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  • Evolution

    Evolution

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Evolution

    • Biological evolution

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Biological evolution


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    • Evolutionary computation

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Evolutionary computation


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    • Emergence

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Emergence


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    • Evolution of language

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Evolution of language


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    • Memetics

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Memetics


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    • Speculative evolution

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Speculative evolution


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    • Stellar evolution

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Stellar evolution


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    • Outline of evolution

    • The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to evolution: Evolution – change in heritable traits of biological organisms over generations due to natural selection, mutation, gene flow, and genetic drift. Also known as descent with modification. Over time these evolutionary processes lead ... Read »


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    • Evolution (term)

    • The English noun evolution (pronounced i/ˌɛvəlˈuʃən/; from Latin ēvolÅ«tiō "unfolding, unrolling") refers to any kind of accumulation of change, or gradual directional change. It is the 3,117th most commonly used word in English. While the term primarily refers to biological evolution, there ... Read »


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    • Accelerating change

    • In futures studies and the history of technology, accelerating change is a perceived increase in the rate of technological change throughout history, which may suggest faster and more profound change in the future and may or may not be accompanied by equally profound social and cultural change. In 1938, Buckminste ... Read »


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    • Anti-predator adaptation

    • Anti-predator adaptations are mechanisms developed through evolution that assist prey organisms in their constant struggle against predators. Throughout the animal kingdom, adaptations have evolved for every stage of this struggle. The first line of defence consists in avoiding detection, through mechanisms such as ca ... Read »


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    • Applications of evolution

    • Evolutionary biology, in particular the understanding of how organisms evolve through natural selection, is an area of science with many practical applications. The evolutionary approach is key to much current research in biology that does not set out to study evolution per se, especially in organismal biology and ... Read »


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    • Avalon explosion

    • The Avalon explosion (named from the Precambrian fauna of the Avalon Peninsula) is a proposed evolutionary event in the history of the Metazoa. It is the equivalent of the Cambrian explosion for the current phyla. The Avalon explosion happened about 33 million years earlier than the Cambrian explosion (about 575 millio ... Read »


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    • Big History

    • Big History is an emerging academic discipline which examines history from the Big Bang to the present. It examines long time frames using a multidisciplinary approach based on combining numerous disciplines from science and the humanities, and explores human existence in the context of this bigger picture. It integrat ... Read »


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    • Catalytic triad

    • A catalytic triad refers to the three amino acid residues that function together at the centre of the active site of some hydrolase and transferase enzymes (e.g. proteases, amidases, esterases, acylases, lipases and β-lactamases). An Acid-Base-Nucleophile triad is a common motif for generating a nucleophilic residue ... Read »


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    • Character evolution

    • Character evolution is the process by which a character or trait (a certain body part or property of an organism) evolves along the branches of an evolutionary tree. Character evolution usually refers to single changes within a lineage that make this lineage unique from others. These changes are called character state ... Read »


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    • Evolution of the cochlea

    • The word cochlea /ˈkɒklɪə/ is Latin for “snail, shell or screw” and originates from the Greek word kohlias. The modern definition, the auditory portion of the inner ear, originated in the late 17th century. Within the mammalian cochlea exists the organ of Corti, which contains hair cells that are ... Read »


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    • Darwin among the Machines

    • "Darwin among the Machines" is the name of an article published in The Press newspaper on 13 June 1863 in Christchurch, New Zealand, which references the work of Charles Darwin in the title. Written by Samuel Butler but signed Cellarius (q.v.), the article raised the possibility that machines were a kind of "mechanical ... Read »


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    • Darwin machine

    • A Darwin machine (a 1987 coinage by William H. Calvin, by analogy to a Turing machine) is a machine that, like a Turing machine, involves an iteration process that yields a high-quality result, but, whereas a Turing machine uses logic, the Darwin machine uses rounds of variation, selection, and inheritance. In its ori ... Read »


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    • Deep time

    • Deep time is the concept of geologic time. The modern philosophical concept was developed in the 18th century by Scottish geologist James Hutton (1726–1797). Modern scientists believe, after a long and complex history of developments, that the age of the Earth is around 4.55 billion years. Hutton based his ... Read »


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    • Deistic evolution

    • Deistic evolution is a position in the origins debate which involves accepting the scientific evidence for evolution and age of the universe whilst advocating the view that a deistic God created the universe but has not interfered since. The position is a counterpoint to theistic evolution and is endorsed by those who ... Read »


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    • Despeciation

    • Despeciation is the loss of a unique species of animal due to its combining with another previously distinct species. It is the opposite of Speciation and is much more rare. It is similar to extinction in that there is a loss of a unique species but without the associated loss of a biological lineage. For example, Tay ... Read »


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    • Directed evolution (transhumanism)

    • The term directed evolution is used within the transhumanist community to refer to the idea of applying the principles of directed evolution and experimental evolution to the control of human evolution. In this sense, it is distinct from the use of the term in biochemistry, which refers only to the evolution of protein ... Read »


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    • Diversification rates

    • Diversification rates are the rates at which new species form (the Speciation rate, λ) and living species go extinct (the extinction rate, μ). Diversification rates can be estimated from fossils, data on the species diversity of clades and their ages, or phylogenetic trees. Diversification rates are typically rep ... Read »


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    • Endogenosymbiosis

    • Endogenosymbiosis is an evolutionary process, proposed by the evolutionary and environmental biologist Roberto Cazzolla Gatti, in which "gene carriers" (viruses, retroviruses and bacteriophages) share parts of their genomes in an endogenous symbiotic relationship with their hosts. The related process of symbiogene ... Read »


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    • Escape and Radiate Coevolution

    • Escape and radiate coevolution is a multistep process that hypothesizes that an organism under constraints from other organisms will develop new defenses, allowing it to "escape" and then "radiate" into differing species. After a novel defense has been acquired, an organism is able to escape predation and rapidly multi ... Read »


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    • Evolution

    • Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations. Evolutionary processes give rise to biodiversity at every level of biological organisation, including the levels of species, individual organisms, and molecules. All life on Earth shares a common ancestor known ... Read »


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    • Evolution of aerobic fermentation

    • Aerobic fermentation is a metabolic process by which cells metabolize sugars via fermentation in the presence of oxygen and occurs through the repression of normal respiratory metabolism (also referred to as the crabtree effect in yeast). This phenomenon is fairly rare and is primarily observed in yeasts. Aerobic ferme ... Read »


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    • Evolution of emotion

    • The study of the evolution of emotions dates back to the 19th century. Evolution and natural selection has been applied to the study of human communication, mainly by Charles Darwin in his 1872 work, The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals. Darwin researched the expression of emotions in an effort to support ... Read »


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    • The Evolution of God

    • The Evolution of God

      The Evolution of God is a 2009 book by Robert Wright that explores the history of the concept of God in the three Abrahamic religions through a variety of means, including archeology, history, theology, and evolutionary psychology. The patterns which link Judaism, Christianity, and Islam and the ways in which they have ... Read »


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    • Evolutionary algorithm

    • In artificial intelligence, an evolutionary algorithm (EA) is a subset of evolutionary computation, a generic population-based metaheuristic optimization algorithm. An EA uses mechanisms inspired by biological evolution, such as reproduction, mutation, recombination, and selection. Candidate solutions to the optimizati ... Read »


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    • Evolutionary computation

    • In computer science, evolutionary computation is a family of algorithms for global optimization inspired by biological evolution, and the subfield of artificial intelligence and soft computing studying these algorithms. In technical terms, they are a family of population-based trial and error problem solvers with a met ... Read »


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    • Evolutionary epistemology

    • Evolutionary epistemology refers to three distinct topics: (1) the biological evolution of cognitive mechanisms in animals and humans, (2) a theory that knowledge itself evolves by natural selection, and (3) the study of the historical discovery of new abstract entities such as abstract number or abstract value that ne ... Read »


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    • Evolutionary ethics

    • Evolutionary ethics is a field of inquiry that explores how evolutionary theory might bear on our understanding of ethics or morality. The range of issues investigated by evolutionary ethics is quite broad. Supporters of evolutionary ethics have claimed that it has important implications in the fields of descriptive et ... Read »


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    • Evolutionary graph theory

    • Evolutionary graph theory is an area of research lying at the intersection of graph theory, probability theory, and mathematical biology. Evolutionary graph theory is an approach to studying how topology affects evolution of a population. That the underlying topology can substantially affect the results of the evolutio ... Read »


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    • Evolutionary informatics

    • Evolutionary informatics is a subfield of informatics addressing the practice of information processing in, and the engineering of information systems for, the study of biological evolution, as well as the study of information in evolutionary systems, natural and artificial. Scientists have gathered an enormous vo ... Read »


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    • Evolutionary Principle

    • The Evolutionary Principle is a largely psychological doctrine formulated by anthropologist Claude Lévi-Strauss which roughly states that when a species is removed from the habitat in which it evolved, or that habitat changes significantly within a brief period (evolutionarily speaking), the species will develop mal ... Read »


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    • Evolutionary trade-offs

    • Evolutionary trade-offs have occurred on many levels throughout evolutionary history. There are many functional and genetic trade-offs that have taken place throughout human evolutionary history. Human ancestors, such as the neanderthals, had stronger, thicker bones than Homo sapiens today. Thicker, stronger bones wer ... Read »


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    • Extended evolutionary synthesis

    • The extended evolutionary synthesis is a set of extensions of the earlier modern synthesis of evolutionary biology that took place between 1918 and 1942. The extended evolutionary synthesis was called for in the 1950s by C. H. Waddington, argued for on the basis of punctuated equilibrium by Stephen Jay Gould and Niles ... Read »


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    • Frequency-dependent selection

    • Frequency-dependent selection is the term given to an evolutionary process by which the fitness of a phenotype depends on its frequency relative to other phenotypes in a given population. Frequency-dependent selection is usually the result of interactions between species (predation, parasitism, or competition), or bet ... Read »


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    • Functional divergence

    • Functional divergence is the process by which genes, after gene duplication, shift in function from an ancestral function. Functional divergence can result in either subfunctionalization, where a paralog specializes one of several ancestral functions, or neofunctionalization, where a totally new functional capability e ... Read »


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    • Geodakyan's evolutionary theory of sex


    • GNC hypothesis

    • GNC hypothesis or GNC-SNS primeval genetic code hypothesis refers to a hypothesis about the origin of genes. While almost all of the organisms on present Earth shares the universal genetic code, in GNC hypothesis it is argued that two primeval genetic codes preceded the present genetic code as follows. This hypothesis ... Read »


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    • Hard inheritance

    • Hard inheritance is the exact opposite of the term soft inheritance, coined by Ernst Mayr to contrast ideas about inheritance. Hard inheritance states that characteristics of an organism's offspring (passed on through DNA) will not be affected by the actions that the parental organism performs during its lifetime. For ... Read »


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    • Historicism

    • Historicism is a mode of thinking that assigns major significance to a specific context, such as historical period, geographical place, and local culture. As such it varies in emphasis from individualist theories of knowledge such as empiricism and rationalism, which neglect the role of traditions. Historicism therefor ... Read »


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    • Homeosis

    • Homeosis is the transformation of one organ into another, arising from mutation in or misexpression of certain developmentally critical genes, specifically homeotic genes. In animals, these developmental genes specifically control the development of organs on their anteroposterior axis. In plants, however, the developm ... Read »


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    • I Used to be a fish

    • I Used to be a Fish

      I Used to be a Fish is a book written by Tom Sullivan for ages 4–8. A boy imagines his pet fish tells him the story of evolution. The 48-page book is drawn in 3 colors: red, blue and white. It was described as similar in style to Dr Seuss by some reviewers due to the simple drawing style and absurdity of the ... Read »


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    • Information society

    • An information society is a society where the creation, distribution, use, integration and manipulation of information is a significant economic, political, and cultural activity. Its main drivers are digital information and communication technologies, which have resulted in an information explosion and are profoundly ... Read »


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    • Interlocus contest evolution

    • Interlocus contest evolution (ICE) is a process of intergenomic conflict by which different loci within a single genome antagonistically coevolve. ICE supposes that the Red Queen process, which is characterized by a never-ending antagonistic evolutionary arms race, does not only apply to species but also to genes withi ... Read »


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    • Issues of the Evolution v.s. Creation Debate

    • The creation–evolution controversy (also termed the creation vs. evolution debate or the origins debate) involves an ongoing, recurring cultural, political, and theological dispute about the origins of the Earth, of humanity, and of other life. Within the Christian world creationism was once widely believed to be ... Read »


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    • Level of support for evolution

    • The level of support for evolution among scientists, the public and other groups is a topic that frequently arises in the creation-evolution controversy and touches on educational, religious, philosophical, scientific and political issues. The subject is especially contentious in countries where significant levels of n ... Read »


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    • Memetics

    • Memetics is the theory of mental content based on an analogy with Darwinian evolution, originating from the popularization of Richard Dawkins' 1976 book The Selfish Gene. Proponents describe memetics as an approach to evolutionary models of cultural information transfer. The meme, analogous to a gene, was conceived as ... Read »


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    • Metasystem transition

    • A metasystem transition is the emergence, through evolution, of a higher of organization or control. A metasystem is formed by the integration of a number of initially independent components, such as molecules, cells, or individuals, and the emergence of a system steering or controlling their interactions. As such, t ... Read »


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    • Natural landscape

    • A natural landscape is the original landscape that exists before it is acted upon by human culture. The natural landscape and the cultural landscape are separate parts of the landscape. However, in the twenty-first century landscapes that are totally untouched by human activity no longer exist, so that reference is som ... Read »


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    • Orphan gene

    • Orphan genes (also called ORFans, especially in microbial literature) are genes without detectable homologues in other lineages. Orphans are a subset of taxonomically-restricted genes (TRGs), which are unique to a specific taxonomic level (e.g. plant-specific). In contrast to non-orphan TRGs, orphans are usually consid ... Read »


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    • Phagomimicry

    • Phagomimicry is a defensive behaviour of sea hares, in which the animal ejects a mixture of chemicals, which mimic food, giving the sea-hare a chance to escape. The typical defence response of the sea hare to a predator is to release two chemicals - ink from the ink gland and opaline from the opaline gland. While ink c ... Read »


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    • Phylogenetic inertia

    • Phylogenetic inertia or phylogenetic constraint refers to the limitations on the future evolutionary pathways that have been imposed by previous adaptations. Charles Darwin first recognized this phenomenon, though the term was later coined by Huber in 1939. Darwin explained the idea of phylogenetic inertia based on hi ... Read »


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    • Postbiological evolution

    • Postbiological evolution is a form of evolution which has transitioned from a biological paradigm, driven by the propagation of genes, to a nonbiological (e.g., cultural or technological) paradigm, presumably driven by some alternative replicator (e.g., memes or temes), and potentially resulting in the extinction, obso ... Read »


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    • Predictions made by Ray Kurzweil

    • American author, inventor and futurist Raymond Kurzweil has become well known for his predictions about artificial intelligence and the human species. His first book, The Age of Intelligent Machines, published in 1990, put forth his theories on the results of the increasing use of technology and predicted the explosive ... Read »


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    • Skeletal changes of organisms transitioning from water to land

    • Innovations conventionally associated with terrestrially first appeared in aquatic elpistostegalians such as Panderichthys rhombolepis, Elpistostege watsoni, and Tiktaalik roseae. Phylogenetic analyses distribute the features that developed along the tetrapod stem and display a stepwise process of character acquisition ... Read »


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    • Social Bonding and Nurture Kinship

    • Social Bonding and Nurture Kinship: compatibility between cultural and biological approaches

      Social Bonding and Nurture Kinship: compatibility between cultural and biological approaches is a book on human kinship and social behavior by Maximilian Holland, published in 2012. The work synthesizes the perspectives of evolutionary biology, psychology and sociocultural anthropology towards understanding human socia ... Read »


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    • Software evolution

    • Software evolution is the term used in software engineering (specifically software maintenance) to refer to the process of developing software initially, then repeatedly updating it for various reasons. Fred Brooks, in his key book The Mythical Man-Month, states that over 90% of the costs of a typical system arise ... Read »


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    • Sympatry

    • In biology, two species or populations are considered sympatric when they exist in the same geographic area and thus regularly encounter one another. An initially interbreeding population that splits into two or more distinct species sharing a common range exemplifies sympatric speciation. Such speciation may be a prod ... Read »


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    • Systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment

    • Systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX), also referred to as in vitro selection or in vitro evolution, is a combinatorial chemistry technique in molecular biology for producing oligonucleotides of either single-stranded DNA or RNA that specifically bind to a target ligand or ligands. Although ... Read »


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    • TALE-likes

    • Transcription Activator Like Effector Likes (TALE-likes) are a group of bacterial DNA binding proteins named for the first and still best studied group, the TALEs of Xanthomonas bacteria. TALEs are important factors in the plant diseases caused by Xanthomonas bacteria, but are known primarily for their role in biotechn ... Read »


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    • Talk.reason

    • Talk.reason is a website dedicated to opposing creationism and promoting evolution. Talk.reason collects articles for this purpose and provides a forum to present them. ... Read »


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    • Teleonomy

    • Teleonomy is the quality of apparent purposefulness and of goal-directedness of structures and functions in living organisms brought about by natural laws (like natural selection). The term derives form two Greek words, τέλος telos ("end, purpose") and νόμος nomos ("law"), and means "end-d ... Read »


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    • Theoretical foundations of evolutionary psychology

    • The theoretical foundations of evolutionary psychology are the general and specific scientific theories that explain the ultimate origins of psychological traits in terms of evolution. These theories originated with Charles Darwin's work, including his speculations about the evolutionary origins of social instincts in ... Read »


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    • Trabecular cartilage

    • Trabecular cartilage

      Trabecular cartilages (trabeculae cranii, sometimes simply trabeculae, prechordal cartilages) are paired, rod-shaped cartilages, which develop in the head of the vertebrate embryo. They are the primordia of the anterior part of the cranial base, and are derived from the cranial neural crest cells. The trabecular c ... Read »


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    • Triploid block

    • Triploid block is a phenomenon describing the formation of nonviable progeny after hybridization of flowering plants that differ in ploidy. The barrier is established in the endosperm, a nutritive tissue supporting embryo growth. This phenomenon usually happens when autopolyploidy occurs in diploid plants. Triploid blo ... Read »


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    • Unequal crossing over

    • Unequal crossing over is a type of gene duplication or deletion event that deletes a sequence in one strand and replaces it with a duplication from its sister chromatid in mitosis or from its homologous chromosome during meiosis. It is a type of chromosomal crossover between homologous sequences that are not paired pre ... Read »


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    • Uniformitarianism

    • Uniformitarianism is the assumption that the same natural laws and processes that operate in the universe now have always operated in the universe in the past and apply everywhere in the universe. It refers to invariance in the metaphysical principles underpinning science, such as the constancy of causal structure thro ... Read »


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    • Uniformity of motive

    • In astrobiology, the Uniformity of Motive theory suggests that any civilization in the universe would go through similar technological steps in their development. This theory supports the idea that at some point in their history, advanced alien civilizations would use the electromagnetic medium for communications, and ... Read »


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    • Universal Darwinism

    • Universal Darwinism (also known as generalized Darwinism, universal selection theory, or Darwinian metaphysics) refers to a variety of approaches that extend the theory of Darwinism beyond its original domain of biological evolution on Earth. Universal Darwinism aims to formulate a generalized version of the mechanisms ... Read »


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    • Vertebrate land invasion

    • The aquatic to terrestrial transition of vertebrate organisms occurred in the late Devonian era and was an important step in the evolutionary history of modern land vertebrates. The transition allowed animals to escape competitive pressure from the water and explore niche opportunities on land. Fossils from this period ... Read »


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  • What Else?

    • Evolution

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