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    Food science

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Food science

    • Food engineers

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    • Flavors

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Flavors


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    • Food chemistry

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Food chemistry


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    • Food databases

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Food databases


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    • Food science institutes

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Food science institutes


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    • Molecular gastronomy

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Molecular gastronomy


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    • Oenology

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Oenology


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    • Food preservation

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Food preservation


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    • Food processing

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Food processing


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    • Food scientists

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Food scientists


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    • Food sensitivity

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    • Food technology

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Food technology


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    • Food science

    • Food science is the applied science devoted to the study of food. The Institute of Food Technologists defines food science as "the discipline in which the engineering, biological, and physical sciences are used to study the nature of foods, the causes of deterioration, the principles underlying food processing, and the ... Read »


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    • Acesulfame potassium

    • Acesulfame potassium

      Acesulfame potassium (ace-SUHL-faym), also known as acesulfame K (K is the symbol for potassium) or Ace K, is a calorie-free sugar substitute (artificial sweetener), and marketed under the trade names Sunett and Sweet One. In the European Union, it is known under the E number (additive code) E950. It was discovered acc ... Read »


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    • Adverse food reaction

    • An adverse food reaction is an adverse response by the body to food or a specific type of food. The most common adverse reaction is a food allergy, which is an adverse immune response to either a specific type or a range of food proteins. However, other adverse responses to food are not allergies. These reactions inc ... Read »


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    • Agriculture Week

    • Agriculture Week

      Agriculture Week is a weekly agricultural and food science research newspaper reporting on the latest developments in agriculture and food production. Its main topics are Agribusiness, Crops, Livestock and Markets. It is published by Vertical News, an imprint of NewsRx, LLC. ... Read »


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    • Alberta Food Composition Database

    • The Alberta Food Composition Database (AFCDB) is the first comprehensive resource on food constituents, chemistry and biology dedicated to major Alberta-grown produce. It provides information on both macronutrients and micronutrients, including many of the constituents that give foods their flavor, color, taste, textur ... Read »


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    • Annatto

    • Annatto (/əˈnætoʊ/ or /əˈnɑːtoʊ/) is an orange-red condiment and food coloring derived from the seeds of the achiote tree (Bixa orellana). It is often used to impart a yellow or orange color to foods, but sometimes also for its flavor and aroma. Its scent is described as "slightly peppery wit ... Read »


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    • Aseptic processing

    • Aseptic processing is the process by which a sterile (aseptic) product (typically food or pharmaceutical) is packaged in a sterile container in a way that maintains sterility. Sterility is achieved with a flash-heating process (temperature between 195 and 295 °F (91 to 146 °C)), which retains more nutrient ... Read »


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    • Aspartame-acesulfame salt

    • Aspartame-acesulfame salt

      Aspartame-acesulfame salt is an artificial sweetener marketed under the name Twinsweet. It is produced by soaking a 2-1 mixture of aspartame and acesulfame potassium in an acidic solution and allowing it to crystallize; moisture and potassium are removed during this process. It is approximately 350 times as sweet as su ... Read »


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    • Atwater system

    • The Atwater system (after Wilbur Olin Atwater) or derivatives of this system are used for the calculation of the available energy of foods. The system was developed largely from the experimental studies of Atwater and his colleagues in the later part of the 19th century and the early years of the 20th at Wesleyan Unive ... Read »


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    • Baking


    • Baumé scale


    • Bletting

    • Bletting is a process of softening that certain fleshy fruits undergo, beyond ripening. There are some fruits that are either sweeter after some bletting, such as sea buckthorn, or for which most varieties can be eaten raw only after bletting, such as medlars, persimmons, quince, service tree fruit, and wild service tr ... Read »


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    • Brix

    • Degrees Brix (symbol °Bx) is the sugar content of an aqueous solution. One degree Brix is 1 gram of sucrose in 100 grams of solution and represents the strength of the solution as percentage by mass. If the solution contains dissolved solids other than pure sucrose, then the °Bx only approximates the dissolved so ... Read »


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    • Butter grading

    • Butter grading involves the grading, inspection, assessment and sorting of butter to quantify its quality, freshness, and conformity to legal requirements. Butter sold in the United States is assigned one of three letter grades; AA, A, and B. By a 1923 act of Congress, all butter sold in the United States must be ... Read »


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    • A calorie is a calorie

    • "A calorie is a calorie" is a tautology used to convey the speaker's conviction that the concept of the "calorie" is in fact a sufficient way to describe energy content of food. It has been a commonly cited truism since the early 1960s. The tautological phrase means that regardless of the form of food calorie a person ... Read »


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    • Caramelization

    • Caramelization is the browning of sugar, a process used extensively in cooking for the resulting sweet nutty flavor and brown color. The brown colors are produced by three groups of polymers: caramelans (C24H36O18), caramelens (C36H50O25), and caramelins (C125H188O80). As the process occurs, volatile chemicals such as ... Read »


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    • List of cholesterol in foods

    • This list consists of common foods with their cholesterol content recorded in milligrams per 100 grams (3.5 ounces) of food. Cholesterol is a sterol, a steroid-like hormone made by animals, including humans. The human body makes one-eighth to one-fourth teaspoons of pure cholesterol daily. A cholesterol level o ... Read »


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    • Clarifying agent

    • Clarifying agents are used to remove suspended solids from liquids by inducing flocculation (the solids begin to aggregate forming flakes, which either precipitate to the bottom or float to the surface of the liquid, and then they can be removed or collected). Particles finer than 0.1 µm (10−7m) in wate ... Read »


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    • Cochineal

    • Cochineal

      Coccus cacti Linnaeus, 1758Pseudococcus cacti Burmeister, 1839 The cochineal (/kɒtʃᵻˈniːl/ koch-i-NEEL or /ˈkɒtʃᵻniːl/ KOCH-i-neel; Dactylopius coccus) is a scale insect in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, from which the natural dye carmine is derived. A primarily sessile parasite native ... Read »


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    • Codex Alimentarius

    • The Codex Alimentarius (Latin for "Food Code") is a collection of internationally recognized standards, codes of practice, guidelines, and other recommendations relating to foods, food production, and food safety. Its name is derived from the Codex Alimentarius Austriacus. Its texts are developed and maintained by the ... Read »


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    • Conventionally grown

    • Conventionally grown is an agriculture term referring to a method of growing edible plants (such as fruit and vegetables) and other products. It is opposite to organic growing methods which attempt to produce without synthetic chemicals (fertilizers, pesticides, antibiotics, hormones) or genetically modified organisms. ... Read »


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    • Cooking oil

    • Cooking oil is plant, animal, or synthetic fat used in frying, baking, and other types of cooking. It is also used in food preparation and flavouring not involving heat, such as salad dressings and bread dips, and in this sense might be more accurately termed edible oil. Cooking oil is typically a liquid at room tempe ... Read »


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    • DATEM

    • DATEM (diacetyl tartaric acid ester of mono- and diglycerides, also E472e) is an emulsifier primarily used in baking to create a strong gluten network in dough. It is added to crusty breads, such as rye to impart a springy, chewy texture, as well as in the production of biscuits, coffee whiteners, salsa con queso, ice ... Read »


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    • Depuration (seafood)

    • Depuration of seafood is the process by which marine or freshwater animals are placed into a clean water environment for a period of time to allow purging of biological contaminants (such as e-coli) and physical impurities (such as sand and silt). The most common subjects of depuration are such bivalves as oysters, cla ... Read »


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    • Dextrose equivalent

    • Dextrose equivalent (DE) is a measure of the amount of reducing sugars present in a sugar product, expressed as a percentage on a dry basis relative to dextrose. The dextrose equivalent gives an indication of the average degree of polymerisation (DP) for starch sugars. As a rule of thumb, DE × DP = 120. In all gluc ... Read »


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    • Mineral (nutrient)

    • A mineral is a chemical element required as an essential nutrient by organisms to perform functions necessary for life. Minerals originate in the earth and cannot be made by living organisms. Plants get minerals from soil. Most of the minerals in a human diet come from eating plants and animals or from drinking water. ... Read »


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    • Dry matter

    • The dry matter (or otherwise known as dry weight) is a measurement of the mass of something when completely dried. The dry matter of plant and animal material would be its solids, i.e. all its constituents excluding water. The dry matter of food would include carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and anti ... Read »


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    • Efficiency of conversion

    • The efficiency of conversion of ingested food to unit of body substance (ECI, also termed "growth efficiency") is an index measure of food fuel efficiency in animals. The ECI is a rough scale of how much of the food ingested is converted into growth in the animal's mass. It can be used to compare the growth efficiency ... Read »


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    • Expected satiety

    • The term expected satiety refers to the satiety (relief from hunger) that is expected from a particular food. It is closely associated with 'expected satiation' which refers to the immediate fullness (post meal) that a food is expected to generate. Scientists have discovered that foods differ considerably in their exp ... Read »


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    • Extract

    • An extract is a substance made by extracting a part of a raw material, often by using a solvent such as ethanol or water. Extracts may be sold as tinctures or in powder form. The aromatic principles of many spices, nuts, herbs, fruits, etc., and some flowers, are marketed as extracts, among the best known of true extr ... Read »


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    • FAO GM Foods Platform

    • The FAO GM Foods Platform is a web platform where participating countries can share information on their assessments of the safety of genetically modified (recombinant-DNA) foods and feeds based on the Codex Alimentarius. It also allows for sharing of assessments of low-level GMO contamination (LLP, low-level presence) ... Read »


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    • Farinograph

    • In baking, a farinograph measures specific properties of flour. It was first developed and launched in 1928. The farinograph is a tool used for measuring the shear and viscosity of a mixture of flour and water. The primary units of the farinograph are Brabender Units, an arbitrary unit of measuring the viscosity of a f ... Read »


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    • Fermentation

    • Fermentation is a metabolic process that converts sugar to acids, gases, or alcohol. It occurs in yeast and bacteria, and also in oxygen-starved muscle cells, as in the case of lactic acid fermentation. Fermentation is also used more broadly to refer to the bulk growth of microorganisms on a growth medium, often with t ... Read »


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    • Fermentation in food processing

    • Fermentation in food processing is the process of converting carbohydrates to alcohol or organic acids using microorganisms—yeasts or bacteria—under conditions. Fermentation usually implies that the action of microorganisms is desired. The science of fermentation is known as zymology or zymurgy. The term fe ... Read »


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    • Flavor

    • Flavor (or flavour; see spelling differences) is the sensory impression of food or other substance, and is determined primarily by the chemical senses of taste and smell. The "trigeminal senses", which detect chemical irritants in the mouth and throat as well as temperature and texture, are also important to the overal ... Read »


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    • Flavorist

    • A flavorist, also known as flavor chemist, is someone who uses chemistry to engineer artificial and natural flavors. The tools and materials used by flavorists are almost the same as that used by perfumers with the exception that flavorists seek to mimic or modify both the olfactory and gustatory properties of various ... Read »


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    • Food additive

    • Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or enhance its taste and appearance. Some additives have been used for centuries; for example, preserving food by pickling (with vinegar), salting, as with bacon, preserving sweets or using sulfur dioxide as with wines. With the advent of processed foods in ... Read »


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    • Food browning

    • Browning is the process of food turning brown due to the chemical reactions that take place within. The process of food browning is one of the most important reactions that take place in food chemistry and represents an interesting research topic regarding health, nutrition, and food technology. Though there are many d ... Read »


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    • Food choice

    • Research into food choice investigates how people select the food they eat. An interdisciplinary topic, food choice comprises psychological and sociological aspects (including food politics and phenomena such as vegetarianism or religious dietary laws), economic issues (for instance, how food prices or marketing campai ... Read »


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    • Food engineering

    • Food engineering is a multidisciplinary field of applied physical sciences which combines science, microbiology, and engineering education for food and related industries. Food engineering includes, but is not limited to, the application of agricultural engineering, mechanical engineering and chemical engineering princ ... Read »


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    • Food grading

    • Food grading involves the inspection, assessment and sorting of various foods regarding quality, freshness, legal conformity and market value. Food grading often occurs by hand, in which foods are assessed and sorted. Machinery is also used to grade foods, and may involve sorting products by size, shape and quality. Fo ... Read »


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    • Food moisture analysis

    • Food moisture analysis involves the whole coverage of the food items in the world because foods are comprising a considerable amount of water rather than other ingredients. Foods are vital components which are consumed by the people at each and every moment for the surviving in the world. Basically there are several ki ... Read »


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    • Food packaging

    • Food packaging is packaging for food. A package provides protection, tampering resistance, and special physical, chemical, or biological needs. It may bear a nutrition facts label and other information about food being offered for sale. Packaging and package labeling have several objectives The above materials ar ... Read »


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    • Food processing

    • Food processing is the transformation of raw ingredients, by physical or chemical means into food, or of food into other forms. Food processing combines raw food ingredients to produce marketable food products that can be easily prepared and served by the consumer. Food processing typically involves activities such as ... Read »


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    • Processing aid

    • A processing aid is a substance used in the production of processed food, and which may end up in the finished product, but which is not, by law, required to be disclosed to the consumer as an ingredient. NGOs, journalists, and food writers have raised concerns that the current laws on processing aids amount to a ... Read »


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    • Food rheology

    • Food rheology is the study of the rheological properties of food, that is, the consistency and flow of food under tightly specified conditions. The consistency, degree of fluidity, and other mechanical properties are important in understanding how long food can be stored, how stable it will remain, and in determining f ... Read »


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    • Food sampling

    • Food sampling is a process used to check that a food is safe and that it does not contain harmful contaminants, or that it contains only permitted additives at acceptable levels, or that it contains the right levels of key ingredients and its label declarations are correct, or to know the levels of nutrients present. ... Read »


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    • Food studies


    • Food technology

    • Food technology is a branch of food science that deals with the production processes that make foods. Early scientific research into food technology concentrated on food preservation. Nicolas Appert’s development in 1810 of the canning process was a decisive event. The process wasn’t called canning then and ... Read »


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    • Food Valley

    • Food Valley is a region in the Netherlands where international food companies, research institutes, and Wageningen University and Research Centre are concentrated. The Food Valley area is the home of a large number of food multinationals and within the Food Valley about 15,000 professionals are active in food related s ... Read »


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    • Food Weekly News

    • Food Weekly News is a weekly food science and agricultural newspaper reporting on the latest developments in research in food production. It is published by Vertical News, an imprint of NewsRx, LLC. ... Read »


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    • Foodomics

    • Foodomics was defined in 2009 as "a discipline that studies the Food and Nutrition domains through the application and integration of advanced -omics technologies to improve consumer's well-being, health, and knowledge". The American Chemical Society journal called Analytical Chemistry dedicated its cover to foodomics ... Read »


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    • Foodpairing

    • Foodpairing is a method for identifying which foods go well together. The method is based on the principle that foods combine well with one another when they share key flavor components. Foodpairing is a relatively new method and is often confused with wine and food matching. By contrast, foodpairing uses HPLC, gas chr ... Read »


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    • Functional beverage

    • A functional beverage is a non-alcoholic drink. Some include ingredients like herbs, vitamins, minerals, amino acids, or additional raw fruit or vegetables. Examples of functional beverages include sports and performance drinks, energy drinks, ready to drink (RTD) teas, enhanced fruit drinks, soy beverages, and enhanc ... Read »


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    • Functional food

    • A functional food is a food given an additional (often one related to health-promotion or disease prevention) by adding new ingredients or more of existing ingredients. The term may also apply to traits purposely bred into existing edible plants, such as purple or gold potatoes having enriched anthocyanin or carotenoi ... Read »


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    • Gerber method

    • The Gerber Method is a primary and historic chemical test to determine the fat content of substances, most commonly milk and cream. The Gerber Method is the primary testing method in Europe and much of the world. The fairly similar Babcock test is used primarily in the United States, although the Gerber Method also enj ... Read »


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    • Homogenization (chemistry)

    • Homogenization or homogenisation is any of several processes used to make a mixture of two mutually non-soluble liquids the same throughout. This is achieved by turning one of the liquids into a state consisting of extremely small particles distributed uniformly throughout the other liquid. A typical example is the hom ... Read »


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    • Human nutrition

    • Human nutrition refers to the provision of essential nutrients necessary to support human life and health. Generally, people can survive up to 40 days without food, a period largely depending on the amount of water consumed, stored body fat, muscle mass and genetic factors. Poor nutrition is a chronic problem often li ... Read »


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    • Inverted sugar syrup

    • Invert sugar

      Inverted or invertsugar syrup is a mixture of glucose and fructose; it is obtained by splitting the disaccharide sucrose into these two components. Compared with its precursor, sucrose, inverted sugar is alluringly sweet and its products tend to retain moisture and are less prone to crystallization. Inverted sugar is t ... Read »


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    • Lactobacillus

    • Lactobacillus

      L. acetotoleransL. acidifarinaeL. acidipiscisL. acidophilusL. agilisL. algidusL. alimentariusL. amylolyticusL. amylophilusL. amylotrophicusL. amylovorusL. animalisL. antriL. apodemiL. aviariusL. bifermentansL. brevisL. buchneriL. camelliaeL. caseiL. catenaformisL. cetiL. coleohominisL. collinoidesL. compostiL. concavus ... Read »


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    • Lactobacillus brevis

    • Lactobacillus brevis is a gram-positive, rod shaped species of lactic acid bacteria which is Heterofermentive, creating Co2 and lactic acid during Fermentation. There are approximately 16 different strains. It can be found in many different environments, such as fermented foods, and as normal microbiota. L.brevis is fo ... Read »


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    • Liquefaction

    • Liquefaction is a term used in materials sciences to refer to any process which either generates a liquid from a solid or a gas, or generates a non-liquid phase which behaves in accordance with fluid dynamics. Liquefaction occurs both as part of natural processes, and in man-made processes used in science and commerce. ... Read »


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    • List of microorganisms used in food and beverage preparation

    • This is an incomplete list of bacteria and microscopic fungi that are used in preparing food. ... Read »


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    • Maillard reaction

    • The Maillard reaction (/maɪˈjɑːr/ my-YAR; French pronunciation: ​[majaʁ]) is a chemical reaction between amino acids and reducing sugars that gives browned food its distinctive flavor. Seared steaks, pan-fried dumplings, cookies and other kinds of biscuits, breads, toasted marshmallows, and many ... Read »


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    • Medical Nutrition

    • Medical Nutrition is a therapeutic composition developed to satisfy the nutritional requirements of patients that have specific medical conditions in a manner that supports their physical upkeep, treatment procedure, and symptom management. Normally, individuals obtain the necessary nutrients their bodies require thro ... Read »


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    • Medical nutrition therapy

    • Medical nutrition therapy (MNT) is a therapeutic approach to treating medical conditions and their associated symptoms via the use of a specifically tailored diet devised and monitored by a medical doctor physician, registered dietitian,or professional nutritionist. The diet is based upon the patient's medical record, ... Read »


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    • Melanoidin

    • Melanoidins are brown, high molecular weight heterogeneous polymers that are formed when sugars and amino acids combine (through the Maillard reaction) at high temperatures and low water activity. Melanoidins are commonly present in foods that have undergone some form of non-enzymatic browning, such as barley malts (Vi ... Read »


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    • Miraculin

    • Miraculin

      Miraculin is a natural sugar substitute, a glycoprotein extracted from the fruit of Synsepalum dulcificum. The berry, also known as the miracle fruit, was first documented by explorer Chevalier des Marchais, who searched for many different fruits during a 1725 excursion to its native West Africa. Miraculin itself is n ... Read »


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    • Molecular gastronomy

    • Molecular gastronomy is a subdiscipline of food science that seeks to investigate the physical and chemical transformations of ingredients that occur in cooking. Its program includes three axes, as cooking was recognized to have three components, which are social, artistic and technical. Molecular cuisine is a modern s ... Read »


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    • Molybdovanadate reagent

    • The molybdovanadate reagent is a solution containing both the molybdate and vanadate ions. It is commonly used in the determination of phosphate ion content. The reagent used is ammonium molybdovanadate with the addition of 70% perchloric acid (sulphuric acid is also known to be used). It is used for purposes such as t ... Read »


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    • Monounsaturated fat

    • In biochemistry and nutrition, monounsaturated fatty acids (abbreviated MUFAs, or more plainly monounsaturated fats) are fatty acids that have one double bond in the fatty acid chain with all of the remainder carbon atoms being single-bonded. By contrast, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have more than one double bo ... Read »


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    • Edwin L. Moore

    • Edwin L. Moore (May 26, 1916 - July 10, 2009) was a researcher for the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). With Louis G. MacDowell and C. D. Atkins in the 1940s, he helped develop a new process for making frozen concentrated orange juice. Moore was inducted into the Florida Agricultural Hall of Fame in 1986 ... Read »


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    • Mother of vinegar

    • Mother of vinegar is a substance composed of a form of cellulose and acetic acid bacteria that develops on fermenting alcoholic liquids, which turns alcohol into acetic acid with the help of oxygen from the air. It is added to wine, cider, or other alcoholic liquids to produce vinegar. Mother of vinegar is also known a ... Read »


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    • Nima (device)

    • Nima is a portable device used to measure the gluten content of food. The product is still in development and is set to ship near fall 2016, though the company began accepting pre-orders in October 2015. A food sample is placed in a one-time use capsule, which is then screwed into the body of the triangular device ... Read »


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    • Nixtamalization

    • Nixtamalization typically refers to a process for the preparation of maize (corn), or other grain, in which the corn is soaked and cooked in an alkaline solution, usually limewater, washed, and then hulled. This process, originating in Mexico, is famously known to remove up to 97-100% of aflatoxins from mycotoxin conta ... Read »


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    • Novel food

    • Novel food is defined as a type of food that does not have a significant history of consumption or is produced by a method that has not previously been used for food. Novel foods or novel food ingredients have no history of "significant" consumption in the European Union prior to 15 May 1997. Any food or food ingr ... Read »


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    • NRS process

    • The "New Regeneration System" NRS process is a process to reduce calcium from beet-root thin-juice. It is used in beet-sugar factories to improve the capacity and operating time of evaporators and to produce soft molasses that can be further de-sugarised with chromatography. The original technology was invented by AKZ ... Read »


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    • Nutraceutical

    • A Nutraceutical is a pharmaceutical-grade and standardized nutrient. Nutraceuticals are regulated by FDA under the authority of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. Nutraceuticals are treated differently in different jurisdictions. Under Canadian law, a nutraceutical can either be marketed as a food or as a ... Read »


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    • Nutrigenomics

    • Nutrigenomics is a branch of nutritional genomics and is the study of the effects of foods and food constituents on gene expression. This means that nutrigenomics is research focusing on identifying and understanding molecular-level interaction between nutrients and other dietary bioactives with the genome. Nutrigenomi ... Read »


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    • Nutrition


    • Off-flavour

    • Off-flavours or off-flavors (see spelling differences) are taints in food products caused by the presence of undesirable compounds. They can originate in raw materials, from chemical changes during food processing and storage, and from micro-organisms. Off-flavours are a recurring issue in drinking water supply and man ... Read »


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    • Olive oil acidity

    • Free acidity is an important parameter that defines the quality of olive oil and is defined as a percentage as grams of free fatty acids (expressed as oleic acid, the main fatty acid present in olive oil) in 100 grams of oil. As defined by the European Commission regulation No. 2568/91 and subsequent amendments, the hi ... Read »


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    • Packaging gas

    • A packaging gas is used to pack sensitive materials such as food into a modified atmosphere environment. The gas used is usually inert, or of a nature that protects the integrity of the packaged goods, inhibiting unwanted chemical reactions such as food spoilage or oxidation. Some may also serve as a propellant for aer ... Read »


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    • Paprika oleoresin

    • Paprika oleoresin

      C40H56O4 (capsorubin) 600.85 (capsorubin) Paprika oleoresin (also known as paprika extract) is an oil-soluble extract from the fruits of Capsicum annuum or Capsicum frutescens, and is primarily used as a colouring and/or flavouring in food products. It is composed of capsaicin, the main flavouring compound giving pun ... Read »


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    • Pasteurization

    • Pasteurization or pasteurisation is a process that kills microbes (mainly bacteria) in food and drink, such as milk, juice, canned food, and others. It was invented by French scientist Louis Pasteur during the nineteenth century. In 1864 Pasteur discovered that heating beer and wine was enough to kill most of the bact ... Read »


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    • PCR food testing

    • PCR food testing is the engagement of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technologies for the testing of food for the presence or absence of human pathogens, such as E. coli, Salmonella, Listeria, etc. PCR test results offers faster, more accurate test result data than traditional microbiological culture methods, which t ... Read »


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    • Pectin

    • Pectin (from Ancient Greek: πηκτικός pēktikós, "congealed, curdled") is a structural heteropolysaccharide contained in the primary cell walls of terrestrial plants. It was first isolated and described in 1825 by Henri Braconnot. It is produced commercially as a white to light brown powd ... Read »


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    • Phytic acid

    • Phytic acid

      Phytic acid (known as inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6), inositol polyphosphate, or phytate when in salt form), discovered in 1903, a saturated cyclic acid, is the principal storage form of phosphorus in many plant tissues, especially bran and seeds. It can be found in cereals and grains. Catabolites of phytic acid are ... Read »


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    • Starch production

    • Starch production is an isolation of starch from plant sources. It takes place in starch plants. Starch industry is a part of food processing which is using starch as a starting material for production of starch derivatives, hydrolysates, dextrins. At first, the raw material for the preparation of the starch was wheat ... Read »


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    • Putrefaction

    • 1. Pallor mortis 2. Algor mortis 3. Rigor mortis 4. Livor mortis 5. Putrefaction 6. Decomposition 7. Skeletonization Putrefaction is the fifth stage of death, following pallor mortis, algor mortis, rigor mortis, and livor mortis. This process references the breaking down of a body of a human or animal post mortem (mea ... Read »


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    • Food quality

    • Food quality is the quality characteristics of food that is acceptable to consumers. This includes external factors as appearance (size, shape, colour, gloss, and consistency), texture, and flavour; factors such as federal grade standards (e.g. of eggs) and internal (chemical, physical, microbial). Food quality in the ... Read »


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    • Rancidification

    • Rancidification, the product of which can be described as rancidity, is the process which causes a substance to become rancid, that is, having a rank, unpleasant smell or taste. Specifically, it is the hydrolysis and/or autoxidation of fats into short-chain aldehydes and ketones which are objectionable in taste and odo ... Read »


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    • Refined grains

    • Refined grains, in contrast to whole grains, refers to grain products consisting of grains or grain flours that have been significantly modified from their natural composition. The modification process generally involves the mechanical removal of bran and germ, either through grinding or selective sifting. Further refi ... Read »


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    • Refractometer

    • A refractometer is a laboratory or field device for the measurement of an index of refraction (refractometry). The index of refraction is calculated from Snell's law while for mixtures, the index of refraction can be calculated from the composition of the material using several mixing rules such as the Gladstone–D ... Read »


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    • Retort pouch

    • A retort pouch is a type of food packaging made from a laminate of flexible plastic and metal foils. It allows the sterile packaging of a wide variety of food and drink handled by aseptic processing, and is used as an alternative to traditional industrial canning methods. Packaged foods range from water to fully cooked ... Read »


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    • Retrogradation (starch)

    • Retrogradation is a reaction that takes place when the amylose and amylopectin chains in cooked, gelatinized starch realign themselves as the cooked starch cools. When native starch is heated and dissolves in water, the crystalline structure of amylose and amylopectin molecules is lost and they hydrate to form a visco ... Read »


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    • Rolled oats

    • Rolled oats are traditionally oat groats that have been dehusked and steamed, before being rolled into flat flakes under heavy rollers and stabilized by being lightly toasted. Rolled oats that are sold as porridge oats usually have had the tough bran removed. They have often, but not always, been lightly baked or pres ... Read »


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    • Sham feeding

    • Sham feeding is any procedure that mimics normal food consumption but where food and drink are not actually digested or absorbed. It is generally used in experiments studying hunger, eating or digestion, and is a predominant method used in studying binge eating disorder. In animal research it often involves inserting a ... Read »


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    • Solid fat index

    • Solid fat index (SFI) is a measure of the percentage of fat in crystalline (solid) phase to total fat (the remainder being in liquid phase) across a temperature gradient. The SFI of a fat is measured using a dilatometer that measures the expansion of a fat as it is heated; density measurements are taken at a series of ... Read »


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    • Staling

    • Staling, or "going stale", is a chemical and physical process in bread and other foods that reduces their palatability. Stale bread is dry and leathery. Staling is not, as is commonly believed, simply a drying-out process due to evaporation. Bread will stale even in a moist environment, and stales most rapidly at ... Read »


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    • Starch gelatinization

    • Starch gelatinization is a process of breaking down the intermolecular bonds of starch molecules in the presence of water and heat, allowing the hydrogen bonding sites (the hydroxyl hydrogen and oxygen) to engage more water. This irreversibly dissolves the starch granule in water. Water acts as a plasticizer. Three ma ... Read »


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    • Steam infusion

    • Steam Infusion is a direct-contact heating process in which steam condenses on the surface of a pumpable food product. Its primary use is for the gentle and rapid heating of a variety of food ingredients and products including milk, cream, soymilk, ketchup, soups and sauces. Unlike steam injection and traditional vess ... Read »


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    • Thaumatin

    • Thaumatin

      Thaumatin is a low-calorie sweetener and flavour modifier. The protein is often used primarily for its flavour-modifying properties and not exclusively as a sweetener. The thaumatins were first found as a mixture of proteins isolated from the katemfe fruit ( Bennett) of west Africa. Some proteins in the thaumatin fami ... Read »


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    • Thermal death time

    • Thermal death time is a concept used to determine how long it takes to kill a specific bacteria at a specific temperature. It was originally developed for food canning and has found applications in cosmetics, producing salmonella-free feeds for animals (e.g. poultry) and pharmaceuticals. In 1895, William Lyman Und ... Read »


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    • Thermoduric bacterium

    • Thermoduric bacteria are bacteria which can survive, to varying extents, the pasteurisation process. Species of bacteria which are thermoduric include Bacillus, Clostridium and Enterococci. ... Read »


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    • United Kingdom food labelling regulations

    • This article is about UK Law and some EU ( European Union ) regulations and is therefore region sensitive. The law in the UK on food labelling is multifaceted and is spread over many reforms and parliamentary acts, making the subject complex. Nevertheless, there are general laws which should be implied on any foo ... Read »


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    • Unsaturated fat

    • An unsaturated fat is a fat or fatty acid in which there is at least one double bond within the fatty acid chain. A fatty acid chain is monounsaturated if it contains one double bond, and polyunsaturated if it contains more than one double bond. Where double bonds are formed, hydrogen atoms are subtracted from the car ... Read »


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    • Vacuum evaporation

    • Vacuum evaporation is the process of causing the pressure in a liquid-filled container to be reduced below the vapor pressure of the liquid, causing the liquid to evaporate at a lower temperature than normal. Although the process can be applied to any type of liquid at any vapor pressure, it is generally used to descri ... Read »


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    • Water activity

    • Water activity or aw is the partial vapor pressure of water in a substance divided by the standard state partial vapor pressure of water. In the field of food science, the standard state is most often defined as the partial vapor pressure of pure water at the same temperature. Using this particular definition, pure dis ... Read »


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  • What Else?

    • Food science

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