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    Ethnography

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    • Anthropology documentary films

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    • Area studies

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    • Ethnography of Argentina

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    • Balkan studies

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    • Ethnography of Bulgaria

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    • Ethnographers

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    • Greco-Roman ethnography

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    • Ethnographic literature

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    • Ethnography of Lithuania

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    • Ethnographic museums

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    • Ethnography

    • Ethnography (from Greek ἔθνος ethnos "folk, people, nation" and γράφω grapho "I write") is the systematic study of people and cultures. It is designed to explore cultural phenomena where the researcher observes society from the point of view of the subject of the study. An ethnography is ... Read »


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    • Angkola people

    • Angkola (also known as Batak Angkola or Anakola) people are one of the sub-ethnic groups comprising the Batak people from North Sumatra who live in South Tapanuli regency. The Angkola language is similar to Mandailing language, but it is sociolinguistically distinct. The name Angkola is believed to have originate from ... Read »


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    • Anglo-Americans

    • Anglo Americans

      (215.6 million (196.8 million Non-Hispanic whites and Anglo-Americans or Anglos are people who are inhabitants of Anglo-America and are referred to as English American and/or an English Canadian. It typically refers to an English-speaking American in distinction to Spanish speakers in the Southwestern states and in Me ... Read »


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    • Area studies

    • Area studies are interdisciplinary fields of research and scholarship pertaining to particular geographical, national/federal, or cultural regions. The term exists primarily as a general description for what are, in the practice of scholarship, many heterogeneous fields of research, encompassing both the social science ... Read »


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    • Ethnic groups of Argentina

    • The ethnography of Argentina makes this country, along with other areas of relatively modern settlement like Canada or Australia, a crisol de razas (race crucible), or a melting pot of different peoples. In fact, immigration to Argentina was so strong that it eventually became the country with the second highest number ... Read »


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    • Autoethnography

    • Autoethnography is a form of qualitative research in which an author uses self-reflection and writing to explore their personal experience and connect this autobiographical story to wider cultural, political, and social meanings and understandings. Autoethnography is a vulnerable, self-reflective form of writing used a ... Read »


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    • Batak

    • Batak
      Halak Batak

      Batak is a collective term used to identify a number of ethnic groups predominantly found in North Sumatra, Indonesia. The term is used to include the Karo, Pakpak, Simalungun, Toba, Angkola, and Mandailing which are distinct but related groups with distinct - albeit related - languages and customs (adat). In North Su ... Read »


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    • Toba Batak people

    • Toba people
      Batak Toba

      Toba people (also referred to as Batak Toba people or often simply "Batak") are the most numerous of the Batak people of North Sumatra, Indonesia, and often considered the classical 'Batak', most likely to willingly self-identify as Batak. The Toba people are found in Toba Samosir Regency, Humbang Hasundutan Regency, S ... Read »


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    • Beena marriage

    • Beena is a form of marriage used in pre-Islamic Arabia, in which a wife would own a tent of her own, within which she retained complete independence from her husband, according to William Robertson Smith. The term was suggested by John Ferguson McLennan, who noted that in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) the marriage when a husb ... Read »


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    • Louise Arner Boyd


    • Breast-shaped hill

    • A breast-shaped hill is a mountain in the shape of a human breast. Some such hills are named "", a word for the breast or nipple. Such anthropomorphic geographic features are to be found in different places of the world and in some cultures they were revered as the attributes of the Mother Goddess, such as the Paps of ... Read »


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    • Commission for the Study of the Tribal Composition of the Population of the Borderlands of Russia

    • The Commission for the Study of the Tribal Composition of the Population of the Borderlands of Russia (Russian: Комиссия по изучению племенного состава населения России ... Read »


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    • Critical ethnography

    • Critical ethnography applies a critical theory based approach to ethnography. It focuses on the implicit values expressed within ethnographic studies and, therefore, on the unacknowledged biases that may result from such implicit values. It has been called critical theory in practice. In the spirit of critical theory, ... Read »


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    • Digital repatriation

    • Digital repatriation is the return of items of cultural heritage in a digital format to the communities from which they originated. The term originated from within anthropology, and typically referred to the creation of digital photographs of ethnographic material which would then be made available to members of the or ... Read »


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    • Elicitation technique

    • An elicitation technique is any of a number of data collection techniques used in anthropology, cognitive science, counseling, education, knowledge engineering, linguistics, management, philosophy, psychology, or other fields to gather knowledge or information from people. Elicitation, in which knowledge is sought dire ... Read »


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    • Emic and etic

    • In anthropology, folkloristics, and the social and behavioral sciences, emic and etic refer to two kinds of field research done and viewpoints obtained:emic, from within the social group (from the perspective of the subject) and etic, from outside (from the perspective of the observer). "The emic approach investig ... Read »


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    • An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races

    • Essai sur l'inégalité des races humaines (Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races, 1853–1855) by Joseph Arthur, Comte de Gobineau, was a book arguing there were differences between human races, that civilizations decline and fall when the races are mixed and that the white race was superior. It is today c ... Read »


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    • Ethnoarchaeology

    • Ethnoarchaeology is the ethnographic study of peoples for archaeological reasons, usually through the study of the material remains of a society (see David & Kramer 2001). Ethnoarchaeology aids archaeologists in reconstructing ancient lifeways by studying the material and non-material traditions of modern societies. Et ... Read »


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    • Ethnofiction

    • Ethnofiction is a neologism which refers to an ethnographic docufiction, a blend of documentary and fictional film in the area of visual anthropology. It is a film type in which, by means of fictional narrative or creative imagination, often improvising, the portrayed characters (natives) play their own roles as member ... Read »


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    • Ethnographic film

    • An ethnographic film is a non-fiction film, often similar to a documentary film, historically dealing with non-Western people, and sometimes associated with anthropology. Prospector, explorer and eventual filmmaker, Robert J. Flaherty, is considered to be the forefather of ethnographic film. His film Nanook of the ... Read »


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    • Ethnographic realism

    • Within the field of anthropology and other social sciences, ethnography is a form of research that relies on a range of sources of data, but usually tends to rely mainly on participant observation. However, the term also refers to the product of this type of research, which of course normally takes a textual form. As a ... Read »


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    • Ethnographic village

    • An ethnographic village is a real or artificial settlement which portrays complete historical and ethnographic characteristics of life of a certain ethnic group. The concept is close to that of an open-air museum or "living museum." As early as in 1550 a mock Brazilian village was built by Rouen, France, on an occ ... Read »


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    • Ethnography at the British Museum

    • Ethnography at the British Museum describes how ethnography has developed at the British Museum. The ethnographical collection was originally linked to the Department of Natural History and Curiosities. The addition of material gathered by Captain James Cook and his companions between 1767 and 1780, and presented ... Read »


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    • Ethnomuseology

    • Ethnomuseology is the study of museums and museum curation in the context of the culture and cultural traditions of its collections. It is an interdisciplinary field combining museum studies, anthropology, ethnography, and often various fine arts. As stated by Moira Simpson, "Ethnomuseology is the field of scholar ... Read »


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    • Ethnoornithology

    • Ethnoornithology (also ethno-ornithology) is the study of the relationship between people and birds (from "ethno-" - relating to people and culture - and "ornithology" - the study of birds). It is a branch of ethnozoology and so of the wider field of ethnobiology. Ethnoornithology is an interdisciplinary subject and co ... Read »


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    • Ethnosemiotics

    • Ethnosemiotics is a disciplinary perspective which links semiotics concepts to ethnographic methods. Algirdas Julien Greimas and Joseph Courtés defined for the first time Ethnosemiotics in Semiotics and language: an analytical dictionary. "Ethno-semiotics is not truly an autonomous semiotics. If it were, it wo ... Read »


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    • Florentine Codex

    • The Florentine Codex is a 16th-century ethnographic research study in Mesoamerica by the Spanish Franciscan friar Bernardino de Sahagún. Sahagún originally titled it: La Historia Universal de las Cosas de Nueva España (in English: the Universal History of the Things of New Spain). After a translation mistake, ... Read »


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    • William Henry Furness III

    • William Henry Furness III (August 10, 1866 – August 11, 1920) was an American physician, ethnographer and author from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was among the first to study and photograph the Kayan people of Borneo and the Wa'ab people on the island of Yap. He was the grandson and namesake of Unitarian t ... Read »


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    • Genealogical method

    • The genealogical method is a well-established procedure in ethnography. It was initiated by early ethnographers to identify all-important links of kinship determined by marriage and descent. Genealogy or kinship commonly plays a crucial role in the structure of non-industrial societies, determining both social relation ... Read »


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    • Human zoo

    • Human zoos, also called ethnological expositions, were 19th-, 20th-, and 21st-century public exhibitions of humans, usually in a so-called natural or primitive state. The displays often emphasized the cultural differences between Europeans of Western civilization and non-European peoples or other Europeans with a lifes ... Read »


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    • Institutional ethnography

    • Institutional ethnography (IE) is a method of social research. IE explores the social relations that structure people's everyday lives, specifically by looking at the ways that people interact with one another in the context of social institutions (school, marriage, work, for example) and understanding how those intera ... Read »


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    • The Interpretation of Cultures

    • The Interpretation of Cultures: Selected Essays

      The Interpretation of Cultures: Selected Essays is a 1973 book by American anthropologist Clifford Geertz. The book was listed in the Times Literary Supplement as one of the 100 most important publications since World War Two. At the University of Chicago, Geertz became a champion of symbolic anthropology, a frame ... Read »


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    • Jabo people

    • Jabo (pronounced [ɟʱɑbo], variant spellings Dyabo, Djabo) is the self-designation of an ethnic group located in the southeastern part of the Republic of Liberia in West Africa. They have also sometimes referred to themselves as Gweabo or Nimiah tribe. English speakers also use the name of the group for a sin ... Read »


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    • Joshua Project

    • The Joshua Project (formerly part of AD2000) is an organization seeking to highlight the ethnic groups of the world with the least followers of evangelical Christianity. The Joshua Project maintains ethnologic data to support Christian missions and is based in Colorado Springs, United States. The project began in 1995 ... Read »


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    • Kaipuleohone

    • Kaipuleohone is a digital ethnographic archive that houses audio and visual files, photographs, as well as hundreds of textual material such as notes, dictionaries, and transcriptions relating to small and endangered languages. The archive is stored in the ScholarSpace repository of the University of Hawai‘i at M ... Read »


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    • Karo people (Indonesia)

    • Karo people
      Kalak Karo

      The Karo, or Karonese, are a people of the 'tanah Karo' (Karo lands) of North Sumatra and a small part of neighboring Aceh. The Karo lands consist of Karo Regency, plus neighboring areas in East Aceh Regency, Langkat Regency, Dairi Regency, Simalungun Regency and Deli Serdang Regency. In addition, the cities of Binjai ... Read »


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    • Kluet people

    • Kluet or Kluwat people dwell in a number of districts in South Aceh Regency, Aceh, Indonesia namely North Kluet, South Kluet, Central Kluet and East Kluet. The Kluet people are regarded as part of the Batak people sub-ethnicity. The Kluet regions are separated by Lawé Kluet River, where it disgorges from the Mount L ... Read »


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    • Knightly knot

    • A parzenica is a heart-shaped pattern of a traditional handicraft characteristic of the decorative art of the Polish highlanders, often found embroidered on the upper front side of men's trousers. This characteristic decorative motif probably originated in Hungary, and by the beginning of the 20th century it becam ... Read »


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    • Lapedo child

    • The Lapedo child, also known as Lagar Velho 1 or the Lagar Velho boy, is a complete prehistorical skeleton found in Portugal. In 1998, this discovery of an early Upper Paleolithic human burial at Abrigo do Lagar Velho, by the team led by pre-history archeologist João Zilhão, provided evidence of early modern hum ... Read »


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    • Mandailing people

    • Mandailing people
      Mandahiliang

      The Mandailing is a traditional cultural group in Southeast Asia. They are found mainly in the northern section of the island of Sumatra in Indonesia. They came under the influence of the Kaum Padri who ruled the Minangkabau of Tanah Datar. As a result, the Mandailing were influenced by Muslim culture and converted to ... Read »


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    • Maya Research Program

    • The Maya Research Program is a US-based non-profit organization (501C3) that sponsors archaeological and ethnographic research in Middle America. Each summer since 1992, they have sponsored archaeological fieldwork at the ancient Maya site of Blue Creek in northwestern Belize. The Program's goal is, first and foremos ... Read »


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    • The Memories are Present

    • The Memories are Present took place at Stedelijk Museum Bureau Amsterdam from 16 June to 12 August 2012 and was curated by Kerstin Winking (SMBA). The participating artists in the exhibition were Artun Alaska Arasli, Pauline M’barek () and Christoph Westermeier. The exhibition The Memories are Present and the v ... Read »


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    • Metroethnicity

    • Metroethnicity is an ‘aesthetic’ or ‘lifestyle’ theory of language and ethnicity proposed by the British sociolinguist John C. Maher. The theory of Metroethicity rejects cultural essentialism, and heroic ethnicity, in favour of a hybridized form of ethnicity that is utilised for aesthetic effect. ... Read »


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    • Museum Ethnographers Group

    • The Museum Ethnographers Group (MEG) is a United Kingdom-based collective for those working with and researching ethnographic collections in museums. It is registered as a charity in England and Wales (no. 1023150) and is recognised in the UK museum sector as a subject specialist network. It is often known to its membe ... Read »


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    • Netnography

    • Netnography is an online research method originating in ethnography which is applied to understanding social interaction in contemporary digital communications contexts. It is defined as a specific set of research practices related to data collection, analysis, research ethics, and representation, rooted in participant ... Read »


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    • Non-Hispanic whites

    • Non-Hispanic whites
      White, not Hispanic or Latino
      "Anglo-American"

      ( Non-Hispanic whites or whites not of Hispanic or Latino origin or "Anglo," are people in the United States who, as defined by the Census Bureau, are considered racially white and are not of Hispanic or Latino origin/ethnicity. Non-Hispanic whites are a subcategory of white Americans, the other being white Hispanic a ... Read »


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    • Cyber-ethnography

    • Cyber-ethnography, also known as virtual ethnography, and most commonly online ethnography, is an online research method that adapts ethnographic methods to the study of the communities and cultures created through computer-mediated social interaction. Online ethnography has by far the wider use. As modifications of th ... Read »


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    • Pakpak people

    • Pakpak or Pakpak Dairi people are one of the ethnic group of Batak people (hence also known as Batak Pakpak) found mainly in North Sumatra, Indonesia. They are scattered in a few regencies and cities in North Sumatra and Aceh, such as Dairi Regency, Pakpak Bharat Regency, Humbang Hasundutan Regency and Central Tapanuli ... Read »


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    • The People of India

    • The People of India is a title that has been used for at least three books, all of which focussed primarily on ethnography. John Forbes Watson and John William Kaye compiled an eight-volume study entitled The People of India between 1868 and 1875. The books contained 468 annotated photographs of the native castes ... Read »


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    • Person-centered ethnography

    • Person-centered ethnography is an approach within psychological anthropology that draws on techniques and theories from psychiatry and psychoanalysis to understand how individuals relate to and interact with their sociocultural context. The term was first used by Robert I. Levy, a psychoanalytically trained psychiatris ... Read »


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    • Sa Laurera

    • ’’Sa laurera’’ (Peasant's labour in Sardinia) is an anthropological essay by Giulio Angioni, published by Edes in 1976 and by Il Mestrale in 2003. Sa laurera (from Catalan “arar”, “cultivar”) is an accurate record of operations, seasonal fases, ways of working and vocabulary (wi ... Read »


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    • Salvage ethnography

    • Salvage ethnography is the recording of the practices and folklore of cultures threatened with extinction, including as a result of modernization. It is generally associated with the American anthropologist Franz Boas; he and his students aimed to record vanishing Native American cultures. Since the 1960s, anthropologi ... Read »


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    • Jacob Saphir

    • Jacob Saphir (1822–1886) (Hebrew: יעקב הלוי ספיר‎‎) was a Meshulach and traveler of Romanian Jewish descent, born in Ashmyany, government of Wilna. While still a boy, he went to Ottoman Palestine with his parents, who settled at Safed, and at their death in 1836, he m ... Read »


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    • Seeing Anthropology

    • Seeing Anthropology: Cultural Anthropology Through Film by Karl G. Heider introduces cultural anthropology with the use of both text and audiovisual media. First published in 1997, the work uses the tools of the ethnographic film discipline to inform its audience of the various cultural anthropology topics. Also, the t ... Read »


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    • Simalungun people

    • Simalungun People
      Batak Simalungun

      The Simalungun people are an ethnic group in North Sumatra, considered one of the Batak peoples. Simalungun people live mostly in Simalungun Regency and the surrounding areas, including the city of Pematang Siantar, an autonomous city, but previously part of Simalungun Regency. The regent of Simalungun is JR Saragih. ... Read »


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    • Slavic studies

    • Slavic studies (North America), Slavonic studies (Britain and Ireland) or Slavistics (borrowed from Russian славистика or Polish slawistyka) is the academic field of area studies concerned with Slavic areas, Slavic languages, literature, history, and culture. Originally, a Slavist (from Ru ... Read »


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    • Son of the White Mare

    • Son of the White Mare

      Son of the White Mare (Hungarian: Fehérlófia) is a 1981 Hungarian animated adventure film directed by Marcell Jankovics. The story's main character is Fehérlófia (Son of the White Mare), who is a man with superhuman power. Based on the work of László Arany and ancient Hunnic and Avaric legends, Fehà ... Read »


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    • Sotadic zone

    • The existence of a Sotadic Zone was an hypothesis of the British Orientalist and explorer Sir Richard Francis Burton (1821-1890). He asserted that there exists a geographic zone in which pederasty (romantic-sexual intimacy between a boy and a man) is prevalent and celebrated among the indigenous inhabitants. The name d ... Read »


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    • Students' Ethnographic Association


    • Transidioethnography

    • Transidioethography is a transdisciplinary practice that engages in a multimedia study and exploration of one’s own cultural milieu through experiential fieldwork. "Idio" is Greek from idios, one’s own, personal, id·i·o·syn·crat·ic, adjective, pertaining to the nature of idiosyncrasy, or somet ... Read »


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    • Watching the English

    • Watching the English: The Hidden Rules of English Behaviour is a book by Kate Fox, a social anthropologist. The book examines "typical" English behaviour. ... Read »


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    • Zomia (region)

    • Zomia is a geographical term coined in 2002 by historian Willem van Schendel of the University of Amsterdam to refer to the huge mass of mainland Southeast Asia that has historically been beyond the control of governments based in the population centers of the lowlands. The name is from Zomi, a term for common to ... Read »


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