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  • Gender studies

    Gender studies

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    • Gender studies academics

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    • Biology of gender

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    • Gender and entertainment

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    • Gender equality

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    • Feminist theory

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    • Gender identity related violence

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    • Gender roles by society

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    • Gender studies awards

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    • Gender-related violence

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    • Intersectionality

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    • Gender studies literature

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    • Masculism

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    • Men's studies


    • Gender studies organizations

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    • Privilege (social inequality)

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    • Queer studies

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    • Queer theory

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    • Sex differences in psychology

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    • Third gender

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    • Women's rights


    • Women's studies


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    • Gender studies

    • Gender studies is a field for interdisciplinary study devoted to gender identity and gendered representation as central categories of analysis. This field includes women's studies (concerning women, feminism, gender, and politics), men's studies and queer studies. Sometimes, gender studies is offered together with stud ... Read »


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    • Abortion

    • Abortion is the ending of pregnancy by removing a fetus or embryo before it can survive outside the uterus. An abortion which occurs spontaneously is also known as a miscarriage. An abortion may be caused purposely and is then called an induced abortion, or less frequently, "induced miscarriage". The word abortion is o ... Read »


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    • Ambivalent sexism

    • Ambivalent sexism is a theoretical framework which posits that sexism has two sub-components: "hostile sexism" and "benevolent sexism". Hostile sexism reflects overtly negative evaluations and stereotypes about a gender (e.g., the ideas that women are incompetent and inferior to men). Benevolent sexism represents evalu ... Read »


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    • Androphobia

    • Androphobia is an abnormal fear of men,. a type of specific social phobia. The word is from Ancient Greek: ἀνήρ, anēr, genitive ἀνδρός, andros, "man"; and φόβος, phóbos, "fear". In the past the word "androphobia" also has been used to refer to fear of crowds of ... Read »


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    • Asia-Japan Women's Resource Center


    • Bem Sex-Role Inventory

    • The Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) is a measure of masculinity-femininity and gender roles. It assesses how people identify themselves psychologically. Sandra Bem's goal of the BSRI was to examine psychological androgyny and provide empirical evidence to show the advantage of a shared masculine and feminine personality ... Read »


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    • Bicycling and feminism

    • Women gained a significant amount of independence with the invention of the bicycle. This device gave them the freedom to travel outside the home of their own power. Bicycle riding also necessitated more practical clothing for women and led to significant changes to female attire in society. One individual from the tim ... Read »


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    • Bisexuality

    • Bisexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction, or sexual behavior toward both males and females, or romantic or sexual attraction to people of any sex or gender identity; this latter aspect is sometimes alternatively termed pansexuality. The term bisexuality is mainly used in the context of human attraction to ... Read »


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    • Black Girl Magic

    • Black Girl Magic (#BlackGirlMagic) is a concept and movement that was popularized by CaShawn Thompson in 2013. The concept was born as a way to "celebrate the beauty, power and resilience of black women," as described by Julee Wilson from The Huffington Post, and to congratulate black women on their accomplishments. Re ... Read »


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    • The Bro Code: How Contemporary Culture Creates Sexist Men

    • The Bro Code: How Contemporary Culture Creates Sexist Men is a documentary created by Thomas Keith in 2011. The film has been described as a treatise on misogyny. Thomas Keith is a professor at California Polytechnic University and Claremont Graduate University where he teaches philosophy and gender studies. His spec ... Read »


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    • Carefree Black Girls

    • Carefree Black Girls is a concept and movement that reportedly first emerged on the Tumblr platform; writer Zeba Blay was the first person to use the expression as a hashtag on Twitter in May 2013. Danielle Hawkins soon launched a blog on Tumblr by the same name. Writing at The Root, Diamond Sharp describes "carefree b ... Read »


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    • Cass identity model

    • The Cass identity model is one of the fundamental theories of gay and lesbian identity development, developed in 1979 by Vivienne Cass. This model was one of the first to treat gay people as "normal" in a heterosexist society and in a climate of homophobia instead of treating homosexuality itself as a problem. Cass des ... Read »


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    • Chicana feminism

    • Chicana feminism, also called Xicanisma, is a sociopolitical movement in the United States that analyzes the historical, cultural, spiritual, educational, and economic intersections of Mexican-American women that identify as Chicana. Chicana feminism challenges the stereotypes that Chicanas face across lines of gender, ... Read »


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    • Chonga

    • Chonga is a Spanish-derived term used especially in South Florida, often to indicate a working-class, sexualized, aggressive, and emotionally expressive young woman. Chongas are also a distinct subculture, believed to have developed in Miami in the late 20th century. Members are typically young, working-class Latina w ... Read »


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    • Climate change and gender

    • Climate change and gender is concerned with gender differences in the context of climate change and the complex and intersecting power relations arising from it. By altering the ecosystems of the planet, climate change, and more specifically global warming, directly impacts the human race. These effects vary for differ ... Read »


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    • Coloniality of gender

    • The coloniality of gender is a concept developed by feminist philosopher María Lugones, which she defines as "the analysis of racialized, capitalist, gender oppression", while the process of potentially overcoming this phenomenon can be defined as "decolonial feminism". Central to these terms is the definition and r ... Read »


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    • Committee to Ratify the Massachusetts State Equal Rights Amendment

    • Founded in 1975, the Committee to Ratify the Massachusetts State Equal Rights Amendment sought to replace the Massachusetts State ERA Coalition and carry out the mission of ratifying the Equal Rights Amendment. The Committee to Ratify the Massachusetts State Equal Rights Amendment replaced the Massachusetts State ERA C ... Read »


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    • Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women

    • CEDAW

      The Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) is an international treaty adopted in 1979 by the United Nations General Assembly. Described as an international bill of rights for women, it was instituted on 3 September 1981 and has been ratified by 189 states. Over fifty countrie ... Read »


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    • A Cyborg Manifesto

    • A Cyborg Manifesto is an essay written by Donna Haraway and published in 1984. In it, the concept of the cyborg is a rejection of rigid boundaries, notably those separating "human" from "animal" and "human" from "machine." She writes: "The cyborg does not dream of community on the model of the organic family, this time ... Read »


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    • Difference feminism

    • Taking for granted an equal moral status as persons, difference feminism asserts that there are differences between men and women that are not or should not be considered equally. The term "difference feminism" developed during the "equality-versus-difference debate" in American feminism in the 1980s and 1990s, but su ... Read »


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    • Disciplining gendered bodies

    • Disciplining gendered bodies is the practice of conforming one's body to society's standards and expectations. There are various visible ways in which people and cultures consciously and unconsciously maintain binary heteronormative norms, which involve choices of female or male gender actions and performances. Common ... Read »


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    • Discrimination towards non-binary gender persons

    • Discrimination towards gender variant persons who fall outside of the gender binary is prejudice towards individuals whose gender identity does not fit the gender binary as strictly male or female. It can be identified as a type of transphobia and sexism. It affects third gender, genderqueer, agender, and other non-bin ... Read »


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    • École Polytechnique massacre


    • EGM: prevention of violence against women and girls

    • EGM: prevention of violence against women and girls

      The Expert Group Meeting (EGM): prevention of violence against women and girls was convened as part of the United Nations Commission on the Status of Women's multi-year programme of work for 2010-2014. The "Elimination and prevention of all forms of violence against women and girls" forms a priority theme for its fifty ... Read »


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    • Equal Rights Amendment

    • The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) was a proposed amendment to the United States Constitution designed to guarantee equal rights for women. The ERA was originally written by Alice Paul and Crystal Eastman. In 1923, it was introduced in the Congress for the first time. The ERA has always been highly controversial regardin ... Read »


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    • Fassinger's model of gay and lesbian identity development


    • Female labor force in the Muslim world

    • Female participation and advancement in majority Muslim countries, or nations in which more than 50% of the population identifies as an adherent of the Islamic faith, has traditionally been areas of controversy. Several Western nations such as the United States and Western Europe have criticised majority Muslim nations ... Read »


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    • Feminism in Germany

    • Feminism in Germany as a modern movement began during the Wilhelmine period (1888–1918) with individual women and women's rights groups pressuring a range of traditional institutions, from universities to government, to open their doors to women. This movement culminated in women's suffrage in 1919. Later waves of ... Read »


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    • Feminism in Norway

    • The feminist movement in Norway has made significant progress in reforming laws and social customs in the nation, benefiting the women of Norway. In 1840, women status was considered as incapable, that is to say, that it was impossible to enter into any agreement, debts, or even control their own money. They were ... Read »


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    • Feminism in the Netherlands

    • Feminism in the Netherlands began as part of the first-wave feminism movement during the 19th century. Later, the struggles of second-wave feminism in the Netherlands mirrored developments in the women's rights movement in other Western countries. Women in the Netherlands still have an open discussion about how to impr ... Read »


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    • Feminist Library

    • Feminist Library

      The Feminist Library was founded as the Women’s Research and Resources Centre in 1975 by a group of women concerned about the future of the Fawcett Library to ensure that the history of the women's liberation movement survived. The founders included feminist academics like Diana Leonard and Leonore Davidoff. ... Read »


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    • Feminist theory

    • Feminist theory is the extension of feminism into theoretical, fictional, or philosophical discourse. It aims to understand the nature of gender inequality. It examines women's social roles, experience, interests, chores, and feminist politics in a variety of fields, such as anthropology and sociology, communication, p ... Read »


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    • Feminization (sociology)

    • In sociology, feminization is the shift in gender roles and sex roles in a society, group, or organization towards a focus upon the feminine. This is the opposite of a cultural focus upon masculinity. Scholar Ann Douglas chronicled the rise of what she describes as sentimental "feminization" of American mass culture i ... Read »


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    • Feminization of migration

    • In gender studies, the term feminization of migration has been proposed as a suggested "gendered pattern" in international migration. This means that there is a trend of a higher percentage of women among voluntary migrants. According to estimates published by the World Bank, there has been only a slight increase in t ... Read »


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    • Foot binding

    • Foot binding

      Foot binding was the custom of applying painfully tight binding to the feet of young girls to modify the shape of the foot. The practice possibly originated among upper-class court dancers during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period in Imperial China (10th or 11th century), then became popular during the Song dyn ... Read »


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    • Friendship

    • Friendship is a relationship of mutual affection between people. Friendship is a stronger form of interpersonal bond than an association. Friendship has been studied in academic fields such as sociology, social psychology, anthropology, and philosophy. Various academic theories of friendship have been proposed, includi ... Read »


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    • Fuck-me shoes

    • Fuck-me shoes, alternatively fuck-me boots, is a derisive slang term for women's high-heeled shoes that exaggerate a sexual image. The term can be applied to any women's shoes that are worn with the intention of arousing others. It is sometimes used to imply condemnation against the women who choose to wear them or in ... Read »


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    • Sally Gary

    • Sally Gary

      Sally Gary (born September 19, 1961) is a speaker and author on the Christian approach to homosexuality. Gary was born in Wichita Falls, Texas. She grew up going to Tenth and Broad Church of Christ in Wichita Falls. She attended Abilene Christian University and has a law degree from Texas Tech University. In 2006, ... Read »


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    • Gender and emotional expression

    • It can be tempting to generalize when considering the differences between men, women, and the various ways in which they express their emotions; men and women from various cultures have been shown to accept the stereotype that women are more emotional than men. Typically, this perspective on men is only held in cases o ... Read »


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    • Gender differences in suicide

    • Gender differences in suicide rates have been shown to be significant; there are highly asymmetric rates of attempted and completed suicides between males and females. The gap, also called the "gender paradox of suicidal behavior", can vary significantly among different countries. Globally as of 2012[update], death by ... Read »


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    • Gender binary

    • The gender binary, also referred to as gender binarism (sometimes shortened to just binarism), is the classification of sex and gender into two distinct, opposite and disconnected forms of masculine and feminine. Gender binary is one general type of a gender system. Gender binary is one of the core principles of gender ... Read »


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    • Gender democracy

    • Gender democracy is a normative idea related to gender mainstreaming. Its aim is to achieve democratic conditions between men and women within society as a whole, as well as specifically within companies, bureaucracies, and other organizations. Among other things, this is realized by means of gender trainings that rais ... Read »


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    • Gender differences in narcissism

    • Historically, narcissism was defined by Paul Nacke to describe a current client with an autoerotic pervasion for himself. Later in time, Freud believed women to be narcissistic in result to their physical appearance. Social role theory states that women are less domestic than in the past. An increase of narcissistic be ... Read »


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    • Gender disparity in computing

    • Global concerns about the gender disparity in computing occupations have gained more importance with the emerging information age. These concerns motivated public policy debates addressing gender equality as computer applications exerted increasing influence in society. This dialogue helped to expand information techno ... Read »


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    • Gender empowerment

    • Gender empowerment is the empowerment of people of any gender. While conventionally being reduced to its aspect of empowerment of women, the concept stresses the distinction between biological sex and gender as a role, also referring to other marginalized genders in a particular political or social context. Gender emp ... Read »


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    • Gender gaps in mathematics and reading

    • The gender gaps in mathematics and reading achievement refer to the finding that, on average, the two sexes perform differently in mathematics and reading skills on tests. On average, boys and men exceed in mathematics, while girls and women exceed in reading skills. The Programme for International Student Assessment ... Read »


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    • Gender history

    • Gender history is a sub-field of history and gender studies, which looks at the past from the perspective of gender. It is in many ways, an outgrowth of women's history. The discipline considers in what ways historical events and periodization impact women differently from men. For instance, in a seminal article in 197 ... Read »


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    • Gender identity

    • Gender identity is one's personal experience of one's own gender. Gender identity can correlate with assigned sex at birth, or can differ from it completely. All societies have a set of gender categories that can serve as the basis of the formation of a person's social identity in relation to other members of society. ... Read »


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    • Gender in speculative fiction

    • Many writers have chosen to write with little or no questioning of gender roles, instead effectively reflecting their own cultural gender roles onto their fictional world. However, many other writers have chosen to use science fiction and non-realistic formats in order to explore cultural conventions, particularly ... Read »


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    • Gender inequality

    • Gender inequality refers to unequal treatment or perceptions of individuals based on their gender. It arises from differences in socially constructed gender roles.Gender systems are often dichotomous and hierarchical; gender binary systems may reflect the inequalities that manifest in numerous dimensions of daily life. ... Read »


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    • Gender inequality in Nigeria

    • Gender inequality in Nigeria is influenced by different cultures and beliefs. In most parts of Nigeria, women are considered subordinate to their male counterparts, especially in Northern Nigeria. It is generally believed that women are best suited as home keepers. Feminism hadn't appeared in Nigeria much until roughl ... Read »


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    • Gender inequality in the United Kingdom

    • In the United Kingdom, sexism or gender inequality denotes the inconsistencies between individuals due to gender. The topic covers a variety of concerns from education to equal opportunity in terms of employment and wages. In response to the concerns, the government has implemented various legislation, especially ... Read »


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    • Gender mainstreaming

    • Gender mainstreaming is the public policy concept of assessing the different implications for women and men of any planned policy action, including legislation and programmes, in all areas and levels. Mainstreaming essentially offers a pluralistic approach that values the diversity among both men and women. The concep ... Read »


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    • Gender Parity Index

    • The Gender Parity Index (GPI) is a socioeconomic index usually designed to measure the relative access to education of males and females.This index is released by UNESCO. In its simplest form, it is calculated as the quotient of the number of females by the number of males enrolled in a given stage of education (primar ... Read »


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    • Gender Park

    • The Gender Park

      Gender Park is an autonomous institution promoted by the Department of Social Justice, Government of Kerala State, India, to resolve the gender inequity in development. The institution has its headquarters at Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala and its Chief Executive Officer is P.T.Mohammed Sunish who is also the Managing Dire ... Read »


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    • Gender polarization

    • Gender polarization is a concept in sociology by American psychologist Sandra Bem which states that societies tend to define femininity and masculinity as polar opposite genders, such that male-acceptable behaviors and attitudes are not seen as appropriate for women, and vice versa. The theory is an extension of the se ... Read »


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    • Gender policing

    • Gender policing is the imposition or enforcement of normative gender expressions on an individual who is perceived as not adequately performing, through appearance or behavior, the sex that was assigned to them at birth (see gender performativity). Gender policing serves to devalue or delegitimize expressions that devi ... Read »


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    • Gender role

    • A gender role is a set of societal norms dictating the types of behaviors which are generally considered acceptable, appropriate, or desirable for people based on their actual or perceived sex or sexuality. Gender roles are usually centered on conceptions of femininity and masculinity, although there are exceptions and ... Read »


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    • Gender sensitization

    • Gender sensitization refers to the modification of behavior by raising awareness of gender equality concerns. This can be achieved by conducting various sensitization campaigns, workshop, programs etc. Sensitization in the domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, is seen an awareness informed propensity or disposition ... Read »


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    • Gender Studies and Human Rights Documentation Centre

    • The Gender Studies and Human Rights Documentation Centre (Gender Centre) is a non-profit, non-governmental organization that strives to address the issues of gender inequality in Ghana. Based in Accra, Ghana, the Gender Centre has conducted studies on issues ranging from sexual and psychological violence against school ... Read »


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    • Gender systems

    • Gender systems are systems of gender roles in societies. A gender role is "everything that a person says and does to indicate to others or to the self the degree that one is either male, female, or androgynous. This includes but is not limited to sexual and erotic arousal and response."Gender identity is one's own pers ... Read »


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    • Gender Through Comic Books

    • Gender Through Comic Books (also known as #SuperMOOC because of its popular hash tag on Twitter) was a MOOC taught April 2, 2013 through May 18, 2013. More than 7,000 students enrolled in the April 2013 Gender Through Comic Books course taught by Christina Blanch of Ball State University on the Canvas platform. Blanch ... Read »


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    • Gender variance

    • Gender variance, or gender nonconformity, is behavior or gender expression by an individual that does not match masculine and feminine gender norms. People who exhibit gender variance may be called gender variant, gender non-conforming, gender diverse, gender atypical or genderqueer, and may be transgender or otherwise ... Read »


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    • Gender-bias in medical diagnosis

    • Gender-biased diagnosing is a controversialsociological observation which asserts that medical and psychological diagnosis may be influenced by the gender of the patient. Several studies have found evidence of differential diagnosis for patients with similar ailments but of different sexes. The phenomenon may affe ... Read »


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    • Gender-blind

    • A gender-blind (or unisex) person is someone who adheres to not distinguishing people by gender. Gender blind people generally advocate gender neutrality in society such as activities undertaken and services provided without regard to the gender of those who participate. Those who identify as pansexual may also refer t ... Read »


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    • Generation M: Misogyny in Media & Culture


    • Girls' games and toys


    • Global Implementation Plan to End Violence against Women and Girls

    • Global Implementation Plan to End Violence against Women and Girls

      The Global Implementation Plan to End Violence Against Women and Girls was a recommendation from the multi-agency Expert Group Meeting (EGM) on the prevention of violence against women and girls. The meeting was convened as part of the United Nations Commission on the Status of Women's multi-year programme of work for ... Read »


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    • The Global Media Monitoring Project

    • The Global Media Monitoring Project (GMMP) is the largest international study of gender in the news media. It is also an advocacy organization that aims to change the representation of women in the news media. Every five years since 1995 the GMMP collects data on indicators of gender in the news, such as: the presence ... Read »


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    • Gynophobia

    • Gynophobia or gynephobia is an abnormal fear of women, a type of specific social phobia. In the past, the Latin term horror feminae was used. Gynophobia should not be confused with misogyny, the hatred, contempt for and inveterate prejudice against women, although some may use the terms interchangeably, in reference t ... Read »


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    • Daphne Haldin

    • Daphne Haldin (1899–1973) was a British art historian and honourable secretary of the Society of Jews and Christians. Born in 1899 in Norwich to Alfred Haldinstein and Edith Haldinstein, she was one of seven children. Her father Alfred was a shoe manufacturer and merchant, and later became President of the Norwic ... Read »


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    • Hegemonic masculinity

    • In gender studies, hegemonic masculinity is part of R.W. Connell's gender order theory, which recognizes multiple masculinities that vary across time, culture and the individual. Hegemonic masculinity is defined as the current configuration of practice that legitimizes men's dominant position in society and justifies t ... Read »


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    • Heteronormativity

    • Heteronormativity is the belief that people fall into distinct and complementary genders (man and woman) with natural roles in life. It assumes that heterosexuality is the only sexual orientation or only norm, and states that sexual and marital relations are most (or only) fitting between people of opposite sexes. Cons ... Read »


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    • Heterosexism

    • Heterosexism is a system of attitudes, bias, and discrimination in favor of opposite-sex sexuality and relationships. It can include the presumption that other people are heterosexual or that opposite-sex attractions and relationships are the only norm and therefore superior. Although heterosexism is defined in the onl ... Read »


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    • History of homosexuality

    • Societal attitudes towards same-sex relationships have varied over time and place, from expecting all males to engage in same-sex relationships, to casual integration, through acceptance, to seeing the practice as a minor sin, repressing it through law enforcement and judicial mechanisms, and to proscribing it under pe ... Read »


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    • History of human sexuality

    • The social construction of sexual behavior—its taboos, regulation, and social and political impact—has had a profound effect on the various cultures of the world since prehistoric times. The work of Swiss jurist Johann Bachofen made a major impact on the study of the history of sexuality. Many authors, n ... Read »


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    • History of women in engineering

    • The history of women in engineering predates the development of the profession of engineering. Before engineering was recognized as a formal profession, women with engineering skills often sought recognition as inventors, such as Hypatia of Alexandria (350 or 370–415 AD), who is credited with the invention of the ... Read »


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    • Homosexuality

    • Homosexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction or sexual behavior between members of the same sex or gender. As a sexual orientation, homosexuality is "an enduring pattern of emotional, romantic, and/or sexual attractions" to people of the same sex. It "also refers to a person's sense of identity based on thos ... Read »


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    • The impact of globalization on women in China

    • The study of the impact of globalization on women in China examines the role and status of Chinese women relative to the political and cultural changes that have taken place in the 20th century as a consequence of globalization. Globalization refers to the interaction and integration of people, products, cultures and g ... Read »


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    • International Women's Year


    • Intersex

    • External video

      An intersex human or other animal is one possessing any of several variations in sex characteristics including chromosomes, gonads, sex hormones, or genitals that, according to the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, "do not fit the typical definitions for male or female bodies". Such variations may in ... Read »


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    • Discrimination against intersex people

    • Intersex people are born with sex characteristics, such as chromosomes, gonads, or genitals that, according to the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, "do not fit typical binary notions of male or female bodies"; "Because their bodies are seen as different, intersex children and adults are often stigma ... Read »


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    • Intersex human rights

    • Intersex people are born with sex characteristics, such as chromosomes, gonads, or genitals that, according to the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, "do not fit typical binary notions of male or female bodies". Intersex infants and children, such as those with ambiguous outer genitalia, may be surgi ... Read »


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    • Stevi Jackson

    • Stevi Jackson (born 23 June 1951), is an academic and writer working in the field of gender and sexuality. She has been Professor of Women's studies at the University of York, England since 1998, and is Director of the University's Centre for Women's Studies. Stevi Jackson earned her degree in Sociology from the U ... Read »


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    • Gender and Judaism

    • Gender and Judaism is a radical, emerging subfield at the intersection of gender studies and Jewish studies. Gender studies centers on interdisciplinary research on the phenomenon of gender. It focuses on cultural representations of gender and people's lived experience. Jewish studies is a field that looks at Jews and ... Read »


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    • Rebecca J. Keck

    • Mrs. Dr. Rebecca J. Keck (1838–1904), was a 19th-century woman physician and patent medicine entrepreneur and one of the wealthiest independent businesswomen in the Midwest. The oldest daughter in a large Pennsylvania Dutch pioneer farming family, Rebecca Keck (née Ilgenfritz, sometimes spelled Ilginfritz) ... Read »


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    • KvinnSam

    • Coordinates: 57°41′44″N 11°59′07″E / 57.69555°N 11.98529°E / 57.69555; 11.98529 KvinnSam - National Resource Library for Gender Studies, formerly the Women’s History Collections, is the Swedish National Resource Library for Gender Studies. The collections belong to ... Read »


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    • Language and gender

    • Research into the many possible relationships, intersections and tensions between language and gender is diverse. It crosses disciplinary boundaries, and, as a bare minimum, could be said to encompass work notionally housed within applied linguistics, linguistic anthropology, conversation analysis, cultural studies, fe ... Read »


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    • Late termination of pregnancy

    • Late termination of pregnancy (TOP), also known as postviability abortion,induced termination of pregnancy (ITOP), or simply abortion is a termination of pregnancy that is performed during a later stage of pregnancy. Late termination of pregnancy is more controversial than abortion in general because it results in the ... Read »


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    • List of matrilineal or matrilocal societies

    • The following list includes societies that have been identified as matrilineal or matrilocal in ethnographic literature. "Matrilineal" means property is passed down through the maternal line on the death of the mother, not that of the father. The Akans of Ghana, West Africa, are matrlineals. Akans are the largest eth ... Read »


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    • List of women who led a revolt or rebellion

    • This is a list of women who led a revolt or rebellion. A revolt is an organized attempt to overthrow an existing body of state authority through a rebellion, or uprising. ... Read »


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    • Male Studies in the Caribbean

    • Men's Studies in the Caribbean is an emerging interdisciplinary field that has its roots in family studies programs of the 1950s and 60s, and in feminine studies programs of the 1970s and 80s. In the Caribbean Gender studies have concentrated primarily on “retrieving Caribbean women from historical ‘invisibil ... Read »


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    • Masculism

    • Masculism or masculinism may variously refer to advocacy of the rights or needs of men and boys; the adherence to or promotion of opinions, values, attitudes, etc. regarded as typical of men and boys. The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) defines masculism as a synonym of masculinism which the OED regards as the "ad ... Read »


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    • Matriarchy

    • Matriarchy is a social system in which females hold primary power, predominate in roles of political leadership, moral authority, social privilege and control of property at the specific exclusion of men, at least to a large degree. While those definitions apply in general English, definitions specific to the disciplin ... Read »


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    • Media and gender

    • Media and gender refers to the relationship between media and gender and how representations of the different genders created for and by mass media. Media can range from newspapers, magazines, comic strips, novels, CDs and music videos. These representations can influence the general public's perception of the differen ... Read »


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    • Media portrayals of transgender people

    • The portrayal of transgender people in the media list includes portrayals of transsexuals and many other non-cisgender identities in the mass media. Transgender (trans) is the state of one's gender identity or gender expression not matching one's assigned sex. Transgender men are people assigned female at birth wh ... Read »


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    • Men's studies


    • Mario Mieli

    • Mario Mieli (21 May 1952, Milan – 12 March 1983) was a leading figure in the Italian gay movement of the 1970s. He combined a radical theoretical perspective with a provocative public persona. His sometimes outrageous public behavior made him a controversial figure, but he was nonetheless respected as one of the m ... Read »


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    • Multiple gender attraction

    • Multiple gender attraction (sometimes multi-gender attraction), abbreviated MGA, is an umbrella term that includes any romantic or sexual orientation which experiences attraction to more than one gender. Such orientations include, but are not limited to, bisexuality, pansexuality, and polysexuality. ... Read »


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    • National Women's Front


    • Neofeminism

    • Neofeminism describes an emerging view of women as becoming empowered through the celebration of attributes perceived to be conventionally feminine, that is, it glorifies a womanly essence over claims to equality with men. It is a term that has come into use in the early 21st century to refer to a popular culture trend ... Read »


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    • Neuroscience of sex differences

    • Neuroscience of sex differences is the study of the characteristics of the brain that separate the male brain and the female brain. Psychological sex differences are thought by some to reflect the interaction of genes, hormones and social learning on brain development throughout the lifespan. Some evidence from brain ... Read »


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    • UCLA Center for the Study of Women

    • UCLA Center for the Study of Women (CSW) is an organized unit at the University of California, Los Angeles and a member of the National Council for Research on Women. Founded in 1984, the center works to develop and disseminate faculty and graduate student research on gender, sexuality, and women's issues through confe ... Read »


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    • Paper abortion

    • Paper abortion, also known as a financial abortion or a statutory abort, is a term that refers to the proposed ability of the biological father, before the birth of the child, to opt out of any rights, privileges, and responsibilities toward the child, including financial support. By this means, before a child is born ... Read »


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    • Patriarchy

    • Patriarchy is a social system in which males hold primary power and predominate in roles of political leadership, moral authority, social privilege and control of property. In the domain of the family, fathers or father-figures hold authority over women and children. Some patriarchal societies are also patrilineal, mea ... Read »


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    • Patriarchy (book)

    • Patriarchy is a 2007 book by V. Geetha, an academic activist and author on the subject of patriarchy in India. The book, written from the female perspective, is part of the "Theorizing Feminism" series published by Stree (an imprint of Bhatkal and Sen). Three editions have been published. In India, patriarchy disr ... Read »


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    • Pershing Angels

    • Pershing Angels

      The National Society Pershing Angels is a military-based drill sorority for women founded in 1965 as a Coed Affiliate drill unit of Pershing Rifles at Morgan State University. It is the oldest continuously operating U.S. national women's college organization dedicated to drill. The National Society of Pershing Ang ... Read »


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    • Philandry

    • Philandry is fondness, love, or admiration towards men. Its antonym is misandry. Philandry comes from philo- (loving) and Greek andro (man). The parallel Greek-based terms with respect to women (females) are philogyny for "fondness towards women" and misogyny for "hatred of women". Parallel terms for humanity generall ... Read »


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    • Philogyny

    • Philogyny is fondness, love, or admiration towards women. Its antonym is misogyny. Cicero reports the word could be used in Greek philosophy to denote being overly fond of women, which was considered a disease along with misogyny. Christian Groes-Green has argued that the conceptual content of philogyny must be devel ... Read »


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    • Pornographication

    • Pornographication, sometimes referred to as raunch culture, denotes the intrusion of the style and contents of the sex industry into mainstream culture (music, television, Hollywood movies) and the sexualisation of Western culture. Pornographication, particularly sexualising the images of women, is said to demonstrate ... Read »


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    • Postfeminism

    • The term postfeminism (alternatively rendered as post-feminism) is used to describe reactions against contradictions and absences in feminism, especially second-wave feminism and third-wave feminism. The term postfeminism is sometimes confused with "4th wave-feminism", and "women of color feminism" (e.g. hooks, 1996; S ... Read »


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    • Postmodern feminism

    • Postmodern feminism is an approach to feminist theory that incorporates postmodern and post-structuralist theory, seeing itself as moving beyond the modernist polarities of liberal feminism and radical feminism. Feminism has been seen as having an affinity to postmodern philosophy through a shared interest in speech a ... Read »


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    • Power-control theory of gender and delinquency

    • In criminology, the power-control theory of gender and delinquency (abbreviated as the power-control theory) holds the gender distribution of is caused by stratification from gender relations within the family. The theory seeks to explain gender differences in the rates of delinquency by attributing them to the level ... Read »


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    • Privilege (social inequality)

    • Privilege is a social theory that special rights or advantages are available only to a particular person or group of people. The term is commonly used in the context of social inequality, particularly in regard to age, disability, ethnic or racial category, gender, sexual orientation, religion and/or social class. Two ... Read »


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    • Instituto Promundo

    • Promundo

      Promundo is a Brazilian-based, non-governmental organization with offices in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Goma, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Washington, DC, USA, that work in collaboration to promote caring, non-violent and equitable masculinities and gender relations in Brazil and internationally. Promundo's work ... Read »


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    • Psychology's Feminist Voices


    • Queer theory

    • Queer theory is a field of post-structuralist critical theory that emerged in the early 1990s out of the fields of queer studies and women's studies. Queer theory includes both queer readings of texts and the theorisation of 'queerness' itself. Heavily influenced by the work of Lauren Berlant, Leo Bersani, Judith Butle ... Read »


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    • Reich Bride Schools

    • The Reich Bride Schools (German: Reichsbräuteschule) were institutions established in Nazi Germany in the late 1930s. They were created to train young women to be "perfect Nazi brides," indoctrinated in Nazi ideology and educated in housekeeping skills. The fiancées of prominent SS members and senior Nazi Party o ... Read »


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    • Josette Rey-Debove

    • Josette Rey-Debove, born November 16, 1929 in Calais (Pas-de-Calais), France and died February 22, 2005 in Senegal, was a lexicographer and semiologist, wife and colleague of Alain Rey. She was the first female lexicographer in France, and held many prominent posts in this field, where she used her influence to promote ... Read »


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    • Sacred feminine

    • A goddess is a female deity in polytheistic religions. Goddesses most often have feminine characteristics that are apotheosize in their pure form. However, in some cases goddesses may embody neutral forms personifying both male and female characteristics (like Sophia), or they may even exhibit traits that are tradition ... Read »


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    • Separate spheres

    • 'Separate spheres or the domestic–public dichotomy is an ideology that defines and prescribes separate spheres for women and men. Culturally located in Europe and North America, it emerged as a distinct ideology during the Industrial Revolution, although the basic idea of gendered separation of spheres is much old ... Read »


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    • Seriality (gender studies)

    • Seriality or serial collectivity is a term that feminist scholar Iris Marion Young used to describe a reconceptualization of the category of woman in her 1994 essay Gender as Seriality. Young borrows the concept of seriality from Sartre's Critique of Dialectical Reason, where he originally developed the idea to describ ... Read »


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    • Sex and gender distinction

    • The distinction between sex and gender differentiates sex (the anatomy of an individual's reproductive system, and secondary sex characteristics) from gender, which can refer to either social roles based on the sex of the person (gender role) or personal identification of one's own gender based on an internal awareness ... Read »


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    • Sex differences in autism

    • Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are currently more commonly diagnosed in males, with a ratio of about 1 female for every 4 males diagnosed. Currently, one in every 189 females and one in 42 males is diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). There is some evidence that females may also receive diagnoses somewhat la ... Read »


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    • Sex differences in schizophrenia

    • Schizophrenia is diagnosed in more men than women, with a male to female ratio of 1.4:1. Women are more likely than men to experience an emergence of psychotic features later in life. Women tend to display more emotional and psychotic symptoms than men. Researchers are finding that gender is also useful in understandin ... Read »


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    • Sexual assault

    • Sexual assault is a sexual act in which a person is coerced or physically forced to engage against their will, or non-consensual sexual touching of a person. Sexual assault is a form of sexual violence, and it includes rape (such as forced vaginal, anal or oral penetration or drug facilitated sexual assault), groping, ... Read »


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    • The Sexual Paradox

    • The Sexual Paradox is a book by Susan Pinker published by Scribner in 2008. Pinker is a psychologist and columnist for The Globe and Mail.The Sexual Paradox was 2009 winner of the American Psychological Association's annual William James Book Award, a New York Times "Editor's Choice", and one of the "Best Books" review ... Read »


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    • Sexual violence

    • Sexual violence is any sexual act or attempt to obtain a sexual act by violence or coercion, acts to traffic a person or acts directed against a person's sexuality, regardless of the relationship to the victim. It occurs in times of peace and armed conflict situations, is widespread and is considered to be one of the m ... Read »


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    • Sexual violence by intimate partners

    • Sexual violence by intimate partners deals with the incidence by country of physical abuse, forced sex, or marital rape, experienced by women within the context of domestic violence. Domestic sexual violence, such as forced sex or marital rape, may follow or be part of physical abuse, but is not always the case. I ... Read »


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    • Sexualism

    • Sexualism is either discrimination based on sexuality, or sexuality itself. Its most common form is heterosexism. Sexualism is discrimination against a person or group on the basis of their sexual orientation or sexual behavior. It usually refers to a predisposition towards heterosexual people, which is biased aga ... Read »


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    • Sexualization

    • Sexualization (or sexualisation) is to make something sexual in character or quality, or to become aware of sexuality, especially in relation to men and women. Sexualization is linked to sexual objectification. The term "sexualization" itself only emerged in Anglophone discourse in recent decades. Beginning in the mid- ... Read »


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    • Smurfette principle

    • The Smurfette principle is the practice in fiction, such as film and television series, to include only one woman in an otherwise entirely male ensemble. It establishes a male-dominated narrative, where the woman is the exception and exists only in reference to the men. As a consequence, works employing this trope ofte ... Read »


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    • Sociology of gender

    • Sociology of gender is a prominent subfield of sociology. Social interaction directly correlated with sociology regarding social structure. One of the most important social structures is status. This is determined based on position that an individual possesses which effects how he/she will be treated by society. One of ... Read »


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    • Special measures for gender equality in the United Nations

    • The United Nations Secretariat, in September 1999, promulgated Administrative Instruction (AI) on "Special Measures for the Achievement Of Gender Equality" (ST/AI/1999/9 also Gender Equality A/I), to strengthen and expedite measures to achieve gender equality, especially in posts in the Professional category. Gender Eq ... Read »


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    • Third gender

    • Third gender or third sex is a concept in which individuals are categorized, either by themselves or by society, as neither man nor woman. It also describes a social category present in those societies that recognize three or more genders. The term third is usually understood to mean "other"; some anthropologists and s ... Read »


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    • Transgender

    • Transgender people are people who have a gender identity or gender expression that differs from their assigned sex. Transgender people are sometimes called transsexual if they desire medical assistance to transition from one sex to another. Transgender is also an umbrella term: in addition to including people whose gen ... Read »


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    • Water supply and women in developing countries

    • Water supply and women in developing countries is a complex topic, as lack of accessible, sufficient, clean and affordable water supply has adverse impacts specifically related to women in developing nations. In most countries, women are the primary household members responsible for providing water for domestic consump ... Read »


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    • Gloria Wekker

    • Gloria Wekker

      Gloria Daisy Wekker (born June 13, 1950) is an Afro-Surinamese Dutch educator and writer who has focused on gender studies and sexuality in the Afro-Caribbean region and diaspora. She was the winner of the Ruth Benedict Prize from the American Anthropological Association in 2007. Gloria Wekker was born in 1950 in ... Read »


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    • Women and government in the Philippines

    • Women and government in the Philippines describes the trend on how women in the Philippines participate in the politics and governance of the Republic of the Philippines throughout its history. There had been a gradual increase in the number of Filipino women participating in Philippine politics, both at the local and ... Read »


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    • Women and religion

    • The study of women and religion typically examines the role of women within particular religious faiths, and religious doctrines relating to gender, gender roles, and particular women in religious history. According to the Christian Bible, wives are expected to be submissive in many ways. They are asked not only t ... Read »


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    • Women and the environment

    • In the early 1960s, an interest in women and their connection with the environment was sparked, largely by a book written by Esther Boserup entitled Woman's Role in Economic Development. Starting in the 1980s, policy makers and governments became more mindful of the connection between the environment and gender issues. ... Read »


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    • Women artists

    • While female artists have been involved in making art throughout history, their work often has not been as well acknowledged as that of men. Often certain media are associated with women artists, such as textile arts. Women's roles in relation to art, of course, vary in different cultures and communities. Many art form ... Read »


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    • Women as theological figures

    • Women as theological figures have played a significant role in the development of various religions and religious hierarchies. The study of women and religion typically examines the role of women within particular religious faiths, and religious doctrines relating to gender, gender roles, and particular women in religi ... Read »


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    • Women in architecture

    • Women in architecture have been documented for many centuries, as professional (or amateur) practitioners, educators and clients. Since architecture became organized as a profession in 1857, the number of women in architecture has been low. At the end of the 19th century, starting in Finland, certain schools of archite ... Read »


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    • Women in computing

    • Historically, women in computing have had an effect on the evolution of the industry, with some of the first programmers during the early 20th century being female. In the 2000s, women have also had leadership roles in computer companies, such as Elizabeth Holmes, Founder, Chairman, President and Chief Executive Office ... Read »


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    • Women in computing in Canada

    • Canada shares many of the concerns particularly prevalent in the developed and developing world about the current and future roles of women in computing, especially as these occupations increase in importance. As in much of the world where computing and information technology is a large industry, women have historicall ... Read »


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    • Women in engineering

    • Women have contributed to the diverse fields of engineering in modern and historical times. Women are often under-represented in the fields of engineering, both in academia and in the profession of engineering. A number of organizations and programs have been created to understand and overcome this tradition of gender ... Read »


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    • Women in engineering in the United States

    • Historically, women in the United States have been represented at lower rates than men in both science and engineering college programs and careers. Over time, this pattern has led to a significantly higher concentration of male professional engineers compared to women. Additionally, this disparity has led to careers i ... Read »


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    • Women in geology

    • Women in geology concerns the history and contributions of women to the field of geology. There has been a long history of women in the field, but they have tended to be under-represented. In the era before the eighteenth century, science and geological science had not been as formalized as they would become later. Hen ... Read »


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    • Women in governments of Israel

    • Since the founding of the State of Israel, relatively few women have served in the Israeli government, and fewer still have served in the leading ministerial offices. While Israel is one of a small number of countries where a woman—Golda Meir—has served as Prime Minister, it is behind most Western countries i ... Read »


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    • Women in journalism

    • External video

      As journalism became a profession, women were restricted by custom from access to journalism occupations, and faced significant discrimination within the profession. Nevertheless, women operated as editors, reporters, sports analysts and journalists even before the 1890s. Canadian born Florence MacLeod Harper was ... Read »


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    • Women in medicine

    • Historically and presently, in many parts of the world, women's participation in the profession of medicine (as physicians or surgeons for instance) has been significantly restricted. However, women's informal practice of medicine in roles such as caregivers or as allied health professionals has been widespread. Most c ... Read »


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    • Women in philosophy

    • Women have engaged in philosophy throughout the field's history. While there were women philosophers since ancient times, and a relatively small number were accepted as philosophers during the ancient, medieval, modern and contemporary eras, particularly during the 20th and 21st century, almost no woman philosophers ha ... Read »


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    • Women in photography

    • The participation of women in photography goes back to the very origins of the process. Several of the earliest women photographers, most of whom were from Britain or France, were married to male pioneers or had close relationships with their families. It was above all in northern Europe that women first entered the bu ... Read »


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    • Women in government

    • Women in government in the modern era are under-represented in most countries worldwide. Even though some progress has been made during the last two centuries, and women are increasingly being politically elected to be heads of state and government, this tendency is still persistent. As of January 2017, the global part ... Read »


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    • Women in the military

    • For over 3,000 years in a large number of cultures and nations, women have played many roles in the military, from ancient warrior women, to the women currently serving in conflicts, although the vast majority of all combatants in every culture have been men. Even though women serving in the military has often been di ... Read »


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    • Women in the military by country

    • Recent history of changes in women's roles includes having women in the military in many countries. Female soldiers in Eritrea played a large role in both the Eritrean civil war and the border dispute with Ethiopia, because they make up more than 30% of the Eritrean military. They also serve in direct combat opera ... Read »


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    • Women in the military in Europe

    • European countries have had varying policies that confine women and military service or the extent of their participation in the national armed services of their respective countries, especially combatant roles in armed conflicts or hostile environments. While most of the countries have always allowed women to particip ... Read »


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    • Women in the military in the Americas

    • This article is about the role played by women in the military in the Americas, particularly in the United States and Canada from the First World War to modern times. The first participation of a woman in combat occurred in 1823. Maria Quitéria de Jesus fought for the maintenance of the independence of Brazil, ... Read »


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    • Women in the workforce

    • Women in the workforce earning wages or a salary are part of a modern phenomenon, one that developed at the same time as the growth of paid employment for men, but women have been challenged by inequality in the workforce. Until modern times, legal and cultural practices, combined with the inertia of longstanding relig ... Read »


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    • Women Surrealists

    • Women Surrealists are women artists, photographers, filmmakers and authors connected with the Surrealist Movement, which began in the early 1920s. ... Read »


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    • Women to the Top

    • Women to the Top (W2T) was a European project for bringing more women into top management. It was funded by the European Commission and ran 2003-2005 in Estonia, Denmark, Greece and Sweden, culminating in a transnational conference in Stockholm, 24–25 January 2005. The total budget was 5.6 million SEK (half a mill ... Read »


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    • Women's rights


    • Women's studies


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  • What Else?

    • Gender studies

Extras