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    Engineering concepts

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    • Cutting processes

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    • Lean manufacturing

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    • Modular design

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Modular design


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    • Engineering ratios

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Engineering ratios


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    • Tensors

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    • 5 M factors

    • The 5M model is a troubleshooting and risk-management model used for aviation safety. Based on T.P. Wright's original work on the man-machine-environment triad at Cornell University, the 5M model incorporates a diagram of 3 interlocking circles and one all-encompassing circle. The smaller circles are labeled Man, Mach ... Read »


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    • Active redundancy

    • Active redundancy is a design concept that increases operational availability and that reduces operating cost by automating most critical maintenance actions. This concept is related to condition-based maintenance and fault reporting. The initial requirement began with military combat systems during World War I. ... Read »


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    • Active structure

    • An active structure (also known as a smart or adaptive structure) is a mechanical structure with the ability to alter its configuration, form or properties in response to changes in the environment. The term active structure also refers to structures that, unlike traditional engineering structures (e.g., bridges, buil ... Read »


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    • Allowable Strength Design

    • Allowable Strength Design (ASD) is a term used by the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) in the 14th Edition of the Manual of Steel Construction. Allowable Stress Design philosophy was left unsupported by AISC after the 9th edition of the manual which remained an acceptable reference design standard in ev ... Read »


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    • Allowance (engineering)

    • In engineering and machining, an allowance is a planned deviation between an exact dimension and a nominal or theoretical dimension, or between an intermediate-stage dimension and an intended final dimension. The unifying abstract concept is that a certain amount of difference allows for some known factor of compensati ... Read »


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    • Angle of list

    • The angle of list is the degree to which a vessel heels (leans or tilts) to either port or starboard. A listing vessel is stable and at equilibrium, but the distribution of weight aboard (often caused by uneven loading or flooding) causes it to heel to one side. By contrast roll is the dynamic movement from side to s ... Read »


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    • Angle of loll

    • Angle of loll is the state of a ship that is unstable when upright (i.e. has a negative metacentric height) and therefore takes on an angle of heel to either port or starboard. When a vessel has negative metacentric height (GM) i.e., is in unstable equilibrium, any external force applied to the vessel will cause it to ... Read »


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    • Angle of repose

    • Angle of Repose

      Angle of Repose is a 1971 novel by Wallace Stegner about a wheelchair-using historian, Lyman Ward, who has lost connection with his son and living family and decides to write about his frontier-era grandparents. It won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 1972. The novel is directly based on the letters of Mary Hallock Fo ... Read »


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    • AutoTrack

    • AutoTrack is a vehicle swept path analysis software program used for analysing the movements of steered and wheeled vehicles including cars, trucks, trams, aircraft and other more specialist vehicles such as fork lift trucks, wheelchairs and access platforms. AutoTrack was the world's first swept path analysis software ... Read »


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    • Axiomatic design

    • Axiomatic design is a systems design methodology using matrix methods to systematically analyze the transformation of customer needs into functional requirements, design parameters, and process variables. Specifically, functional requirements (FRs) are related to design parameters (DPs): The method gets its name from ... Read »


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    • Axiomatic product development lifecycle

    • Axiomatic Product Development Lifecycle (APDL) (also known as Transdisciplinary System Development Lifecycle (TSDL), and Transdisciplinary Product Development Lifecycle (TPDL) ) is a systems engineering product development model proposed by Bulent Gumus that extends the Axiomatic design (AD) method. APDL covers the wh ... Read »


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    • Car analogy

    • The car analogy is a common technique used by engineering textbooks to ease the understanding of abstract concepts. The efficiency of car analogies reside on their capacity to explain difficult concepts (usually due to their high abstraction level) on more mundane terms with which the target audience is comfortable, a ... Read »


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    • Compartmentalization (engineering)

    • When referring to engineering, compartmentalization is the general technique of separating two or more parts of a system to prevent from spreading between or among them. This entails the breaking up of a project or problem into sub classes and sub categories, with the intention of simplifying the task at hand, or to e ... Read »


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    • Constructal law

    • Constructal law is a theory in physics concerning the generation of design (configurations, patterns, geometry) in nature. According to this theory, natural design and the constructal law unite all animate and inanimate systems. The constructal law was stated by Adrian Bejan in 1996 as follows: "For a finite-size syste ... Read »


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    • Corner case

    • In engineering, a corner case (or pathological case) involves a problem or situation that occurs only outside of normal operating parameters—specifically one that manifests itself when multiple environmental variables or conditions are simultaneously at extreme levels, even though each parameter is within the spec ... Read »


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    • Design load

    • In a general sense, the design load is the maximum amount of something a system is designed to handle or the maximum amount of something that the system can produce, which are very different meanings. For example, a crane with a design load of 20 tons is designed to be able to lift loads that weigh 20 tons or less. How ... Read »


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    • Dosing

    • Dosing generally applies to feeding chemicals or medicines in small quantities into a process fluid or to a living being at intervals or to atmosphere at intervals to give sufficient time for the chemical or medicine to react or show the results. In the case of human beings or animals the word dose is generally used b ... Read »


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    • Dual modular redundancy

    • In reliability engineering, dual modular redundancy (DMR) is when components of a system are duplicated, providing redundancy in case one should fail. It is particularly applied to systems where the duplicated components work in parallel, particularly in fault-tolerant computer systems. A typical example is a complex c ... Read »


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    • Edge case

    • An edge case is a problem or situation that occurs only at an extreme (maximum or minimum) operating parameter. For example, a stereo speaker might noticeably distort audio when played at its maximum rated volume, even in the absence of other extreme settings or conditions. An edge case can be expected or unexpected. ... Read »


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    • Elastic and plastic strain

    • Internal strain within a metal is either elastic or plastic. In the case of elastic strain this is observed as a distortion of the crystal lattice, in the case of plastic strain this is observed by the presence of dislocations –the displacement of part of the crystal lattice. Such strain effects can result in unwa ... Read »


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    • Encircled energy

    • The optics term encircled energy refers to a measure of concentration of energy in an optical image, or projected laser at a given range. If a single star is brought to its sharpest focus by a lens giving the smallest image possible with that given lens (called a point spread function or PSF), calculation of the encirc ... Read »


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    • Engineering optimization

    • Engineering Optimization is the subject which uses optimization techniques to achieve design goals in engineering. It is sometimes referred to as design optimization. ... Read »


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    • Engineering tolerance

    • Engineering tolerance is the permissible limit or limits of variation in: Dimensions, properties, or conditions may have some variation without significantly affecting functioning of systems, machines, structures, etc. A variation beyond the tolerance (for example, a temperature that is too hot or too cold) is said to ... Read »


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    • Factor of safety

    • Factors of safety (FoS), also known as (and used interchangeably with) safety factor (SF), is a term describing the load carrying capacity of a system beyond the expected or actual loads. Essentially, the factor of safety is how much stronger the system is than it usually needs to be for an intended load. Safety factor ... Read »


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    • Fault reporting

    • Fault reporting is a maintenance concept that increases operational availability and that reduces operating cost through three mechanisms. This is a prerequisite for Condition-based maintenance. Active redundancy can be integrated with fault reporting to reduce down time to a few minutes per year. Formal mainten ... Read »


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    • Function–means tree


    • Iso-elastic

    • In engineering, iso-elastic refers to a system of elastic and tensile parts (springs and pulleys) which are arranged in a configuration which serves to isolate physical motion at one end from affecting the same motion at the other end. This type of device must be able to maintain angular direction and load-bearing over ... Read »


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    • Key relevance

    • In master locksmithing, key relevance is the measurable difference between an original key and a copy made of that key, either from a wax impression or directly from the original, and how similar the two keys are in size and shape. It can also refer to the measurable difference between a key and the size required to fi ... Read »


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    • Latency (engineering)

    • Latency is a time interval between the stimulation and response, or, from a more general point of view, a time delay between the cause and the effect of some physical change in the system being observed. Latency is physically a consequence of the limited velocity with which any physical interaction can propagate. This ... Read »


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    • Ingemar Lundquist

    • Ingemar Henry Lundquist (born in , Sweden October 19, 1921, died in Carmel Valley Village, California February 25, 2007) was a prolific inventor and mechanical engineer. He was responsible for at least 78 patents, and hundreds of inventions. Three of his most notable inventions were over the wire balloon angioplas ... Read »


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    • Material take off

    • Material take off (MTO) is a term used in engineering and construction, and refers to a list of materials with quantities and types (such as specific grades of steel) that are required to build a designed structure or item. This list is generated by analysis of a blueprint or other design document. The list of required ... Read »


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    • Modular design

    • Modular design, or "modularity in design", is a design approach that subdivides a system into smaller parts called modules or skids, that can be independently created and then used in different systems. A modular system can be characterized by functional partitioning into discrete scalable, reusable modules; rigorous u ... Read »


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    • Operational availability

    • Operational availability in systems engineering is a measurement of how long a system has been available to use when compared with how long it should have been available to be used. Operational availability is a management concept that evaluates the following. Any failed item that is not corrected will induce ope ... Read »


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    • Padded V-hull

    • A padded v-hull is a type of high performance watercraft. They can come in many different configurations from that of a pure race boat to that of a recreational craft. A padded v-hull is very similar in basic shape to the popular v-hull which simply forms a vee when looking at the back of the watercraft. The diffe ... Read »


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    • Parts stress modelling

    • Parts stress modelling is a method in engineering and especially electronics to find an expected value for the rate of failure of the mechanical and electronic components of a system. It is based upon the idea that the more components that there are in the system, and the greater stress that they undergo in operation, ... Read »


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    • Pontoon effect

    • The pontoon effect refers to the tendency of a vessel whose flotation depends on lateral pontoons to capsize without warning when a lateral force is applied. The effect can be sudden and dramatic because the vessel is stable and self-righting as greater lateral force is applied, up to the point that the pontoon(s) on o ... Read »


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    • Processing medium

    • In industrial engineering, a gaseous, vaporous, fluid or shapeless solid material that plays an active role in manufacturing processes - comparable to that of a tool. A processing medium for washing is a soap solution, a processing medium for steel melting is a plasma, and a processing medium for steam drying is super ... Read »


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    • Profile (engineering)

    • In standardization, a profile is a subset internal to a specification. Aspects of a complex technical specification may necessarily have more than one interpretation, and there are probably many optional features. These aspects constitute a profile of the standard. Two implementations engineered from the same descripti ... Read »


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    • Real versus nominal value

    • The distinction between real value and nominal value occurs in many fields. From a philosophical viewpoint, nominal value represents an accepted condition, which is a goal or an approximation, as opposed to the real value, which is always present. Often a nominal value is de facto rather than an exact, typical, or aver ... Read »


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    • Redundancy (engineering)

    • In engineering, redundancy is the duplication of critical or functions of a system with the intention of increasing reliability of the system, usually in the form of a backup or fail-safe, or to improve actual system performance, such as in the case of GNSS receivers, or multi-threaded computer processing. In many sa ... Read »


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    • Residence time (fluid dynamics)

    • Residence time, also known as removal time, is the average amount of time spent in a control volume by the particles of a fluid. Since there's more than one way of averaging the time spent by particles inside the volume, there're also more than one definition of residence time. In case the flow is stationary and respec ... Read »


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    • Reverse architecture

    • Reverse architecture is a process of deducing the underlying architecture and design of a system by observing its behaviour. It has its roots in the field of reverse engineering. Practicing reverse architecture is used to decipher the logistics of building. There are a variety of techniques available, most notable bein ... Read »


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    • Reverse engineering

    • Reverse engineering, also called back engineering, is the processes of extracting knowledge or design information from anything man-made and re-producing it or re-producing anything based on the extracted information. The process often involves disassembling something (a mechanical device, electronic component, compute ... Read »


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    • Satellite delay

    • Satellite delay is the noticeable latency which occurs due to the speed of light, when sending data to and from satellites, especially the much further out geosynchronous satellites. Bouncing a signal off one geosynchronous satellite takes about a quarter of a second, which is enough to be noticeable, but relaying data ... Read »


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    • Season cracking

    • Season cracking is a form of stress-corrosion cracking of brass cartridge cases originally reported from British forces in India. During the monsoon season, military activity was temporarily reduced, and ammunition was stored in stables until the dry weather returned. Many brass cartridges were subsequently found to be ... Read »


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    • Signal (electrical engineering)

    • A signal as referred to in communication systems, signal processing, and electrical engineering is a function that "conveys information about the behavior or attributes of some phenomenon". In the physical world, any quantity exhibiting variation in time or variation in space (such as an image) is potentially a signal ... Read »


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    • Stress concentration

    • A stress concentration (often called stress raisers or stress risers) is a location in an object where stress is concentrated. An object is stronger when force is evenly distributed over its area, so a reduction in area, e.g., caused by a crack, results in a localized increase in stress. A material can fail, via a prop ... Read »


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    • T-criterion

    • The T-failure criterion is a set of material failure criteria that can be used to predict both brittle and ductile failure. These criteria were designed as a replacement for the von Mises yield criterion which predicts the unphysical result that pure hydrostatic tensile loading of metals never leads to failure. The T ... Read »


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    • Technical peer review

    • In engineering, technical peer review is a type of engineering review. Technical peer reviews are a well defined review process for finding and fixing defects, conducted by a team of peers with assigned roles. Technical peer reviews are carried out by peers representing areas of life cycle affected by material being re ... Read »


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    • Terrafugia TF-X

    • Terrafugia TF-X

      The Terrafugia TF-X is the first fully autonomous flying car under development by Boston-based Terrafugia. Its expected release date is listed as eight to twelve years. The TF-X seats four passengers and uses an engine combined with two electric motors for propulsion. Unlike the previously proposed Transition, the TF-X ... Read »


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    • Tolerance coning

    • Tolerance coning is the engineering discipline of creating a budget of all tolerances that potentially add/subtract to affect adequacy of a particular parameter. This is particularly critical where stages of design/manufacture precede test/use. For example, when setting a test limit for a measurement on each manufactu ... Read »


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    • Tolerance interval

    • A tolerance interval is a statistical interval within which, with some confidence level, a specified proportion of a sampled population falls. "More specifically, a 100×p%/100×(1−α) tolerance interval provides limits within which at least a certain proportion (p) of the population falls with a given l ... Read »


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    • Triple modular redundancy

    • In computing, triple modular redundancy, sometimes called triple-mode redundancy, (TMR) is a fault-tolerant form of N-modular redundancy, in which three systems perform a process and that result is processed by a majority-voting system to produce a single output. If any one of the three systems fails, the other two sys ... Read »


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    • Turning radius

    • The turning radius of a vehicle is the radius of the smallest circular turn (i.e. U-turn) that the vehicle is capable of making. The term turning radius is a technical term that has become popular automotive jargon. In the jargon sense, it is commonly used to mean the full diameter of the smallest circle, but in techni ... Read »


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