University of Cambridge. The book is credited with legitimizing the academic field of counterfactual history. The book explores three points of divergence: the Black Dea ... Read »


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    • Plica (sigillography)

    • Plica (from Latin plica - fold) is a term from sigillography for the reinforcement of the lower edge of a charter or deed, produced by folding up the bottom of the sheet of parchment to achieve a double thickness. The purpose of the fold is to provide a more secure anchorage for the seal, and to guard against the parc ... Read »


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    • Popular history

    • Popular history is a broad and somewhat ill-defined genre of historiography that takes a popular approach, aims at a wide readership, and usually emphasizes narrative, personality and vivid detail over scholarly analysis. The term is used in contradistinction to professional academic or scholarly history writing which ... Read »


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    • Postmodernity

    • Postmodernity (post-modernity or the postmodern condition) is the economic or cultural state or condition of Western society which is said to exist after modernity. Some schools of thought hold that modernity ended in the late 20th century – in the 1980s or early 1990s – and that it was replaced by postmodern ... Read »


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    • Presentism (literary and historical analysis)

    • In literary and historical analysis, presentism is the anachronistic introduction of present-day ideas and perspectives into depictions or interpretations of the past. Some modern historians seek to avoid presentism in their work because they consider it a form of cultural bias, and believe it creates a distorted under ... Read »


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    • Primary source

    • In the study of history as an academic discipline, a primary source (also called original source or evidence) is an artifact, a document, diary, manuscript, autobiography, a recording, or other source of information that was created at the time under study. It serves as an original source of information about the topic ... Read »


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    • Professionalization and institutionalization of history

    • Professionalization and institutionalization of history is term used in historiography to describe process of professionalization of the historical discipline with historians becoming professionals through process of special education, and genesis of historical institutions they founded. During process of professi ... Read »


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    • Progress (history)

    • In historiography, progress (from Latin progressus, "advance", "(a) step onwards") is the study of how specific societies improved over time in terms of science, technology, modernization, liberty, democracy, longevity, quality of life, freedom from pollution and so on. Specific indicators can range from economic data, ... Read »


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    • Prosopographical network

    • A prosopographical network is a system which represents a historical group made up by individual actors and their interactions within a delimited spatial and temporal range. The network science methodology offers an alternative way of analyzing the patterns of relationships, composition and activities of people studied ... Read »


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    • Prosopography

    • In historical studies, prosopography is an investigation of the common characteristics of a historical group, whose individual biographies may be largely untraceable, by means of a collective study of their lives, in multiple career-line analysis. Prosopographical research has the goal of learning about patterns of rel ... Read »


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    • Pulitzer Prize for History

    • The Pulitzer Prize for History, administered by Columbia University, is one of the seven American Pulitzer Prizes that are annually awarded for Letters, Drama, and Music. It has been presented since 1917 for a distinguished book about the history of the United States. Thus it is one of the original Pulitzers, for the p ... Read »


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    • Reception theory

    • Reception theory is a version of reader response literary theory that emphasizes each particular reader's reception or interpretation in making meaning from a literary text. Reception theory is generally referred to as audience reception in the analysis of communications models. In literary studies, reception theory or ... Read »


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    • Historical revisionism

    • In historiography, the term historical revisionism identifies the re-interpretation of the historical record. It usually means challenging the orthodox views held by professional scholars about a historical event, or introducing new evidence, or of restating the motivations and decisions of the participant people. The ... Read »


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    • Scepter of Judah

    • The Scepter of Judah (Hebrew: Shebet Yehuda‎‎) was a text produced by the Sephardi historian Solomon Ibn Verga. It first appeared in Turkey in 1553. The work was essentially a comprehensive analysis of sixty-four different persecutions that the Jewish people had suffered since antiquity. Hardly an insular te ... Read »


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    • Second modernity

    • Second modernity is a phrase coined by the German sociologist Ulrich Beck, and is his word for the period after modernity. Where modernity broke down agricultural society in favour of industrial society, second modernity transforms industrial society into a new and more reflexive network society or information society ... Read »


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    • Secondary source

    • In scholarship, a secondary source is a document or recording that relates or discusses information originally presented elsewhere. A secondary source contrasts with a primary source, which is an original source of the information being discussed; a primary source can be a person with direct knowledge of a situation, o ... Read »


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    • Short twentieth century

    • The term "short 20th century", originally proposed by Iván Berend (Hungarian Academy of Sciences) but defined by Eric Hobsbawm, a British Marxist historian and author, refers to the period between the years 1914 and 1991. That period begins with the beginning of World War I, and ends with the fall of the Soviet Uni ... Read »


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    • Sigillography

    • Sigillography (sometimes referred to under its Greek name of Sphragistics) is one of the auxiliary sciences of history. It refers to the study of seals attached to documents as a source of historical information. It concentrates on the legal and social meaning of seals, as well as the evolution of their design. It has ... Read »


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    • Silver age

    • A silver age is a name often given to a particular period within a history, typically as a lesser and later successor to a golden age. In many cultures the metal silver is generally valuable but less so than gold. The original silver age (Αργυρόν Γένος) was the second of the five "A ... Read »


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    • Sonderweg

    • Sonderweg (German: [ˈzɔndɐˌveːk], "special path") identifies the theory in German historiography that considers the German-speaking lands or the country Germany itself to have followed a course from to democracy unlike any other in Europe. The modern school of thought by that name arose early during Wo ... Read »


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    • Succession of states

    • Succession of states is a theory and practice in international relations regarding the recognition and acceptance of a newly created sovereign state by other states, based on a perceived historical relationship the new state has with a prior state. The theory has its root in 20th century diplomacy. The term succession ... Read »


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    • Teleology

    • Teleology is the philosophical attempt to describe things in terms of their apparent purpose, directive principle, or goal. A purpose that is imposed by a human use, such as that of a fork, is called extrinsic. Natural teleology, common in classical philosophy but controversial today, contends that natural entities als ... Read »


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    • Theories of Forgetting

    • Theories of Forgetting is a postmodern novel by Lance Olsen, published by Fiction Collective Two in 2014. Theories of Forgetting is a novel made up of three intersecting narratives. The first involves the story of a middle-aged video artist, Alana, working on a short experimental video about Robert Smithson's land ... Read »


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    • There's No Place Like Time: A Retrospective


    • Totalitarian democracy

    • Totalitarian democracy is a term popularized by Israeli historian J. L. Talmon to refer to a system of government in which lawfully elected representatives maintain the integrity of a nation state whose citizens, while granted the right to vote, have little or no participation in the decision-making process of the gove ... Read »


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    • Transhistoricity

    • Transhistoricity is the quality of holding throughout human history, not merely within the frame of reference of a particular form of society at a particular stage of historical development. An entity or concept that has transhistoricity is said to be transhistorical. Certain theories of history, (e.g. that of Hegel), ... Read »


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    • Translatio imperii

    • Translatio imperii (Latin for "transfer of rule") is a historiographical concept, originating in the Middle Ages, in which history is viewed as a linear succession of transfers of an imperium that invests supreme power in a singular ruler, an "emperor". The concept is closely linked to translatio studii (the geographic ... Read »


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    • Translatio studii

    • Translatio studii (Latin for "transfer of learning") is a historiographical concept, originating in the Middle Ages, in which history is viewed as a linear succession of transfers of knowledge or learning from one geographical place, and time, to another. The concept is closely linked to translatio imperii, which simil ... Read »


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    • Universal history

    • Universal history is a term for a work aiming at the presentation of the history of humankind as a whole, as a coherent unit. A universal chronicle or world chronicle traces history from the beginning of written information about the past up to the present. Universal history embraces the events of all times and nation ... Read »


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    • Whig history

    • Whig history (or Whig historiography) is an approach to historiography that presents the past as an inevitable progression towards ever greater liberty and , culminating in modern forms of liberal democracy and constitutional monarchy. In general, Whig historians emphasize the rise of constitutional government, persona ... Read »


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  • What Else?

    • Historiography

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