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    Geography

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    • Geography by place

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    • Geography-related lists

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    • Geography awards and competitions

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    • Branches of geography

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    • Geography conferences

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    • Geography education

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    • Environmental studies

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    • Exploration

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    • Geocodes

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    • Geographers

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    • Geographic data and information

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    • Geographical zones

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    • History of geography

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    • Land systems

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    • Landscape

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    • Lists of countries by geography

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    • Navigation

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    • Geography organizations

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    • Places

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    • Geographical regions

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    • Surveying

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    • Geographical technology

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    • Geography terminology

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    • Works about geography

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    • Geographic images

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    • Geography stubs

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    • Geography

    • Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth. The first person to use the word "γεωγραφία" was Eratosthenes (276–19 ... Read »


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    • Outline of geography

    • The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to geography: Geography – study of earth and its people. Etymology of "geography": from Greek γεωγραφία - geographia, lit. "earth describe-write" As "the bridge between the human and physical sciences," geography is ... Read »


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    • 3D city models

    • 3D city models are digital models of urban areas that represent terrain surfaces, sites, buildings, vegetation, infrastructure and landscape elements as well as related objects (e.g., city furniture) belonging to urban areas. Their components are described and represented by corresponding two-dimensional and three-dime ... Read »


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    • Abstract space

    • Abstract space, in geography, is a hypothetical space characterized by equal and consistent properties; a geographic space that is completely homogeneous. All movement and activity would be equally easy or difficult in all directions and all locations within this space. This concept is useful for modeling or analyzing ... Read »


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    • Alluvium

    • Alluvium (from the Latin, alluvius, from alluere, "to wash against") is loose, unconsolidated (not cemented together into a solid rock) soil or sediments, which has been eroded, reshaped by water in some form, and redeposited in a non-marine setting. Alluvium is typically made up of a variety of materials, including fi ... Read »


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    • Anatopism

    • An anatopism (from the Greek ανα, "against," and τόπος, "place") is something that is out of its proper place. Thus, for example, an outrigger canoe would be an anatopism in Madrid. The concept of anatopism is less widely familiar than that of anachronism, perhaps because much that is anatopist ... Read »


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    • Draft:Beetlebug Lake

    • Beetlebug Lake is a subalpine lake in the center of the Sierra Nevada mountain range. The surface of the lake is at approximately 9640' AMSL and is in Fresno County, California. Category:Geography Category:Sierra Nevada (U.S.) Category:Lakes ... Read »


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    • Boundary problem (spatial analysis)

    • A boundary problem in spatial analysis is a phenomenon in which geographical patterns are differentiated by the shape and arrangement of boundaries that are drawn for administrative or measurement purposes. This is distinct from and must not be confused with the boundary problem in the philosophy of science that is als ... Read »


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    • Caribmap

    • Caribmap is a non-profit online library of historical and modern maps, including topographic maps, of the Caribbean islands. Since its establishment in 1999, the site has accumulated approximately 1800 maps of the islands that have been printed since the beginning of the 16th century The purpose of the site is to allo ... Read »


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    • City marketing

    • City marketing (related to city branding) is the promotion of a city, or a district within it, with the aim of encouraging certain activities to take place there. It is used to alter the external perceptions of a city in order to encourage tourism, attract inward migration of residents, or enable business relocation. A ... Read »


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    • Digital orthophoto quadrangle

    • A digital orthophoto quadrangle (DOQ) is aerial photography or satellite imagery that has been corrected so that its pixels are aligned with longitude and latitude lines, and have a narrowly defined region of coverage. This is a widely used format introduced by United States Geological Survey (USGS). The correction tec ... Read »


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    • Distance decay

    • Distance decay is a geographical term which describes the effect of distance on cultural or spatial interactions. The distance decay effect states that the interaction between two locales declines as the distance between them increases. Once the distance is outside of the two locales' activity space, their interactions ... Read »


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    • Easting and northing

    • The terms easting and northing are geographic Cartesian coordinates for a point. Easting refers to the eastward-measured distance (or the x-coordinate), while northing refers to the northward-measured distance (or the y-coordinate). When using common projections such as the transverse Mercator projection, these are dis ... Read »


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    • Economic restructuring

    • Economic restructuring refers to the phenomenon of Western urban areas shifting from a manufacturing to a service sector economic base. This transformation has affected demographics including income distribution, employment, and social hierarchy; institutional arrangements including the growth of the corporate complex, ... Read »


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    • Edgelands

    • Edgelands are the transitional, liminal areas of space to be found on the boundaries of country and town - with the spread of urbanisation, an increasingly important facet of the twenty-first century world. The concept of Edgelands was introduced by Marion Shoard in 2002, to cover the disorganised but often fertil ... Read »


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    • Extreme environment

    • An extreme environment contains conditions that are hard to survive for most known life forms. These conditions may be extremely high or low temperature or pressure; high or low content of oxygen or carbon dioxide in the atmosphere; high levels of radiation, acidity, or alkalinity; absence of water; water containing a ... Read »


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    • Feminism and GIS

    • Feminism and GIS refers to the use of geographic information system (GIS) for feminist research and also how women influence GIS at technological stages. Feminist GIS research is aware of power differences in social and economic realms. Feminist GIS is considered part of a larger discourse on Feminist Geography, criti ... Read »


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    • Fluvio-glacial

    • Fluvio-glacial is the water created by the melting of glaciers. It literally means "Water Glacier", but is also commonly called 'melt water', or glacial milk when combined with rock flour. Fluvio-glacial can also mean sediments deposited by the glacier meltwater. Fluvio-glacial landforms differ from glacial landforms. ... Read »


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    • Fundamental plane (spherical coordinates)

    • The fundamental plane in a spherical coordinate system is a plane which divides the sphere into two hemispheres. The latitude of a point is then the angle between the fundamental plane and the line joining the point to the centre of the sphere. For a geographic coordinate system of the Earth, the fundamental plane is ... Read »


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    • Geo-literacy

    • As defined by National Geographic, geo-literacy is "the ability to use geographic understanding and geographic reasoning to make decisions". The term "geo-literacy" arose from the National Geographic Society's "Fight against Geographic Illiteracy." The organization released various media to help explain the concep ... Read »


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    • Geo-replication

    • Geo-replication systems are designed to improve the distribution of data across geographically distributed data networks. This is intended to improve the response time for applications such as web portals. Geo-replication can be achieved using software, hardware or a combination of the two. Geo-replication softwar ... Read »


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    • Geoarchaeology

    • Geoarchaeology is a multi-disciplinary approach which uses the techniques and subject matter of geography, geology and other Earth sciences to examine topics which inform archaeological knowledge and thought. Geoarchaeologists study the natural physical processes that affect archaeological sites such as geomorphology, ... Read »


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    • Geocriticism

    • Geocriticism is a method of literary analysis and literary theory that incorporates the study of geographic space. The term designates a number of different critical practices. In France, Bertrand Westphal has elaborated the concept of géocritique in several works. In the United States, Robert Tally has argued for a ... Read »


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    • Geographic targeting

    • Geographic targeting is a viable way for resource allocation, especially to alleviate poverty in a country. In this context, public expenditure and policy interventions can be deployed to reach the neediest people in the poorest areas. Geographical targeting for poverty alleviation employs a variety of techniques, suc ... Read »


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    • Geographical cluster

    • A geographical cluster is a localised , usually an excess of something given the distribution or variation of something else. Often it is considered as an incidence rate that is unusual in that there is more of some variable than might be expected. Examples would include: a local excess disease rate, a crime hot spot, ... Read »


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    • Geographical feature

    • Geographical features are man-made or naturally-created features of the Earth. Natural geographical features consist of landforms and ecosystems. For example, terrain types, physical factors of the environment) are natural geographical features. Conversely, human settlements or other engineered forms are considered ty ... Read »


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    • Geopark

    • A Geopark is a unified area that advances the protection and use of geological heritage in a sustainable way, and promotes the economic well-being of the people who live there. There are Global Geoparks and National Geoparks. A Global Geopark is a unified area with geological heritage of international significance ... Read »


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    • Glacial refugium

    • A glacial refugium (plural refugia) is a geographic place or region which made possible the survival of flora and fauna in times of ice ages and allowed a post-glacial re-colonization. Different types of glacial refugia can be distinguished namely nunatak-, peripheral and lowland refugia. ... Read »


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    • Governmentality

    • Governmentality is a concept first developed by the French philosopher Michel Foucault in the later years of his life, roughly between 1977 and his death in 1984, particularly in his lectures at the Collège de France during this time. The concept has been elaborated further from an "Anglo-Neo Foucauldian" perspecti ... Read »


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    • Hemispheres of the Earth

    • The Hemispheres of the Earth in geography and cartography refer to any division of the globe into two hemispheres (from Ancient Greek ἡμισφαίριον hēmisphairion meaning "half of a sphere"). The most common such divisions are by latitudinal or longitudinal markers: The East-West di ... Read »


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    • Hermit kingdom

    • Hermit kingdom is a term applied to any country, organization or society which willfully walls itself off, either metaphorically or physically, from the rest of the world. The Joseon dynasty of Korea was frequently described as a hermit kingdom during the latter part of the dynasty. The term is still commonplace throug ... Read »


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    • Hjulström curve


    • Incorporation of nature within a city

    • Over the centuries the roles of rivers as part of the city has altered many times from the original use for the irrigating crops in nearby fields, as well as being an essential resource in establishing a permanent settlement. However when the industrial revolution took place in the 19th century the role of the rivers i ... Read »


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    • Indices of deprivation 2004

    • The Indices of deprivation 2004 (ID 2004) is a deprivation index at the small area level, created by the British Department for Communities and Local Government(DCLG). It is unusual in its inclusion of a measure of geographical access as an element of deprivation and in its direct measure of poverty (through data on b ... Read »


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    • Indices of deprivation 2010

    • The Indices of Deprivation 2010 (ID 2010) is a deprivation index at the small area level, created by the British Department for Communities and Local Government (DCLG) and released on 24 March 2011. It follows the ID2007 and because much of the datasets are the same or similar between indices allows a comparison of "re ... Read »


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    • Intermontane

    • Intermontane is a physiographic adjective "" ("signifying among, between, amid, during, within, mutual, reciprocal) and the adjective "" ("inhabiting, or growing in mountainous regions, especially cool, moist upland slopes below the timberline.") The corresponding physiographic noun is , while the noun intermontane i ... Read »


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    • International date line in Judaism

    • The international date line in Judaism is used to demarcate the change of one calendar day to the next in the Jewish calendar. The Jewish calendar defines days as running from sundown to sundown rather than midnight to midnight. So in the context of Judaism, an international date line demarcates when the line of sundow ... Read »


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    • Internet geography

    • Internet geography, also called cybergeography, is a subdiscipline of geography that studies the spatial organization of the Internet, from social, economic, cultural, and technological perspectives. The core assumption of Internet geography is that the location of servers, websites, data, services, and infrastructure ... Read »


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    • ISO 19114

    • ISO 19114 Geographic information - Quality evaluation procedures provides a procedural framework for evaluating the quality of digital geographic datasets, consistent with the data quality principles defined in ISO 19113. It consists of three classes of conformance: one for quality evaluation, one for evaluating data q ... Read »


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    • Laminar sublayer

    • The laminar sublayer, also called the viscous sublayer, is the region of a mainly-turbulent flow that is near a no-slip boundary and in which the flow is laminar. As such, it is a type of boundary layer. The existence of the laminar sublayer can be understood in that the flow velocity decreases towards the no-slip boun ... Read »


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    • Land cover

    • Land cover is the physical material at the surface of the earth. Land covers include grass, asphalt, trees, bare ground, water, etc. Earth cover is the expression used by ecologist Frederick Edward Clements that has its closest modern equivalent being vegetation. The expression continues to be used by the Bureau of Lan ... Read »


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    • Land systems

    • Land systems are defined as areas or regions with recurring patterns of component parts, in geographical, geological, and ecological terms. Land systems are generally seen in terms of:- and can also have other components that may be recurrent across regional landscapes. They are used extensively in surveys of land u ... Read »


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    • Landlocked developing countries

    • Landlocked developing countries (LLDC) are developing countries that are landlocked. The economic and other disadvantages experienced by such countries makes the majority of landlocked countries least developed countries (LDC), with inhabitants of these countries occupying the bottom billion tier of the world's populat ... Read »


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    • Mainland

    • Mainland is a contiguous landmass that is larger and often politically, economically and/or demographically more significant than politically associated remote territories, such as exclaves or oceanic islands situated outside the continental shelf. In geography, "mainland" can denote the continental (i.e. non-insular) ... Read »


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    • Map

    • A map is a symbolic depiction emphasizing relationships between elements of some space, such as objects, regions, or themes. Many maps are static, fixed to paper or some other durable medium, while others are dynamic or interactive. Although most commonly used to depict geography, maps may represent any space, real or ... Read »


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    • Minimum bounding rectangle

    • The minimum bounding rectangle (MBR), also known as bounding box or envelope, is an expression of the maximum extents of a 2-dimensional object (e.g. point, line, polygon) or set of objects within its (or their) 2-D (x, y) coordinate system, in other words min(x), max(x), min(y), max(y). The MBR is a 2-dimensional case ... Read »


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    • Motor Vehicle Use Map

    • Motor Vehicle Use Map is a legal tool for the USDA Forest Service to comply with and enforce the USDA's Travel Rule. While widely regarded as specific to off highway vehicles, it actually covers all public motorized use on all Forest Service roads and trails. The map itself is black and white, with little reference inf ... Read »


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    • Mountain research

    • Mountain research or montology, traditionally also known as orology (from Greek oros ὄρος for 'mountain' and logos λόγος), is a field of research that regionally concentrates on the Earth's surface's part covered by mountain landscapes. Different approaches have been developed to defin ... Read »


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    • Natural landscape

    • A natural landscape is the original landscape that exists before it is acted upon by human culture. The natural landscape and the cultural landscape are separate parts of the landscape. However, in the twenty-first century landscapes that are totally untouched by human activity no longer exist, so that reference is som ... Read »


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    • Pan-region

    • A pan-region is a geographic region or state’s sphere of economic, political and cultural influence extending beyond that state's borders. For example, the pan-region of the United States of America (USA) includes regions both bordering the USA and its close neighbors including, Canada, Mexico, and many South Amer ... Read »


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    • Place identity

    • Place identity or place-based identity refers to a cluster of ideas about place and identity in the fields of geography, urban planning, urban design, landscape architecture, environmental psychology, ecocriticism and urban sociology/ecological sociology. It concerns the meaning and significance of places for their inh ... Read »


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    • Plantmaps

    • Plantmaps.com is reference website that contains several interactive maps and tools to assist gardeners, botanists, farmers and horticulturalists. By entering a ZIP code, users can find the USDA hardiness zone, first and last frost dates, heat zones, drought conditions and annual climatology for their area. built ... Read »


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    • Population density

    • Population density (in agriculture: and standing crop) is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume; it is a quantity of type number density. It is frequently applied to living organisms, and most of the time to humans. It is a key geographical term. Population density is population divided by tota ... Read »


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    • Primary care service area

    • Primary Care Service Areas are geographic areas that are self-sufficient markets of primary care. These areas are designed in a manner such that the majority of patients living in these areas use primary care services form within the area. This ensures that any geographic targeting of policies and resources reach the p ... Read »


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    • Provisional Administrative Line

    • A Provisional Administrative Line is a de facto border between two political entities. Examples include part of the border between Ethiopia and Somalia, and the partition between Serbia and the disputed territory of Kosovo The point at issue with Somalia was the Ogaden region, an area that Mogadishu claimed as part of ... Read »


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    • Rank-size distribution

    • Rank-size distribution is the distribution of size by rank, in decreasing order of size. For example, if a data set consists of items of sizes 5, 100, 5, and 8, the rank-size distribution is 100, 8, 5, 5 (ranks 1 through 4). This is also known as the rank-frequency distribution, when the source data are from a frequenc ... Read »


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    • Region

    • In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment (environmental geography). Geographic regions and sub-regions are mostly described by their imprecisely defined, ... Read »


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    • Role of geography in World War I

    • Geography greatly affected the events and outcomes of World War I'. As World War I was one of the first true global conflicts, it was shaped by the influence of multiple nations and each countries unique problems. Other factors helped shape the war and changed the course of fighting. With the rise of imperialism and a ... Read »


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    • Saiful Muluk National Park

    • Saiful Muluk National Park

      Saiful Muluk National Park is located in the Naran Valley in Mansehra District of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, in northern Pakistan. The park was created in 2003. The scenic Saif ul Maluk Lake is in the park. The flora includes the trees, shrubs, perennials, and herbs of the Himalayan Western Himalayan subalpine conifer fo ... Read »


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    • Small Island Developing States

    • Small Island Developing States (SIDS) are low-lying coastal countries that tend to share similar sustainable development challenges, including small but growing populations, limited resources, remoteness, susceptibility to natural disasters, vulnerability to external shocks, excessive dependence on international trade, ... Read »


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    • Solar equator

    • The solar equator is the latitude immediately "under" the sun; where the sun is vertically above at midday. Because of the inclination of the Earth's orbit the solar equator varies during the year, from the Tropic of Capricorn in December to the Tropic of Cancer in June. ... Read »


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    • Sotadic zone

    • The existence of a Sotadic Zone was an hypothesis of the British Orientalist and explorer Sir Richard Francis Burton (1821-1890). He asserted that there exists a geographic zone in which pederasty (romantic-sexual intimacy between a boy and a man) is prevalent and celebrated among the indigenous inhabitants. The name d ... Read »


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    • Spatial analysis

    • Spatial analysis or spatial statistics includes any of the formal techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties. Spatial analysis includes a variety of techniques, many still in their early development, using different analytic approaches and applied in fields as diverse a ... Read »


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    • Spatial association

    • Spatial association is the degree to which things are similarly arranged in space. Analysis of the distribution patterns of two phenomena is done by map overlay. If the distributions are similar, then the spatial association is strong, and vice versa. In a Geographic Information System, the analysis can be done quantit ... Read »


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    • Spatial justice

    • Spatial justice links together social justice and space, most notably in the works of geographers David Harvey and Edward W. Soja. The organization of space is a crucial dimension of human societies and reflects social facts and influences social relations (Henri Lefebvre, 1968, 1972). Consequently, both justice and in ... Read »


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    • Spatial mismatch

    • Spatial mismatch is the mismatch between where low-income households reside and suitable job opportunities. In its original formulation (see below) and in subsequent research, it has mostly been understood as a phenomenon affecting African-Americans, as a result of residential segregation, economic restructuring, and t ... Read »


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    • Spatiomap

    • A spatiomap is document similar to a map, but based on an orthophoto. Often, some annotations are added to the orthophoto. Similar to normal maps, can display a north arrow, a scale bar and cartographical information like the used projection. Spatiomaps are useful when other reliable source are missing for a certain ar ... Read »


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    • Surroundings

    • Surroundings are the area around a given physical or geographical point or place. The exact definition depends on the field. Surroundings can also be used in geography (when it is more precisely known as vicinity, or vicinage) and mathematics, as well as philosophy, with the literal or metaphorically extended definitio ... Read »


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    • Synekism

    • Synekism is a concept in urban studies coined by Edward Soja. It refers to the dynamic formation of the polis state — the union of several small urban settlements under the rule of a "capital" city (or so-called city-state or urban system). Soja's definition of synekism, mentioned in Writing the city spatially, is ... Read »


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    • Territorial entity

    • A territorial entity is an entity that covers a part of the surface of the Earth with specified borders. They can be grouped as follows: ... Read »


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    • Time geography

    • Time geography or time-space geography is an evolving transdisciplinary perspective on spatial and temporal processes and events such as social interaction, ecological interaction, social and environmental change, and biographies of individuals. Time geography "is not a subject area per se," but rather an integrative o ... Read »


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    • Tobler's first law of geography


    • Triangulated irregular network

    • A triangulated irregular network (TIN) is a digital data structure used in a geographic information system (GIS) for the representation of a surface. A TIN is a vector-based representation of the physical land surface or sea bottom, made up of irregularly distributed nodes and lines with three-dimensional coordinates ( ... Read »


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    • Two-step floating catchment area method

    • The two-step floating catchment area (2SFCA) method is a method for combining a number of related types of information into a single, immediately meaningful, index that allows comparisons to be made across different locations. Its importance lies in the improvement over considering the individual sources of information ... Read »


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