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    Government

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    • Government by city

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    • Government by continent

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    • Government by country

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    • Government by region

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    • Government agencies

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    • Administrative divisions

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    • Government audit

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    • Governance and civic leadership awards

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    • Government buildings

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    • Changes in political power

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    • Civics

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    • Civil services

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    • Coalition governments

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    • Constitutional state types

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    • Continuity of government

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    • Government corporations

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    • Elections

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    • Government in fiction

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    • Government finances

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    • Forms of government

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    • Government commissions

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    • Government crises

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    • Government typefaces

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    • Governments in exile

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    • Governments of country subdivisions

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    • Impeachment

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    • Government information

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    • Government institutions

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    • Law

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    • Legislatures

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    • Government-related lists

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    • Local government

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    • Ministries

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    • Minority governments

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    • Motions of no confidence

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    • National governments

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    • National security

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    • Government occupations

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    • Open government

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    • Government-related organizations

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    • Government and personhood

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    • Policy

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    • Governmental studies academics

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    • Programs

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    • Government programs

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    • Provisional governments

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    • Public administration

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    • Public law

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    • Public policy

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    • Public sector

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    • Government publications

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    • Regency (government)

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    • Regulation

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    • Religion and government

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    • Government research

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    • Secret government programs

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    • Separation of powers

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    • Social programs

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    • Government software

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    • State ritual and ceremonies

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    • Statements (government)

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    • Student government

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    • Time in government

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    • Government simulation video games

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    • Government-owned websites

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    • Whistleblowing

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    • Government stubs

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    • Government

    • A government is the system by which a state or community is controlled. In the case of this broad associative definition, government normally consists of legislators, administrators, and arbitrators. Government is the means by which state policy is enforced, as well as the mechanism for determining the policy of the st ... Read »


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    • State government

    • A state government or provincial government is the government of a country subdivision in a federal form of government, which shares political power with the federal or national government. A state government may have some level of political autonomy, or be subject to the direct control of the federal government. This ... Read »


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    • Abstention

    • Abstention is a term in election procedure for when a participant in a vote either does not go to vote (on election day) or, in parliamentary procedure, is present during the vote, but does not cast a ballot. Abstention must be contrasted with "blank vote", in which a voter casts a ballot willfully made invalid by mark ... Read »


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    • Administrative centre

    • An administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local government, or a county town, or the place where the central administration of a commune is located. In countries which have French as one of their administrative languages (such as Belgium, Luxembourg, Switzerland or many African countries) and in ... Read »


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    • Attendance allowance (political)

    • An attendance allowance is a per diem payment made (most typically, though not exclusively) to public representatives to cover the costs they incur in attending an assembly away from home. In some district assemblies, the amount may include an element for loss of earnings that the representative might otherwise have a ... Read »


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    • Bicameralism

    • A bicameral legislature is one in which the legislators are divided into two separate assemblies, chambers or houses. Bicameralism is distinguished from unicameralism, in which all of the members deliberate and vote as a single group, and from some legislatures which have three or more separate assemblies, chambers or ... Read »


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    • Bureaucracy

    • A bureaucracy (/bjuːˈrɒkrəsi/) is "a body of non-elective government officials" and/or "an administrative policy-making group". Historically, bureaucracy was government administration managed by departments staffed with non-elected officials. Today, bureaucracy is the administrative system governing any lar ... Read »


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    • Bureaucratic inertia

    • Bureaucratic inertia is the inevitable tendency of bureaucratic organizations to perpetuate the established procedures and modes, even if they are counterproductive and/or diametrically opposed to established organizational goals. This unchecked growth may continue independently of the organization's success or failure ... Read »


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    • Center of government

    • The center of government (CoG) is the institution or group of institutions that provide direct support to the chief executive (president or prime minister) in leading the management of government. Unlike line ministries and other government agencies, the CoG does not deliver services directly to the citizens, and it do ... Read »


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    • Citizen oversight

    • Citizen oversight is the act of an assembly of citizens, a form of citizen participation, who review government activities. Activities may be deemed as government misconduct. Members of the group are civilians and are external to the government entity. These groups are tasked with direct involvement in the citizen comp ... Read »


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    • Citizens' jury


    • Citizenship

    • Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the custom or law as being a legal member of a sovereign state. A person may have multiple citizenships and a person who does not have citizenship of any state is said to be stateless. Nationality is often used as a synonym for citizenship in English – notabl ... Read »


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    • Civic lottery

    • A civic lottery, a popular term for the contemporary use of sortition or allotment, is a lottery-based method for selecting citizens for public service or office. It is based on the premise that citizens in a democracy have both a duty and the desire to serve their society by participating in its governance. Today, th ... Read »


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    • Civil authority

    • Civil authority or civilian authority, also known as civilian government, is the apparatus of a State, other than its military units, that enforces law and order. It is also used to distinguish between religious authority (for example Canon law) and secular authority. The enforcement of law and order is typically the r ... Read »


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    • Civil conscription

    • Civil conscription is conscription used for forcing people to work in non-military projects. Civil conscription is used by various governments around the world, among them Greece, where it has been used numerous times and it is called πολιτική επιστράτευση (p ... Read »


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    • Civil registration

    • Civil registration is the system by which a government records the vital events (births, marriages, and deaths) of its citizens and residents. The resulting repository or database has different names in different countries and even in different US states. It can be called a civil registry ,civil register (but this is a ... Read »


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    • Civilian control of the military

    • Civilian control of the military is a doctrine in military and political science that places ultimate responsibility for a country's strategic decision-making in the hands of the civilian political leadership, rather than professional military officers. The reverse situation, where professional military officers contro ... Read »


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    • Classification of the Functions of Government

    • Classification of the Functions of Government (COFOG) is a classification defined by the United Nations Statistics Division. These functions are designed to be general enough to apply to the government of different countries. The accounts of each country in the United Nations are presented under these categories. The v ... Read »


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    • Compulsory purchase order

    • A compulsory purchase order (CPO) is a legal function in the United Kingdom and Ireland that allows certain bodies which need to obtain land or property to do so without the consent of the owner. It may be enforced if a proposed development is considered one for public betterment; for example, when building motorways w ... Read »


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    • Confidence and supply

    • In a parliamentary democracy based on the Westminster system, confidence and supply are required for a government to hold power. A confidence and supply agreement is an agreement that a party or independent member of parliament will support the government in motions of confidence and appropriation (supply) votes by vot ... Read »


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    • Constitutional body

    • A constitutional body is created by passing a constitutional amendment bill, rather than by a regular, government or private bill. ... Read »


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    • Courtesy resolution

    • Courtesy resolution is a non-controversial resolution in the nature of congratulations on the birth of a child, celebration of a wedding anniversary, congratulations of an outstanding citizen achievement or a similar event. It is "a resolution expressing thanks for assistance or commending meritorious accomplishments." ... Read »


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    • Criticism of government

    • Criticism of government may refer to criticism of particular government, or of the concept of government itself. In certain cases, such as in certain monarchies and authoritarian (or sometimes totalitarian or dictatorial) governments, criticizing the government is considered criminal speech and is punished in accord wh ... Read »


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    • Declassification

    • Declassification is the process of documents that used to be classified as secret ceasing to be so restricted, often under the principle of freedom of information. Procedures for declassification vary by country. Papers may be withheld without being classified as secret, and eventually made available. Classified i ... Read »


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    • Delegate model of representation

    • The delegate model of representation is a model of a representative democracy. In this model, constituents elect their representatives as delegates for their constituency. These delegates act only as a mouthpiece for the wishes of their constituency, and have no from the constituency. This model does not provide repre ... Read »


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    • Demand management

    • Demand Management is a planning methodology used to forecast [predict], plan for and manage the demand for products and services. This can be at macro levels as in economics and at micro levels within individual organizations. For example, at macro levels, a government may influence interest rates in order to regulate ... Read »


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    • Diplomatic capital

    • Diplomatic capital refers to the trust, goodwill, and influence which a diplomat, or a state represented by its diplomats, has within international diplomacy. According to political scientist Rebecca Adler-Nissen, diplomatic capital is a kind of currency that can be traded in diplomatic negotiations and that is increas ... Read »


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    • Direct rule

    • Direct rule was the term given, during the late 20th and early 21st centuries, to the administration of Northern Ireland directly by the Government of the United Kingdom. The most recent period of direct rule came to an end on 8 May 2007 when power was restored to the Northern Ireland Assembly following April elections ... Read »


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    • Dirty subsidy

    • A dirty subsidy is a payment or incentive by a government to a private corporation (or another level of government) that encourages waste of raw materials, natural resources, or energy, or results in pollution or other human health hazards. Green economics often focuses on the impact of eliminating such subsidies, and ... Read »


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    • District Educational Office

    • District Education Office is responsible for monitoring Educational, Administrative and Legal activities for schools in District under the Department of Education, Government of India. As of 2012 the office monitored mandals with government schools and private schools serving more than Lakhs Students. Two offices are a ... Read »


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    • Dual mandate

    • A dual mandate is the practice in which elected officials serve in more than one elected or other public position simultaneously. This practice is sometimes known as double jobbing in Britain (not to be confused with double dipping in the United States, i. e. being employed by and receiving a retirement pension from th ... Read »


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    • E-governance

    • Electronic governance or e-governance is the application of information and communication technology (ICT) for delivering government services, exchange of information, communication transactions, integration of various stand-alone systems and services between government-to-customer (G2C), government-to-business (G2B), ... Read »


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    • E-participation

    • e-participation (also written eParticipation and e-Participation) is the term referring to "ICT-supported participation in processes involved in government and governance". Processes may concern administration, service delivery, decision making and policy making. E-participation is hence closely related to e-government ... Read »


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    • Enabling act

    • An enabling act is a piece of legislation by which a legislative body grants an entity which depends on it for authorization or legitimacy of power to take certain actions. For example, enabling acts often establish government agencies to carry out specific government policies in a modern nation. The effects of enablin ... Read »


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    • Equal bicameralism

    • Equal bicameralism, even known as perfect bicameralism, is a form of bicameral legislature, in which Lower House and Upper House have the same powers and functions. The opposite situation, in which the Chambers have different powers, is known as imperfect bicameralism. Examples of equal bicameralism are the Congress o ... Read »


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    • Exclusive mandate

    • An exclusive mandate is a government's assertion of its legitimate authority over a certain territory, part of which another government controls with stable, de facto sovereignty. It is also known as a claim to sole representation or an exclusive authority claim. The concept was particularly important during the Cold W ... Read »


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    • False necessity

    • False necessity, or anti-necessitarian social theory, is a contemporary social theory that argues for the plasticity of social organizations and their potential to be shaped in new ways. The theory rejects the assumption that laws of change govern the history of human societies and limit human freedom. It is a critique ... Read »


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    • Father of the House

    • Father of the House is a term that has by tradition been unofficially bestowed on certain members of some legislatures, most notably the House of Commons in the United Kingdom. In some legislatures the term refers to the oldest member, but in others it refers to the longest-serving member. The term Mother of the House ... Read »


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    • Favourite

    • A favourite or favorite (American English) was the intimate companion of a ruler or other important person. In medieval and Early Modern Europe, among other times and places, the term is used of individuals delegated significant political power by a ruler. It was especially a phenomenon of the 16th and 17th centuries, ... Read »


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    • Formative context

    • Formative contexts are the institutional and imaginative arrangements that shape a society's conflicts and resolutions. They are the structures that limit both the practice and the imaginative possibilities in a socio-political order, and in doing so shape the routines of conflict over social, political and economic re ... Read »


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    • Fractionalism

    • Fractionalism is the government system that is the closest to a confederation but differs when the market system is a central market owned mostly by the government and very little by the people, yet the people have more control over it than the control of the government. This is possible by the fact that in fractionali ... Read »


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    • Gastald

    • A gastald (Latin gastaldus or castaldus, Italian gastaldo or guastaldo) was a Lombard official in charge of some portion of the royal demesne (a gastaldia or castaldia) with civil, martial, and judicial powers. By the Edictum Rothari of 643, the gastalds were given the civil authority in the cities and the reeves the l ... Read »


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    • Going postal

    • Going postal, in American English slang, means becoming extremely and uncontrollably angry, often to the point of violence, and usually in a workplace environment. The expression derives from a series of incidents from 1986 onward in which United States Postal Service (USPS) workers shot and killed managers, fellow wo ... Read »


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    • Government district

    • A government district or government area is any part of a city or town in which the primary land use by state institutions (national legislature, official residencess, foreign ministry headquarters, and so on), as opposed to a residential neighbourhood, commercial district and industrial zone, or other types of neighbo ... Read »


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    • Government in exile

    • A government in exile is a political group which claims to be a country's legitimate government, but is unable to exercise legal power and instead resides in a foreign country. Governments in exile usually plan to one day return to their native country and regain formal power. A government in exile differs from a rump ... Read »


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    • Government of Experts

    • The "Cabinet of Experts" (Italian: governo tecnico) is an expression connected solely to the Italian Parliament. This term describes the Government consisting of a non political body, usually supported by the political forces and functioning in the situations of emergency (especially in the particular politically-econ ... Read »


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    • Government scientist

    • A government scientist is a scientist employed by a country's government, either in a research-driven job (for example J. Robert Oppenheimer on the Manhattan Project), or for another role that requires scientific training and methods. In Australia, most government scientists are employed by the Commonwealth Scient ... Read »


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    • Government spin-off

    • Government spin-off is civilian goods which are the collateral result of military or governmental research. One prominent example of a type of government spin-off is technology that has been commercialized through NASA funding, research, licensing, facilities, or assistance. NASA spin-off technologies have been produc ... Read »


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    • Government-organized demonstration

    • Government-organized demonstrations or state demonstrations are demonstrations which are organized by the government of that nation. The Islamic Republic of Iran, the People's Republic of China,Republic of Cuba,Kirchnerist Argentina, the Soviet Union,Fascist Italy, and Nazi Germany among other nations, have had govern ... Read »


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    • Forms of government

    • A government is the system by which a state or community is controlled. In the Commonwealth of Nations, the word government is also used more narrowly to refer to the collective group of people that exercises executive authority in a state. This usage is analogous to what is called an "administration" in American Engli ... Read »


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    • Governmental accounting

    • Various governmental accounting systems are used by various public sector entities. In the United States, for instance, there are two levels of government which follow different accounting standards set forth by independent, private sector boards. At the federal level, the Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board (F ... Read »


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    • Governmental Learning Spiral

    • The Governmental Learning Spiral© is a technique used to solve specific governance challenges. It is used during prearranged educational events such as conferences, e-learning, and trainings to improve performance in democratic governance. The Governmental Learning Spiral—a heuristic and multidisciplinary tool ... Read »


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    • Head of state succession

    • Head of state succession is the process by which nations transfer leadership of their highest office from one person to another. The succession of a head of state can be brought about through various means, the most common of which include: The changing of national leadership has been the topic of several films, novel ... Read »


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    • Hierarchical organization

    • A hierarchical organization is an organizational structure where every entity in the organization, except one, is subordinate to a single other entity. This arrangement is a form of a hierarchy. In an organization, the hierarchy usually consists of a singular/group of power at the top with subsequent levels of power be ... Read »


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    • Hung parliament

    • In a parliamentary system of government, a hung parliament is an expression used to describe a state of a parliament when no single political party (or bloc of allied parties) has an absolute majority of seats in the parliament (legislature). It is also less commonly known as a balanced parliament or a legislature unde ... Read »


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    • Imperfect bicameralism

    • Imperfect bicameralism is a form of bicameral legislature, in which Lower House and Upper House have different powers and functions. Because one of the two Chambers (usually the Lower House) is more relevant than the other one in the legislative process, it has more decisional power. The opposite situation, in which bo ... Read »


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    • Inclusive Management

    • Inclusive management is a pattern of practices by public managers that facilitate the inclusion of public employees, experts, the public, and politicians in collaboratively addressing public problems or concerns of public interest. The management component of the compound idea of inclusive management signifies tha ... Read »


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    • Intelligent Governance for the 21st Century

    • Intelligent Governance for the 21st Century: A Middle Way Between West and East is a book published in 2012 by the investor and philanthropist Nicolas Berggruen and the editor and writer Nathan Gardels. It argues that Western democracies have become stymied by populism and short-term thinking, while authoritarian East ... Read »


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    • Interactive Public Docket

    • The Interactive Public Docket (IPD) is an eRulemaking tool created and managed by non governmental organizations that seek to provide the public with the capability to 1) publicly post data and other materials pertaining to federal proceedings on a continuous basis, including after the close of the Administrative Proce ... Read »


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    • Interest aggregation

    • Interest aggregation is the activity in which the political demands of groups and individuals are combined into policy programs, as defined by Almond, Powell, Dalton, and Strom. Interest aggregation includes those methods employed by individuals to effect change, commonly called personal interest aggregation, or by gr ... Read »


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    • Interest articulation

    • Interest articulation is a way for members of a society to express their needs to a system of government. It can range from personal contact with government officials to the development of interest groups (e.g. trade unions, professional associations, religious groups) who act in the interest of larger groups of people ... Read »


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    • Internal security

    • Internal security, or IS, is the act of keeping peace within the borders of a sovereign state or other self-governing territories. generally by upholding the national law and defending against internal security threats. Responsibility for internal security may range from police to paramilitary forces, and in exceptiona ... Read »


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    • Joint session

    • A joint session or joint convention is, most broadly, when two normally separate decision-making groups meet together, often in a special session or other extraordinary meeting, for a specific purpose. Most often it refers to when both houses of a bicameral legislature sit together. A joint session typically occurs to ... Read »


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    • Legislative calendar

    • A legislative calendar is used by legislatures to plan their business during the legislative session. Typically, one of the first items mentioned on the calendar is passing the bill enacting procedures and deadlines for the session. Time may also be allotted for considering the budget bill, which is usually the major ... Read »


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    • Legislative session

    • A legislative session is the period of time in which a legislature, in both parliamentary and presidential systems, is convened for purpose of lawmaking, usually being one of two or more smaller divisions of the entire time between two elections. In each country the procedures for opening, ending, and in between sessio ... Read »


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    • List of countries by consultation on rule-making

    • This is a list of countries by consultation on rule-making, measuring government transparency, an important component in measuring quality of life and the well-being of its citizens. The indicator published by the OECD for 2008 is a weighted average of yes/no answers to various questions on the existence of law consult ... Read »


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    • Local administrative unit

    • Generally, a local administrative unit (LAU) is a low level administrative division of a country, ranked below a province, region, or state. Not all countries describe their locally governed areas this way, but it can be descriptively applied anywhere to refer to counties, municipalities, etc. In the European Union, L ... Read »


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    • Ministry (collective executive)

    • A ministry (usually preceded by the definite article, i.e., the ministry) refers to a collective body of government ministers headed by a prime minister or premier. It is described by the Oxford Dictionary as "a period of government under one prime minister". Although the term "cabinet" can in some circumstances be a s ... Read »


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    • Ministry (government department)

    • A ministry is a governmental organisation, headed by a minister, that is usually meant to manage a specific sector of public administration. Ministries have a bureaucratic structure. Different states have different number of ministries.Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary notes that all states have Ministry of ... Read »


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    • Monarch

    • A monarch is the sovereign head of state in a monarchy. A monarch may exercise the highest authority and power in the state, or others may wield that power on behalf of the monarch. Typically a monarch either personally inherits the lawful right to exercise the state's sovereign rights (often referred to as the throne ... Read »


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    • Multi-party system

    • A multi-party system is a system in which multiple political parties across the political spectrum run for national election, and all have the capacity to gain control of government offices, separately or in coalition. Multi-party systems tend to be more common in parliamentary systems than presidential systems, and fa ... Read »


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    • Municipal services

    • Municipal services or city services refer to basic services that residents of a city expect the city government to provide in exchange for the taxes which citizens pay. Basic city services may include sanitation (both sewer and refuse), water, streets, the public library, schools, food inspection, fire department, poli ... Read »


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    • National Domestic Preparedness Consortium (NDPC)

    • The National Domestic Preparedness Consortium (NDPC) is a training partner and established training arm of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security DHS/ FEMA. It is a professional alliance of seven national institutions and organizations that work to develop and deliver training, technical assistance, plan assessments, ... Read »


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    • National heritage area

    • A National Heritage Area is a site designated by United States and intended to encourage historic preservation of the area and an appreciation of the history and heritage of the site. There are currently 49 National Heritage Areas, some of which use variations of the title, such as National Heritage Corridor. National ... Read »


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    • Order of succession

    • An order of succession is the sequence of those entitled to hold a high office such as head of state or an honour such as a title of nobility in the order in which they stand in line to it when it becomes vacated. This sequence may be regulated through descent or by statute. An established order of succession is the n ... Read »


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    • Outline of government

    • The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to government: Government – Government - is a general term which can be used to refer to public bodies organizing the political life of the society. Government can also refer to the collective head of the executive branch of power in a pol ... Read »


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    • Outline of public affairs

    • The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to public affairs: Public affairs – catch-all term that includes public policy as well as public administration, both of which are closely related to and draw upon the fields of political science and economics. ... Read »


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    • Pantisocracy

    • Pantisocracy (from the Greek "πάν" and "ισοκρατία" meaning "equal or level government by/for all") was a utopian scheme devised in 1794 by the poets Samuel Taylor Coleridge and Robert Southey for an egalitarian community. It is a system of government where all rule equally. They orig ... Read »


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    • Policy

    • A policy is a deliberate system of principles to guide decisions and achieve rational outcomes. A policy is a statement of intent, and is implemented as a procedure or protocol. Policies are generally adopted by the Board of or senior governance body within an organization where as procedures or protocols would be deve ... Read »


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    • Policy studies

    • Policy studies is the combination of policy analysis and program evaluation. It "involves systematically studying the nature, causes, and effects of alternative public policies, with particular emphasis on determining the policies that will achieve given goals." Policy Studies also examines the conflicts and conflict ... Read »


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    • Political agenda

    • A political agenda is a set of issues and policies laid out by ideological or political groups; as well as topics under discussion by a governmental executive, or a cabinet in government that tries to influence current and near-future political news and debate. The political agenda when shaped by government can be inf ... Read »


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    • Political authorities

    • Political authorities hold positions of power or influence within a system of government. Although some are exclusive to one or another form of government, many exist within several types. ... Read »


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    • Political capital

    • Political capital refers to the trust, goodwill, and influence a politician has with the public and other political figures. This goodwill is a type of invisible currency that politicians can use to mobilize the voting public or spend on policy reform. Some thinkers distinguish between reputational and representative p ... Read »


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    • Polity

    • A polity is any kind of political entity. It is a group of people who are collectively united by a self-reflected cohesive force such as identity, who have a capacity to mobilise resources, and are organised by some form of institutionalised hierarchy. A polity can be manifested in many different forms, such as a ... Read »


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    • Power structure

    • A power structure is an overall system of influence relationships between any individual and every other individual within any selected group of people. A description of a power structure would capture the way in which power or authority is distributed between people within groups such as a government, nation, institut ... Read »


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    • Pro forma

    • The term pro forma (Latin for "as a matter of form" or "for the sake of form") is most often used to describe a practice or document that is provided as a courtesy or satisfies minimum requirements, conforms to a norm or doctrine, tends to be performed or is considered a formality. The pro forma accounting is a s ... Read »


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    • Public participation

    • Public participation is a political principle or practice, and may also be recognised as a right (right to public participation). The terms public participation, often called P2 by practitioners, is sometimes used interchangeably with the concept or practice of stakeholder engagement and/or popular participation. Gene ... Read »


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    • Public sector

    • The public sector is the part of the economy concerned with providing various governmental services. The composition of the public sector varies by country, but in most countries the public sector includes such services as the military, police, infrastructure (public roads, bridges, tunnels, water supply, sewers, elect ... Read »


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    • Public trust

    • The concept of the public trust relates back to the origins of democratic government and its seminal idea that within the public lies the true power and future of a society; therefore, whatever trust the public places in its officials must be respected. One of the reasons that bribery is regarded as a notorious evil is ... Read »


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    • Public value

    • Public value describes the value that an organization contributes to society. The term was originally coined by Harvard professor Mark H. Moore who saw it as the equivalent of shareholder value in public management. Public value is supposed to provide managers with a notion of how entrepreneurial activity can contribut ... Read »


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    • Public-benefit corporation

    • Public-benefit corporations are a specific type of corporation that allow for public benefit to be a charter purpose in addition to the traditional corporate goal of maximizing profit for shareholders. Depending on the country they may also be known as crown corporations, statutory corporations, or government owned cor ... Read »


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    • Puppet ruler

    • A puppet ruler is a person who has a title indicating possession of political power, but who, in reality, is controlled by outside individuals or forces. Such outside power can be exercised by a foreign government, in which case the puppet ruler's domain is called a puppet state. But the puppet ruler may also be contro ... Read »


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    • Qualifications-Based Selection

    • Qualifications-Based Selection (QBS) is a procurement process established by the United States Congress as a part of the Brooks Act (Public Law 92-582; see also 40 USC §1101 et seq.) and further developed as a process for public agencies to use for the selection of architectural and engineering services for public c ... Read »


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    • Regime

    • The word regime (also "régime", from the original French spelling) refers to a set of conditions, most often of political nature, such as a government. In formal usage, a régime is the form of government or the set of rules, cultural or social norms, etc. that regulate the operation of a government or instit ... Read »


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    • Regulatory competition

    • Regulatory competition, also called competitive governance or policy competition, is a phenomenon in law, economics and politics concerning the desire of law makers to compete with one another in the kinds of law offered in order to attract businesses or other actors to operate in their jurisdiction. Regulatory competi ... Read »


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    • Reich

    • Reich (/ˈraɪk/;German: [ˈʁaɪç]) is a German word literally meaning "realm". The terms Kaiserreich (literally "realm of an emperor") and Königreich (literally "realm of a king") are used in German to refer to empires and kingdoms respectively. As such, the term Deutsches Reich (often translated to ... Read »


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    • Request for tender

    • A request for tenders (RFT) is a formal, structured invitation to suppliers to submit a bid to supply products or services. In the public sector an official fee is needed to fortify and secure the tender bid engagement/win documents, such a process may be required and determined in detail by law to ensure that such com ... Read »


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    • Royal Commission

    • A Royal Commission is a major ad-hoc formal public inquiry into a defined issue in some monarchies. They have been held in the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and Saudi Arabia. A Royal Commission is similar in function to a Commission of Enquiry (or Inquiry) found in other countries such as Ireland, Sou ... Read »


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    • Royal household under the Merovingians and Carolingians

    • The royal household of the early kings of the Franks is the subject of considerable discussion and remains controversial. This discussion is aimed at identifying the major categories of participants in the administration and those who made the major historical impacts. Every king of the Franks from Clovis I to Charles ... Read »


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    • Ruling clique

    • A ruling clique is a group of people who jointly rule an oligarchic form of government. Ruling cliques generally differ from another type of oligarchy: a military junta. Military juntas are always ruled by military personnel (often high-ranking like general). A ruling clique can include people from various professions ... Read »


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    • Screening Partnership Program

    • The Screening Partnership Program (SPP), instituted in 2004 by the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) in the United States, is a program that allows airports to employ private security agencies to conduct screening, instead of having the TSA conduct said screenings. Airports and security agencies must complet ... Read »


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    • Shadow Cabinet

    • The Shadow Cabinet is a feature of the Westminster system of government. It consists of a senior group of opposition spokespeople who, under the leadership of the Leader of the Opposition, form an alternative cabinet to that of the government, and whose members shadow or mark each individual member of the Cabinet. Memb ... Read »


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    • Sofocracy

    • Sofocracy (from the Greek σοφια - wisdom and κρατία - government, i. E. "Wise government") is a form of government in which a leading position in society occupied philosophers, then those educated and wise individuals regardless of any affiliation. This is Plato's idea of an ideal form ... Read »


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    • Soil and grain

    • Soil and grain (Chinese: sheji; Japanese: 社稷 shashoku) was a common political term in East Asia for the state. Altars of soil and grain were constructed alongside ancestral altars. Local kings performed ceremonies of soil and grain to affirm their sovereignty at Beijing Shejitan and Seoul Sajiktan. It has al ... Read »


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    • Speaker of the senate

    • Speaker of the Senate is a title given to the presiding officer of the Senate in a small number of jurisdictions and mainly amongst English-speaking countries. ... Read »


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    • State of emergency

    • A government or division of government (i.e. on a municipal, provincial/state level) may declare that their area is in a state of emergency. This means that the government can suspend and/or change some functions of the executive, the legislative and/or the judiciary during this period of time. It alerts citizens to ch ... Read »


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    • Tax increment financing

    • Tax increment financing (TIF) is a public financing method that is used as a subsidy for redevelopment, infrastructure, and other community-improvement projects in many countries, including the United States. Similar or related value capture strategies are used around the world. Through the use of TIF, municipalities t ... Read »


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    • Temporary duty assignment

    • A temporary duty assignment (TDA), also known as "temporary duty travel" (TDT), "temporary additional duty" (TAD) in the Navy and Marine Corps (or TDI for "temporary duty under instruction", referring to training assignments), or "temporary duty" (TDY) in the Army and Air Force, refers to a United States Government emp ... Read »


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    • Theocracy

    • Theocracy is a form of government in which a deity is the source from which all authority derives. The Oxford English Dictionary has this definition: A form of government in which God (or a deity) is recognized as the king or immediate ruler, and his laws are taken as the statute-book of the kingdom, these laws being ... Read »


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    • Trade facilitation

    • Trade facilitation looks at how procedures and controls governing the movement of goods across national borders can be improved to reduce associated cost burdens and maximise efficiency while safeguarding legitimate regulatory objectives. Business costs may be a direct function of collecting information and submitting ... Read »


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    • Tribal chief

    • A tribal chief is the leader of a tribal society or chiefdom. Tribal societies with social stratification under a single (or dual) leader emerged in the Neolithic period out of earlier tribal structures with little stratification, and they remained prevalent throughout the Iron Age. In the case of indigenous trib ... Read »


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    • Vote trading

    • Vote trading is the practice of voting for or against another person's bill, position on a more general issue, or favored candidate in exchange for the other person's vote for or against a position, proposal, or candidate that one supports. Nearly all voting systems do not make vote trading a formal process, so vote tr ... Read »


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    • World government

    • World government is the notion of a common political authority for all of humanity, yielding a global government and a single state that exercises authority over the entire Earth. Such a government could come into existence either through violent and compulsory world domination, or through peaceful and voluntary supran ... Read »


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  • What Else?

    • Government

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