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    Economic policy

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    • Economic policy by continent

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    • Austerity

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    • Books about economic policy

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    • Chinese economic policy

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    • Economic liberalization

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    • Economic planning

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    • Economic stimulus programs

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    • Industrial policy

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    • Macroeconomic policy

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    • Minimum wage

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    • Economy ministries

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    • Quotas

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    • Subsidies

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    • Economic policy stubs

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    • Economic policy

    • Economic policy refers to the actions that governments take in the economic field. It covers the systems for setting levels of taxation, government budgets, the money supply and interest rates as well as the labor market, national ownership, and many other areas of government interventions into the economy. Most facto ... Read »


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    • Agenda 2010

    • The Agenda 2010 is a series of reforms planned and executed by the German government, a Social-Democrats/Greens coalition at that time, which aimed to reform the German welfare system and labour relations. The declared objective of Agenda 2010 was to "promote economic growth" and thus "reduce unemployment". On Mar ... Read »


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    • Anti-Inflation Act

    • The Anti-Inflation Act was a Canadian Act of Parliament that was passed in 1975 by Pierre Trudeau's government in order to slow down the rapidly increasing price and wage inflation. Among its many controls, it limited pay increases for federal public employees and those in companies with more than 500 employees to 10% ... Read »


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    • Austerity

    • Austerity is a set of economic policies implemented with the aim of reducing government budget deficits. Policies grouped under the term 'austerity measures' may include spending cuts, tax increases, or a mixture of both, and may be undertaken to demonstrate the government's fiscal discipline to creditors and credit ra ... Read »


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    • Automatic stabilizer

    • In macroeconomics, automatic stabilizers are features of the structure of modern government budgets, particularly income taxes and welfare spending, that act to dampen fluctuations in real GDP. The size of the government budget deficit tends to increase when a country enters a recession, which tends to keep national i ... Read »


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    • Barnett critique

    • The Barnett critique, named for the work of William A. Barnett in monetary economics, argues that internal inconsistency between the aggregation theory used to produce monetary aggregates and the economic theory used to produce the models within which the aggregates are used are responsible for the appearance of unstab ... Read »


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    • Capital account convertibility

    • Capital account convertibility is a feature of a nation's financial regime that centers on the ability to conduct transactions of local financial assets into foreign financial assets freely or at country determined exchange rates. It is sometimes referred to as capital asset liberation or CAC. In layman's terms, full ... Read »


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    • Citizens Climate Lobby

    • Citizens' Climate Lobby

      Citizens' Climate Lobby (CCL) is an international grassroots environmental group that trains and supports volunteers to build relationships with their elected representatives in order to influence climate policy. Operating since 2007, the goal of CCL is to build political support across party lines to put a price on ca ... Read »


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    • Cobra effect

    • The cobra effect occurs when an attempted solution to a problem actually makes the problem worse. This is an instance of unintended consequences. The term is used to illustrate the causes of incorrect stimulation in economy and politics. There is also a 2001 book with the same title by German economist Horst Siebert. ... Read »


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    • Commercial state

    • The commercial state concept (and its important variant, commercial society) is sometimes associated with Adam Ferguson's concept of civil society and refers to a government or political state devoted primarily to the promotion and advancement of commercial interests. Ferguson, Adam Smith and other representatives of t ... Read »


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    • Corporatization

    • Corporatization is the process of transforming state assets, government agencies, or municipal organizations into corporations. It refers to a restructuring of government and public organizations into joint-stock, publicly listed companies in order to introduce corporate and business management techniques to their admi ... Read »


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    • Council of Economic Advisers (Scotland)

    • The Council of Economic Advisers (CEA) is a group of economists and captains of industry who advise the Scottish Government. It was established in 2007, meeting for the first time on 21 September. Minutes of its quarterly meetings will be published a fortnight after each meeting. It is intended that the council will p ... Read »


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    • Dahrendorf hypothesis

    • The Dahrendorf hypothesis is the name given to a hypothesis by the German-British political scientist Ralf Dahrendorf, which states that diversity is desirable in economic policies across time and space according to local needs. Dahrendorf argues that societies are quite considerably different from each other, and tha ... Read »


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    • Debt clock

    • A debt clock is a public counter, which displays the government debt (also known as public debt or national debt) of a public corporation, usually of a state, and which visualizes the progression through an update every second. Because of the mirror-image correlation between liabilities and accounts receivable meanwhil ... Read »


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    • Demand management

    • Demand Management is a planning methodology used to forecast [predict], plan for and manage the demand for products and services. This can be at macro levels as in economics and at micro levels within individual organizations. For example, at macro levels, a government may influence interest rates in order to regulate ... Read »


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    • Earnings test (US)

    • Under the United States social security system, workers who have reached 62 but have not yet reached the full social security retirement age are subject to a retirement earnings test, which effectively defers benefits for people whose earnings are above a given threshold. The test only applies to people who are below ... Read »


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    • Ease of doing business index

    • The ease of doing business index is an index created by the World Bank Group. Higher rankings (a low numerical value) indicate better, usually simpler, regulations for businesses and stronger protections of property rights. Empirical research funded by the World Bank to justify their work show that the economic growth ... Read »


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    • Economic Freedom of the World

    • Economic Freedom of the World is an annual survey published by the libertarian Fraser Institute, a Canadian think tank. The survey attempts to measure the degree of economic freedom in the world's nations. It has been used in peer-reviewed studies some of which have found a range of beneficial effects of more economic ... Read »


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    • Economic interventionism

    • Economic interventionism (sometimes state interventionism) is an economic policy perspective favoring government intervention in the market process to correct the market failures and promote the general welfare of the people. An economic intervention is an action taken by a government or international institution in a ... Read »


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    • Economic liberalization

    • Economic liberalization is the lessening of government regulations and restrictions in an economy in exchange for greater participation by private entities; the doctrine is associated with classical liberalism. Thus, liberalization in short is "the removal of controls" in order to encourage economic development. It is ... Read »


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    • Economic rationalism

    • Economic rationalism is an Australian term often used in the discussion of macroeconomic policy, applicable to the economic policy of many governments around the world, in particular during the 1980s and 1990s. Economic rationalists tend to favour neoliberal policies: deregulation, a free market economy, privatisation ... Read »


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    • Employer of last resort

    • Employers of last resort are employers in an economy to whom workers go for jobs when no other jobs are available; the term is by analogy with "lender of last resort". The phrase is used in two senses: The sense of a job guarantee program is used and advocated by some schools of Post-Keynesian economists, notably by a ... Read »


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    • Eco-Tariffs

    • An Eco-tariff, also known as an environmental tariff, is an import or export tax placed on products being imported from, or also being sent to countries with substandard environmental pollution controls. They can be used as controls on global pollution and can also be considered as corrective measures against "environm ... Read »


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    • Fear of floating

    • Fear of floating refers to situations where a country prefers a smoother exchange rate to a floating exchange rate regime. This is more relevant in emerging economies, especially when they suffered from financial crisis in last two decades. In foreign exchange markets of the emerging market economies, there is evidence ... Read »


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    • Fei–Ranis model of economic growth


    • Filipino First policy

    • The Filipino First (Tagalog: Pilipino Muna) refers to a policy first introduced and implemented by the administration of then Philippine President Carlos P. Garcia. Under the policy, Filipino-owned business over its foreign counterparts, and the patronizing of Filipino-made products by Filipinos was also promoted. ... Read »


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    • Fiscal incidence

    • Fiscal incidence is a concept within public finance, a sub-discipline within economics, that refers to the combined overall economic impact of both government taxation and expenditures on the real economic income of individuals. While taxation reduces the economic well-being of individuals, government expenditures rai ... Read »


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    • Fiscal sustainability

    • Fiscal sustainability, or public finance sustainability, is the ability of a government to sustain its current spending, tax and other policies in the long run without threatening government solvency or defaulting on some of its liabilities or promised expenditures. There is no consensus among economists on a precise o ... Read »


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    • Four pillars policy

    • The four pillars policy is an Australian Government policy to maintain the separation of the four largest banks in Australia by rejecting any merger or acquisition between the four major banks. The policy, originally "six pillars" (it initially included AMP and National Mutual), was adopted in 1990 by then Labor T ... Read »


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    • General maximum

    • The General Maximum, or Law of the Maximum, was a law during the French Revolution, as an extension of the Law of Suspects on 29 September 1793. It succeeded the 4 May 1793 loi du maximum that also set price limits, deterred price gouging, and allowed for the continued flow of food supply to the French people. Com ... Read »


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    • Global Competitiveness Report

    • The Global Competitiveness Report (GCR) is a yearly report published by the World Economic Forum. Since 2004, the Global Competitiveness Report ranks countries based on the Global Competitiveness Index, developed by Xavier Sala-i-Martin and Elsa V. Artadi. Before that, the macroeconomic ranks were based on Jeffrey Sach ... Read »


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    • Global Enabling Trade Report

    • The Global Enabling Trade Report was first published in 2008 by the World Economic Forum. The 2008 report covers 118 major and emerging economies. At the core of the report is the Enabling Trade Index which ranks the countries using data from different sources (e.g., World Economic Forum’s Executive Opinion Surve ... Read »


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    • Global Gender Gap Report

    • The Global Gender Gap Report was first published in 2006 by the World Economic Forum. The 2016 report covers 144 major and emerging economies. The Global Gender Gap Index is an index designed to measure gender equality. The report’s Gender Gap Index ranks countries according to calculated gender gaps. The ass ... Read »


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    • Global Risks Report

    • The Global Risks Report is an annual study published by the World Economic Forum ahead of the Forum’s Annual Meeting in Davos, Switzerland. Based on the work of the Global Risk Network, the report describes changes occurring in the global risks landscape from year to year and identifies global catastrophic risks. ... Read »


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    • Government budget balance

    • A government budget is a financial statement presenting the government's proposed revenues and spending for a financial year. The government budget balance, also alternatively referred to as general government balance,public budget balance, or public fiscal balance, is the overall difference between government revenues ... Read »


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    • Green paradox

    • The green paradox, identified by German economist Hans-Werner Sinn, is the observation that an environmental policy that becomes greener with the passage of time acts like an announced expropriation for the owners of fossil fuel resources, inducing them to accelerate resource extraction and hence to accelerate global w ... Read »


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    • Improvement

    • Improvement is the process of a thing moving from one state to a state considered to be better, usually through some action intended to bring about that better state. The concept of improvement is important to governments and businesses, as well as to individuals. The term "improvement" in general means "gradual, ... Read »


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    • Incomes policy

    • Incomes policies in economics are economy-wide wage and price controls, most commonly instituted as a response to inflation, and usually seeking to establish wages and prices below free market level. Incomes policies have often been resorted to during wartime. During the French Revolution, "The Law of the Maximum" imp ... Read »


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    • Index of Economic Freedom

    • The Index of Economic Freedom is an annual index and ranking created by The Heritage Foundation and The Wall Street Journal in 1995 to measure the degree of economic freedom in the world's nations. The creators of the index took an approach similar to Adam Smith's in The Wealth of Nations, that "basic institutions that ... Read »


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    • Industrial development policy of Ethiopia

    • Between 1950 and 1960, the imperial government of Ethiopia enacted legislation and implemented a new policy to encourage foreign investment in the Ethiopian economy. This new policy provided investor benefits in the form of tax exemptions, remittances of foreign exchange, import and export duty relief, tax exemptions o ... Read »


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    • Infrastructure-based development

    • Infrastructure-based economic development also called infrastructure-driven development combines key policy characteristics inherited from the Rooseveltian progressivist tradition and Neo-Keynesian economics in the United States, France's Gaullist and Neo-Colbertist centralized economic planning, Scandinavian social de ... Read »


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    • Inside lag

    • In economics, the inside lag (or inside recognition and decision lag) is the amount of time it takes for a government or a central bank to respond to a shock in the economy. It is the delay in implementation of a fiscal policy or monetary policy. Its converse is the outside lag (the amount of time before an action by a ... Read »


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    • Interaction between monetary and fiscal policies

    • Fiscal policy and monetary policy are the two tools used by the state to achieve its macroeconomic objectives. While for many countries the main objective of fiscal policy is to increase the aggregate output of the economy, the main objective of the monetary policies is to control the interest and inflation rates. The ... Read »


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    • Intereconomics

    • Editor Brigitte Preissl Categories Economics Frequency Bimonthly Publisher Springer Science+Business Media First issue 1966; 51 years ago (1966) Country Germany Website www.intereconomics.eu ISSN
    • Intereconomics

      Intereconomics – Review of European Economic Policy is a bimonthly journal covering economic and social policy issues in Europe or affecting Europe. The editor-in-chief is Brigitte Preissl and it is published by Springer Science+Business Media. It is an official publication of the German National Library of Econom ... Read »


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    • Investment policy

    • An investment policy is any government regulation or law that encourages or discourages foreign investment in the local economy, e.g. currency exchange limits. As globalization integrates the economies of neighboring and of trading states, they are typically forced to trade off such rules as part of a common tax, ... Read »


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    • Iranian frozen assets

    • Iranian frozen assets in international accounts are calculated to be worth between $100 billion and $120 billion. Almost $1.973 billion of Iran's assets are frozen in the United States. According to the Congressional Research Service, in addition to the money locked up in foreign bank accounts, Iran's frozen assets inc ... Read »


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    • Sanctions against Iraq

    • The sanctions against Iraq were a near-total financial and trade embargo imposed by the United Nations Security Council on the Iraqi Republic. They began August 6, 1990, four days after Iraq's invasion of Kuwait, stayed largely in force until May 2003 (after Saddam Hussein's being forced from power), and persisted in p ... Read »


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    • Italian economic battles

    • The Italian Economic Battles were a series of economic policies undertaken by the National Fascist Party in Italy during the 1920s and 1930s. They were designed to increase the potential of Italy becoming a great power by reclaiming land, placing emphasis on home-grown produce and having a strong currency. ... Read »


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    • Jawboning

    • "Jawboning" or "moral suasion" in economics and politics is an unofficial technique of public and private discussions and arm-twisting, which may work by the implicit threat of future government regulation. In America during the Democratic administrations of Presidents Kennedy and Johnson officials tried to deal with t ... Read »


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    • Job guarantee

    • A job guarantee (JG) is an economic policy proposal aimed at providing a sustainable solution to the dual problems of inflation and unemployment. Its aim is to create full employment and price stability, by having the state promise to hire unemployed workers as an employer of last resort (ELR). The economic policy sta ... Read »


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    • Kenya Economic Stimulus Program

    • The 'Kenya Economic Stimulus Program (abbreviated as ESP') was a spending plan initiated by the Government of Kenya to boost economic growth and lead the Kenyan economy out of a recession at the end of the first decade of the 21st century. It was introduced in the 2009/2010 Budget Speech in parliament by Finance Minist ... Read »


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    • Dhanendra Kumar

    • Dhanendra Kumar (born 1946) is a civil servant (joined Indian Administrative Service – India's Premier Federal Government Service, in 1968), former Executive Director at World Bank and first Chairman of Competition Commission of India. He is currently assisting Indian Institute of Corporate Affairs (of Ministry of ... Read »


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    • LabEx ReFi - European Laboratory on Financial Regulation

    • LabEx ReFi - European Laboratory on Financial Regulation

      Since the financial crisis, regulation of financial activities is at the center of economic and political events. The crisis has indeed led regulators but also the academic world to ask new questions about the effectiveness of regulation policies. To answer these questions, the French laboratory of excellence on financ ... Read »


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    • List of countries by economic freedom

    • This article includes a partial List of countries by economic freedom that shows the top 50 highest ranking countries from two reports on economic freedom. ... Read »


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    • Local ownership import substituting

    • In 2006, Michael Shuman proposed Local ownership import substituting (LOIS), as an alternative to neoliberalism. It rejects the idelogy of there is no alternative. Shuman claims LOIS businesses are long term wealth generators, are less likely to exit destructively and have higher economic multipliers. ... Read »


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    • Louvre Accord

    • The Louvre Accord was an agreement, signed on February 22, 1987 in Paris, that aimed to stabilize the international currency markets and halt the continued decline of the US Dollar caused by the Plaza Accord. The agreement was signed by France, West Germany, Japan, Canada, the United States and the United Kingdom. The ... Read »


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    • Lucas critique

    • The Lucas critique, named for Robert Lucas's work on macroeconomic policymaking, argues that it is naive to try to predict the effects of a change in economic policy entirely on the basis of relationships observed in historical data, especially highly aggregated historical data. More formally, it states that the decisi ... Read »


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    • Macmillan Committee

    • The Macmillan Committee, officially known as the Committee on Finance and Industry, was a committee, composed mostly of economists, formed by the British government after the to determine the root causes of the depressed economy of the United Kingdom. The Macmillan Committee was formed in 1929 by Royal Command 3897, a ... Read »


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    • Market transformation

    • Market transformation describes both a policy objective and a program strategy to promote the value and self-sustaining presence of energy-efficient technologies in the marketplace. It is a strategic process of market intervention which aims to alter market behavior by removing identified barriers and leveraging opport ... Read »


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    • Market-preserving federalism

    • Market-preserving federalism is a special type of federalism that limits the degree to which a country’s political system can encroach upon its markets. Weingast notes that there is a fundamental dilemma facing a government attempting to build and protect markets: the government must be strong enough to protect pr ... Read »


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    • Monetary hawk and dove

    • A monetary hawk, or hawk for short, is a term used to describe someone who places keeping inflation low as the top priority in monetary policy. The term contrasts with a monetary dove, which describes someone who emphasizes other issues, especially low unemployment, over low inflation. The two terms are commonly used ... Read »


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    • Moral suasion

    • Moral suasion is an appeal to morality in order to influence or change behavior. A famous example is the attempt by William Lloyd Garrison and his American Anti-Slavery Society to end slavery in the United States by using moral suasion. In economics, moral suasion is more specifically defined as "the attempt to coerce ... Read »


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    • National Competition Policy (India)

    • National Competition Policy is formulated by the Government of India with a view to achieve highest sustainable levels of economic growth, entrepreneurship, employment, higher standards of living for citizens, protect economic rights for just, equitable, inclusive and sustainable economic and social development, promot ... Read »


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    • Nationalization

    • Nationalization, or nationalisation, is the process of transforming private assets into public assets by bringing them under the public ownership of a national government or state. Nationalization usually refers to private assets or assets owned by lower levels of government, such as municipalities, being transferred t ... Read »


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    • New Economic System

    • The New Economic System (German: Neues Ökonomisches System), officially the New Economic System of Planning and Management, was an economic policy that was implemented by the ruling Socialist Unity Party (SED) of the German Democratic Republic (GDR) in 1963. Its purpose was to replace the system of Five-Year Plans w ... Read »


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    • National Finance Commission Award

    • The National Finance Commission Award is a series of planned economic program enacted since 1951. Constituted under the Article 160 of the Constitution, the program was emerged to take control of financial imbalances and equally managed the financial resources to four provinces to meet their expenditure liabilities whi ... Read »


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    • Nordic model

    • The Nordic model (also called Nordic capitalism or Nordic social democracy) refers to the economic and social policies common to the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway, Iceland and Sweden). This includes a combination of free market capitalism with a comprehensive welfare state and collective bargaining at the ... Read »


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    • Open market operation

    • An open market operation (OMO) is an activity by a central bank to give (or take) liquidity in its currency to (or from) a bank or a group of banks. The central bank can either buy or sell government bonds in the open market (this is where the name was historically derived from) or, which is now mostly the preferred so ... Read »


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    • Ordoliberalism

    • Ordoliberalism is the German variant of social liberalism that emphasizes the need for the state to ensure that the free market produces results close to its theoretical potential. Ordoliberal ideals (with modifications) drove the creation of the post-World War II German social market economy and its attendant Wirtsch ... Read »


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    • The Other Canon Foundation

    • The Other Canon Foundation is a center and network for research of heterodox economics founded by Erik Reinert. The name refers to the founders' message of there being another economic canon, alternative to the ruling neoclassical economics. Their suggestions, they claim, are valid for and can be applicated in the firs ... Read »


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    • Outside lag

    • In economics, the outside lag is the amount of time it takes for a government or central bank's actions, in the form of either monetary or fiscal policy, to have a noticeable effect on the economy. Its converse is the inside lag, the amount of time it takes the policy authority to recognize that a situation calls for a ... Read »


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    • Pension fund investment in infrastructure

    • Although traditionally the preserve of governments and municipal authorities, infrastructure has recently become an asset class in its own right for private sector investors- most notably pension funds Historically, pension funds have tended to invest mostly in "core-assets" such as money market instruments, gove ... Read »


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    • Perverse incentive

    • A perverse incentive is an incentive that has an unintended and undesirable result which is contrary to the interests of the incentive makers. Perverse incentives are a type of negative unintended consequence or cobra effect. ... Read »


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    • Policy Coherence for Development

    • Policy Coherence for Development (PCD) is an approach and policy tool for integrating the economic, social, environmental and governance dimensions of sustainable development at all stages of domestic and international policy making. It is the aim of Policy Coherence for Development to make foreign relations to be as e ... Read »


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    • Policy mix

    • The policy mix is the combination of a country's monetary policy and fiscal policy. These two channels influence growth and employment, and are generally determined by the central bank and the government (e.g., the United States Congress) respectively. Ideally, the policy mix should aim at maximizing growth and minimi ... Read »


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    • Policy Uncertainty

    • Policy Uncertainty is a broad class of economic risk where the future path of government policy is uncertain, raising risk premia and leading businesses and individuals to delay spending and investment until this uncertainty has been resolved. Policy uncertainty may refer to uncertainty about monetary or fiscal policy, ... Read »


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    • Poverty-Growth-Inequality Triangle

    • In developmental economics, the Poverty-Growth-Inequality Triangle (also called the Growth-Inequality-Poverty Triangle or GIP Triangle) refers to the idea that a country's change in poverty can be fully determined by its change in income growth and income inequality. According to the model, a development strategy must ... Read »


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    • Quantitative easing

    • Quantitative easing (QE) is a monetary policy in which a central bank creates new electronic money in order to buy government bonds or other financial assets to stimulate the economy (i.e., to increase private-sector spending and return inflation to its target). An unconventional form of monetary policy, it is usually ... Read »


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    • Ramsey problem

    • The Ramsey problem, or Ramsey–Boiteux pricing, is a policy rule concerning what price a monopolist should set, in order to maximize social welfare, subject to a constraint on profit. A closely related problem arises in relation to optimal taxation of commodities. It is applicable to public utilities or regulation ... Read »


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    • Reflation

    • Reflation is the act of stimulating the economy by increasing the money supply or by reducing taxes, seeking to bring the economy (specifically price level) back up to the long-term trend, following a dip in the business cycle. It is the opposite of disinflation, which seeks to return the economy back down to the long- ... Read »


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    • Economic sanctions

    • Economic sanctions are commercial and financial penalties applied by one or more countries against a targeted country, group, or individual. Economic sanctions may include various forms of trade barriers, tariffs, and restrictions on financial transactions. Economic sanctions are not necessarily imposed because of eco ... Read »


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    • International sanctions

    • International sanctions are actions taken by countries against others for political reasons, either unilaterally or multilaterally. There are several types of sanctions. Economic sanctions are distinguished from trade sanctions, which are applied for purely economic reasons, and typically take the form of tariffs or ... Read »


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    • Sanctions against Iran

    • Following the Iranian Revolution of 1979, the United States imposed economic sanctions against Iran and expanded them in 1995 to include firms dealing with the Iranian government. In 2006, the UN Security Council passed Resolution 1696 and imposed sanctions after Iran refused to suspend its uranium enrichment program. ... Read »


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    • Sanctions against Serbia

    • During the Yugoslav Wars of the 1990s and early 2000s, several rounds of international sanctions were imposed against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, which from 1992 consisted only of the Yugoslav republics of Serbia and Montenegro. In the first round of sanctions, which were implemented in response to the Bosnian ... Read »


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    • Stabilization policy

    • A stabilization policy is a package or set of measures introduced to stabilize a financial system or economy. The term can refer to policies in two distinct sets of circumstances: business cycle stabilization and crisis stabilization. In either case, it is a form of discretionary policy. Stabilization can refer to ... Read »


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    • Starting a Business Index

    • The Starting a Business Index is a sub-index of the World Bank Ease of Doing Business Index. This methodology was developed by Simeon Djankov, Rafael La Porta, Florencio Lopez-De-Silanes and Andrei Shleifer in a paper The Regulation of Entry. Ranking of all nations from 2010 report ... Read »


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    • Stimulus (economics)

    • In economics, stimulus refers to attempts to use monetary or fiscal policy (or stabilization policy in general) to stimulate the economy. Stimulus can also refer to monetary policies like lowering interest rates and quantitative easing. Often the underlying assumption is that, due to a recession, production and hence ... Read »


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    • Strategic analysis center (France)

    • The Centre d'analyse stratégique is a decision-making and expertise institution under the authority of the French Prime Minister. Established by decree on 6 March 2006, the Centre’s mission is to advise the Government in the creation and application of economic, social, environmental and cultural policy. It was ... Read »


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    • Tax on trees

    • Tax on trees was a tax imposed in USSR in 1944 on fruit trees. The tax made it expensive to have trees on a farm, and had the unintended consequence of causing a mass felling of trees by Soviet farmers. This subsequently led to shortage of fruit. The idea proposed by the Minister Arseny Zverev, and Joseph Stalin faile ... Read »


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    • Toledo Pact

    • The Toledo Pact (Spanish: Pacto de Toledo) was an ambitious reform of the Spanish social security system approved by the Spanish parliament on 6 April 1995, aimed at streamlining and guaranteeing the future of the Spanish social security system. The background to the reform was a series of recommendations by the World ... Read »


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    • Trade facilitation and development

    • Success in export markets for developed and developing country firms is increasingly affected by the ability of countries to support an environment which promotes efficient and low cost trade services and logistics. Policies related to trade facilitation and economic development reflect the idea that trade can be a p ... Read »


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    • Wallace neutrality

    • The Wallace neutrality (also known as Wallace Irrelevance Proposition,Modigliani–Miller theorem for government finance), is an economics proposition asserting that in certain environment, holding fiscal policy constant, alternative paths of the government financial policies have no effect on the sequences for the ... Read »


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    • World Competitiveness Yearbook

    • The World Competitiveness Yearbook is an annual report published by the Swiss-based International Institute for Management Development (IMD) on the competitiveness of nations and has been published since 1989. The yearbook benchmarks the performance of 60 countries based on 333 criteria measuring different facets of co ... Read »


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