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    Construction

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    • Construction by continent

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    • Construction by country

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    • Architecture

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    • Artificial landforms

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    • Artisans

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    • Building

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    • Building engineering

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    • Building information modeling

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    • Building materials

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    • Buildings and structures under construction

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    • Civil engineering

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    • Coastal construction

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    • Computer-aided engineering

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    • Demolition

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    • Construction documents

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    • Dredging companies

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    • Construction equipment

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    • Fasteners

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    • Hardware (mechanical)

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    • History of construction

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    • Construction industry

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    • Infrastructure

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    • Construction law

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    • Masonry

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    • Military engineering

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    • Construction ministries

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    • Offshore engineering

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    • Construction organizations

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    • Plumbing

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    • Redevelopment

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    • Road construction

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    • Construction safety

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    • Construction software

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    • Construction standards

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    • Stonemasonry

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    • Structural engineering

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    • Sustainable building

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    • Trenchless technology

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    • Yacht design

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    • Zoning

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    • Construction

    • Construction is the of constructing a building or infrastructure. Construction differs from manufacturing in that manufacturing typically involves mass production of similar items without a designated purchaser, while construction typically takes place on location for a known client. Construction as an industry compri ... Read »


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    • Index of construction articles

    • This page is a list of construction topics. Abated - Acoustics - Architectural engineer - Architecture - Autonomous buildings - Avanti (programme) Balloon framing - Braced wall line (shear wall) - Brick - Bricklayer - Brickwork - Building code - Building construction - Building foundations - Building material Carpen ... Read »


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    • List of international earthquake acceleration coefficients

    • List of international earthquake acceleration coefficients. A list of earthquake coefficients used in structural design for earthquake engineering around the world. For example, a coefficient of 0.09 indicates that a building is designed that 0.09 of its weight can be applied horizontally during an earthquake. From Au ... Read »


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    • 1:5:200

    • In the construction industry, the 1:5:200 rule (or 1:5:200 ratio) is a rule of thumb that states that: If the initial construction costs of a building is 1, then its maintenance and operating costs over the years is 5, and the business operating costs (salary of people working in that building) is 200. The rule origi ... Read »


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    • 4D BIM

    • 4D BIM, an acronym for 4D Building Information Modeling and a term widely used in the CAD industry, refers to the intelligent linking of individual 3D CAD components or assemblies with time- or schedule-related information.The use of the term 4D is intended to refer to the fourth dimension: time, i.e. 4D is 3D plus sch ... Read »


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    • 5D BIM

    • 5D BIM, an acronym for 5D Building Information Modeling, is a term used in the CAD and construction industries, and refers to the intelligent linking of individual 3D CAD components or assemblies with schedule (time - 4D BIM) constraints and then with cost-related information. The creation of 5D models enables the va ... Read »


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    • 6D BIM

    • 6D BIM, an acronym for 6D Building Information Modeling and a term widely used in the Construction industry, refers to the intelligent linking of individual 3D CAD components or assemblies with all aspects of project life-cycle management information. The 6D model is usually delivered to the owner when a construction ... Read »


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    • 50 Divisions

    • 50 Divisions refers to the 50 divisions of construction information, as defined by the Construction Specifications Institute (CSI)'s MasterFormat beginning in 2004. Before 2004, MasterFormat consisted of 16 Divisions. MasterFormat has continued to be updated and revised since 2004, with new numbers, titles, and a new d ... Read »


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    • Abated

    • Abated, an ancient technical term applied in masonry and metal work to those portions which are sunk beneath the surface, as in inscriptions where the ground is sunk round the letters so as to leave the letters or ornament in relief. ... Read »


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    • Abu Dhabi Capital District

    • The Capital District is a construction project which will be built seven kilometres inland south of Abu Dhabi island in the United Arab Emirates, between Mohammed bin Zayed City and Abu Dhabi International Airport. The new district will be the seat of the UAE's federal government, and one of the key centrepieces of Pla ... Read »


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    • Active solar

    • Solar hot water systems use pumps or fans to circulate fluid (often a mixture of water and glycol to prevent freezing during winter periods) or air, through solar collectors, and are therefore classified under active solar technology. Some of the basic benefits of active systems is that controls (usually electrical) c ... Read »


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    • Adinotec

    • Adinotec AG

      Adinotec AG is a German provider of road construction technology based in Munich, Bavaria, Germany. The company was founded on 19 December 2004 in Griesheim, Germany, and initially named Neosino. Brokered by VEM Aktienbank, now DERO Bank, it was listed in the Entry Standard segment of the Frankfurt Stock Exchange on 4 ... Read »


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    • Air source heat pumps

    • An air source heat pump (ASHP) is a system which transfers heat from outside to inside a building, or vice versa. Under the principles of vapor compression refrigeration, an ASHP uses a refrigerant system involving a compressor and a condenser to absorb heat at one place and release it at another. They can be used as a ... Read »


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    • Allowable Strength Design

    • Allowable Strength Design (ASD) is a term used by the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) in the 14th Edition of the Manual of Steel Construction. Allowable Stress Design philosophy was left unsupported by AISC after the 9th edition of the manual which remained an acceptable reference design standard in ev ... Read »


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    • Alternative natural materials

    • Alternative natural materials is a general term that describes natural materials like rock or adobe that are not as commonly in use as materials such as wood or iron. Alternative natural materials have many practical uses in areas such as sustainable architecture and engineering. The main purpose of using such material ... Read »


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    • Applied element method

    • The Applied Element Method (AEM) is a numerical analysis used in predicting the continuum and discrete behavior of structures. The modeling method in AEM adopts the concept of discrete cracking allowing it to automatically track structural collapse behavior passing through all stages of loading: elastic, crack initiati ... Read »


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    • Architectural metals

    • Metals used for architectural purposes include lead, for water pipes, roofing, and windows; tin, formed into tinplate; zinc, copper and aluminium, in a range of applications including roofing and decoration; and iron, which has structural and other uses in the form of cast iron or wrought iron, or made into steel. Meta ... Read »


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    • Armada Group

    • Armada Holdings/Armada Group (Arabic: ارمادا القابضة‎‎) as one of the leading United Arab Emirates conglomerates with more than 17 active companies having diversified interests in healthcare, hospitality, real estate investment property development, as well as constructi ... Read »


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    • Artisan

    • An artisan (from French: artisan, Italian: artigiano) is a skilled craft worker who makes or creates things by hand that may be or strictly decorative, for example furniture, decorative arts, sculptures, clothing, jewellery, food items, household items and tools or even mechanisms such as the handmade clockwork moveme ... Read »


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    • Avonite

    • Avonite Studio collection is a polyester solid surface material. Avonite Foundations collection is an acrylic solid surface material. Both Avonite series are solid surfaces that have a textured granite or gemstone look manufactured by the company Avonite Surfaces and Aristech Acrylics LLC. Avonite resembles stone, wi ... Read »


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    • Bamboo scaffolding

    • Bamboo scaffolding is a type of scaffolding made from bamboo and widely used in construction work for centuries. Many famous landmarks, notably The Great Wall of China, were built using bamboo scaffolding. It was first introduced into the building industry in Hong Kong immediately after colonization in the 1800s. ... Read »


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    • Banksman

    • In British civil engineering, a banksman is the person who directs the operation of a crane or larger vehicle from the point near where loads are attached and detached. The term 'dogman' may be used in Australia and New Zealand, while 'spotter' is the more common term in United States. Crane or large vehicle drivers d ... Read »


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    • Barn raising

    • A barn raising, also historically called a raising bee or rearing in the U.K., is a collective action of a community, in which a barn for one of the members is built or rebuilt collectively by members of the community. Barn raising was particularly common in 18th- and 19th-century rural North America. A barn was a nece ... Read »


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    • Barra system

    • The Barra system is a passive solar building technology developed by Horazio Barra in Italy. It uses a collector wall to capture solar radiation in the form of heat. It also uses the thermosiphon effect to distribute the warmed air through channels incorporated into the reinforced concrete floors, warming the floors an ... Read »


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    • Basement waterproofing

    • Basement waterproofing involves techniques and materials used to prevent water from penetrating the basement of a house or a building. Waterproofing a basement that is below ground level can require the application of sealant materials, the installation of drains and sump pumps, and more. Waterproofing is usually ... Read »


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    • Batter board

    • Batter boards (or battre boards, Sometimes mispronounced as "battle boads") are temporary frames, set beyond the corners of a planned foundation at precise elevations. These batter boards are then used to hold layout lines (construction twine) to indicate the limits (edges and corners) of the foundation. ... Read »


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    • Besix

    • BESIX Group S.A.

      BESIX Group is the largest Belgian group, operating in the construction of buildings, infrastructure, environmental projects and roads. BESIX is also active in the production of raw materials, facility management, real estate development and concessions. It profiles itself as a multi-services group, from client idea to ... Read »


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    • Bill of quantities

    • A bill of quantities (BOQ) is a document used in tendering in the construction industry / supplies in which materials, parts, and labor (and their costs) are itemized. It also (ideally) details the terms and conditions of the construction or repair contract and itemizes all work to enable a contractor to price the work ... Read »


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    • BIM Task Group

    • The Building Information Modelling (BIM) Task Group is a UK Government-funded group, managed through the Cabinet Office, created in 2011 (and holding its first meeting in May 2011) and chaired by Mark Bew. It was founded to "drive adoption of BIM across government" in support of the Government Construction Strategy. It ... Read »


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    • Borrow pit

    • In construction and civil engineering, a borrow pit, also known as a sand box, is an area where material (usually soil, gravel or sand) has been dug for use at another location. Borrow pits can be found close to many major construction projects. For example, soil might be excavated to fill an embankment for a highway, ... Read »


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    • Brick clamp

    • A brick clamp is a traditional method of baking bricks, done by stacking the unbaked bricks with fuel under or among them and then setting the fuel on fire. The clamp is considered a type of kiln. If the clamp is insulated by packing earth or mud around it, it becomes a scove kiln. ... Read »


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    • Brick hod

    • A brick hod is a three-sided box for carrying bricks or other building materials, often mortar. It bears a long handle and is carried over the shoulder. A hod is usually long enough to accept 4 bricks on their side, however, by arranging the bricks in a chevron fashion, the number of bricks that may be carried is only ... Read »


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    • Brickwork

    • Brickwork is masonry produced by a bricklayer, using bricks and mortar. Typically, rows of bricks—called courses— are laid on top of one another to build up a structure such as a brick wall. Brick is a popular medium for constructing buildings, and examples of brickwork are found through history as far back ... Read »


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    • Bridge management system

    • "Bridge management" redirects here. A bridge management system or BMS is a means for managing bridges throughout design, construction, operation and maintenance of the bridges. As funds available become tighter, road authorities around the world are facing challenges related to bridge management and the escalating mai ... Read »


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    • Building control officer

    • A building control officer (also known as a building inspector, BCO), is now generally known as a Building Control Surveyor in the United Kingdom. This is a person with the authority to control building work that is subject to the Building Regulations. The title Building Control Officer is one predominantly used by loc ... Read »


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    • Building envelope

    • A building envelope is the physical separator between the conditioned and unconditioned environment of a building including the resistance to air, water, heat, light, and noise transfer. The building envelope is all of the elements of the outer shell that maintain a dry, heated, or cooled indoor environment and fa ... Read »


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    • Building information modeling

    • Building information modelling (BIM) is a process involving the generation and management of digital representations of physical and functional characteristics of places. Building information models (BIMs) are files (often but not always in proprietary formats and containing proprietary data) which can be extracted, ex ... Read »


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    • Building material

    • Building material is any material which is used for construction purposes. Many naturally occurring substances, such as clay, rocks, sand, and wood, even twigs and leaves, have been used to construct buildings. Apart from naturally occurring materials, many man-made products are in use, some more and some less syntheti ... Read »


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    • Building services engineering

    • Building services engineering, technical building services, architectural engineering, building engineering, or facilities and services planning engineering refers to the implementation of the engineering for the internal environment and environmental impact of a building. Building services engineers are responsible f ... Read »


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    • Building supplies

    • Building material is any material which is used for construction purposes. Many naturally occurring substances, such as clay, rocks, sand, and wood, even twigs and leaves, have been used to construct buildings. Apart from naturally occurring materials, many man-made products are in use, some more and some less syntheti ... Read »


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    • Casa montañesa


    • Cast Earth

    • Cast Earth is a proprietary natural building material developed since the mid-1990s by Harris Lowenhaupt and Michael Frerking based on the earlier Turkish Alker, which is a concrete-like composite with soil of a suitable composition as its bulk component stabilized with about 15% calcined gypsum (plaster of Paris) inst ... Read »


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    • Cavity wall

    • Cavity walls consist of two 'skins' separated by a hollow space (cavity). The skins are commonly masonry such as brick or concrete block. Masonry is an absorbent material, and therefore will slowly draw rainwater or even humidity into the wall, as well as from the inside of the house as from outside. The cavity serves ... Read »


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    • Cement render

    • Cement rendering is the application of a premixed layer of sand and cement to brick, cement, stone, or mud brick. It is often textured, colored, or painted after application. It is generally used on exterior walls but can be used to feature an interior wall. Depending on the 'look' required, rendering can be fine or c ... Read »


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    • Centring

    • Centring, centre, centering, or center is a type of falsework: the temporary structure upon which the stones of an arch or vault are laid during construction. Once the arch is complete, it supports itself, but until the keystone is inserted, it has no strength and needs the centring to keep the voussoirs in their corre ... Read »


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    • Climbing formwork

    • Climbing formwork is a special type formwork for vertical concrete structures that rises with the building process. While relatively complicated and costly, it can be an effective solution for buildings that are either very repetitive in form (such as towers or skyscrapers) or that require a seamless wall structure (us ... Read »


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    • COBie

    • Construction Operations Building Information Exchange (COBie) is an international standard relating to managed asset information including space and equipment. It is closely associated with building information modeling (BIM) approaches to design, construction and management of built assets, and was devised by Bill Eas ... Read »


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    • Commercial modular construction

    • Commercial Modular Buildings are code-compliant, non-residential structures 60% to 90% completed offsite in a factory-controlled environment then transported or shipped to a final destination where the modules are then placed on a concrete foundation to form a finished building. The word "modular" does not describe a b ... Read »


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    • Complex Projects Contract

    • The CIOB Complex Projects Contract 2013 was a form of construction and engineering contract, developed by the Chartered Institute of Building (CIOB). Its formal name was the 'Contract for Use with Complex Projects, First Edition 2013'. In November 2015, the Complex Projects Contract was updated by the Chartered Insti ... Read »


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    • Composite construction

    • Composite construction is a generic term to describe any building construction involving multiple dissimilar materials. Composite construction is often used in building aircraft, watercraft, and building construction. There are several reasons to use composite materials including increased strength, aesthetics, and env ... Read »


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    • Composite lumber

    • Composite lumber is a material that is a mixture of wood fiber, plastic, and some type of binding agent. These ingredients are put together to form a material that is denser, stronger, and heavier than wood alone, a wood-plastic composite. Until the 1990s, wood was the material of choice for deck construction. How ... Read »


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    • Concrete and Constructional Engineering

    • Concrete and Constructional Engineering was a magazine published in London, England, by Concrete Publications from 1906 to 1966. The magazine chronicled in its pages the increasing popularity of reinforced concrete as a construction material in the early and mid twentieth century. The magazine was founded in 1906 ... Read »


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    • Construction 3D printing

    • Construction 3D Printing refers to various technologies that use 3D printing as a core method to fabricate buildings or construction components. Current machines are being integrated into automated and semi automated production lines and, because of the scale of construction, will feature elements of additive, subtract ... Read »


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    • Construction bidding

    • Construction bidding is the process of submitting a proposal (tender) to undertake, or manage the undertaking of a construction project. The process starts with a cost estimate from blueprints and material take offs. The tender is treated as an offer to do the work for a certain amount of money (firm price), or a cert ... Read »


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    • Construction collaboration technology

    • Construction collaboration technology refers to software applications used to enable effective sharing of project-related information between geographically dispersed members of a construction project team, often through use of a web-based software as a service platform. The terms "construction collaboration" and ... Read »


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    • Construction communication

    • Construction communication, within an organizational context, is to convey an instruction to influence the actions/behaviors of others, or may involve an exchange of, or request for information during a construction project. Communication usually involves the transfer of information, a generic term that embraces m ... Read »


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    • Construction field computing

    • Construction field computing is the use of handheld devices that augment the construction superintendent's ability to manage the operations on a construction site. These information appliances (IA) must be portable devices which can be carried or worn by the user, and have computational and connectivity capacity to per ... Read »


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    • Construction loan

    • A construction loan (also called a home construction loan in the United States and self-build mortgage in the United Kingdom) is any value added loan where the proceeds are used to finance construction of some kind. In the United States Financial Services industry, however, a construction loan is a more specific type o ... Read »


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    • Construction management

    • Construction project management (CM) is a professional service that uses specialized, project management techniques to oversee the planning, design, and construction of a project, from its beginning to its end. The purpose of CM is to control a project's time, cost and quality. CM is compatible with all project deliver ... Read »


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    • Construction of Mount Rushmore

    • Coordinates: 43°52′58.41″N 103°27′20.13″W / 43.8828917°N 103.4555917°W / 43.8828917; -103.4555917 The construction of Mount Rushmore National Memorial took 14 years, from 1927 to 1941. Doane Robinson of the South Dakota Historical Society wanted a monument to be b ... Read »


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    • Construction plant fitting in Ireland

    • The trade of construction plant fitting in Ireland is essentially the training of mechanics who specialise in working on the type of machinery found on building sites. Bull-dozers, dump trucks, four-wheel drive vehicles, cement mixers and water pumps are all types of equipment worked on by construction plant fitters (c ... Read »


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    • Construction waste

    • Construction waste consists of unwanted material produced directly or incidentally by the construction or industries. This includes building materials such as insulation, nails, electrical wiring, shingle, and roofing as well as waste originating from site preparation such as dredging materials, tree stumps, and rubble ... Read »


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    • Contractor ratings

    • Contractor rating systems, also known as contractor prequalifications, are one of the larger cost saving practices available and more routinely applied by governmental organizations as a means of avoiding the high cost and inflated pricing that results from reduced competition on public work by using bonding and surety ... Read »


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    • Core-and-veneer

    • Core-and-veneer, brick and rubble, wall and rubble, ashlar and rubble, and emplekton all refer to a building technique where two parallel walls are constructed and the core between them is filled with rubble or other infill, creating one thick wall. Originally, and in later poorly constructed walls, the rubble was not ... Read »


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    • Critical environment construction

    • Critical environment construction (CEC) is commercial construction projects that require highly technical techniques or work practices in order to complete. Critical environment construction includes projects where highly sensitive or technical challenges exists. In some instances a project may require sophisticated H ... Read »


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    • Cult of Carts

    • Cult of Carts is a term coined by the architectural historian A. K. Porter to describe various occasions in western Europe during the 12th and 13th centuries, when ordinary lay-people harnessed themselves to carts in the place of oxen in order to transport building materials to cathedral building sites. Throughout ... Read »


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    • Cumming Corporation

    • Cumming Corporation is a privately held international project management and cost consulting firm with more than 400 employees, 26 offices and a focus on serving the Education,Healthcare and Hospitality sectors. In 2012, the firm generated an estimated $50 million in professional fees on more than $4 billion in constru ... Read »


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    • Curtain wall (architecture)

    • A curtain wall system is an outer covering of a building in which the outer walls are non-structural, but merely keep the weather out and the occupants in. As the curtain wall is non-structural it can be made of a lightweight material, reducing construction costs. When glass is used as the curtain wall, a great advanta ... Read »


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    • Custom home

    • A custom home is a one-of-a-kind home that is designed for a specific client and for a particular location. The custom home builder may use plans created by an architect or by a professional home designer. Custom homes afford consumers the opportunity to control layout, lot size, and accessibility. In most cases, cust ... Read »


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    • Cut (earthmoving)

    • In civil engineering, a cut or cutting is where soil or rock material from a hill or mountain is cut out to make way for a canal, road or railway line. In cut and fill construction it keeps the route straight and/or flat, where the comparative cost or practicality of alternate solutions (such as diversion) is prohibit ... Read »


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    • D-Shape

    • D-Shape is a large 3-dimensional printer that uses binder-jetting, a layer by layer printing process, to bind sand with an inorganic seawater and magnesium-based binder in order to create stone-like objects. Invented by Enrico Dini, founder of Monolite UK Ltd, the first model of the D-Shape printer used epoxy resin, co ... Read »


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    • Honghai Crane

    • The Honghai Crane is a mobile gantry crane built by the Chinese Honghua Group. It was completed in Jiangsu in 2014, becoming the largest movable gantry crane by lift capacity, being capable of lifting 22,000 tonnes to a height of 65m. The Honghai Crane is 150m tall, has a span of 124m and the weight of the steel s ... Read »


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    • Tuen Mun - Chek Lap Kok TBM

    • The Tuen Mun - Chek Lap Kok TBM is the world's largest tunnel boring machine launched in June 2015 by Herrenknecht in Germany. The TBM is used to drill a 5 km tunnel connecting Tuen Mun to the Hong Kong International Airport. The machine has a diameter of 17.6 m, 0.2 m more than Bertha, the previous largest tunnel b ... Read »


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    • De architectura

    • De architectura (English: On architecture, published as Ten Books on Architecture) is a treatise on architecture written by the Roman architect and military engineer Marcus Vitruvius Pollio and dedicated to his patron, the emperor Caesar Augustus, as a guide for building projects. As the only treatise on architecture t ... Read »


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    • Deck railing

    • Deck railing is a guard rail to prevent people falling from decks, stairs and balconies of buildings. Over time, many different styles of deck railing have been developed. The most common residential deck railing design is built on-site using pressure treated lumber, with the vertical balusters regularly spaced to ... Read »


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    • Deconstruction (building)

    • In the context of physical construction, deconstruction is the selective dismantlement of building components, specifically for re-use, repurposing, recycling, and waste management. It differs from demolition where a site is cleared of its building by the most expedient means. Deconstruction has also been defined as â ... Read »


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    • Design quality indicator

    • The Design Quality Indicator (DQI) is a toolkit to measure, evaluate and improve the design quality of buildings. Development of DQI was started by the Construction Industry Council in 1999 and the toolkit was launched as an online resource for the UK construction industry on 1 October 2003. In 2004 the DQI received r ... Read »


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    • Diagrid

    • The diagrid (a portmanteau of diagonal grid) is a framework of diagonally intersecting metal, concrete or wooden beams that is used in the construction of buildings and roofs. It requires less structural steel than a conventional steel frame. Hearst Tower in New York City, designed by Sir Norman Foster, uses 21 percent ... Read »


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    • Dirty, dangerous and demeaning

    • "Dirty, Dangerous and Demeaning" (often "Dirty, Dangerous and Demanding" or "Dirty, Dangerous and Difficult"), also known as the 3Ds, is an American neologism derived from the Asian concept, and refers to certain kinds of labor often performed by unionized blue-collar workers. The term originated from the Japanese exp ... Read »


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    • Domestic roof construction

    • Domestic roof construction is the framing and roof covering which is found on most suburban detached houses in cold and temperate climates. Such roofs are mostly built with timber, take a number of different shapes, and are covered with a variety of materials. Modern timber roofs are mostly framed with pairs of co ... Read »


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    • Driven to refusal

    • This is an engineering term for describing how far to drive piles. It is also used in surveying when driving metal posts and monuments that usually mark the corners of properties. A rod or pile has been "driven to refusal" when five more blows of an adequate hammer will not budge the rod or pile. ... Read »


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    • Dry rot treatment

    • Dry rot treatment refers to techniques used to eliminate dry rot fungus and alleviate the damage done by the fungus to human-built wooden structures. Dry rot (Serpula lacrymans) is considered difficult to remove, requiring drastic action. Remedial timber treatment and damp proofing companies typically recommend stripp ... Read »


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    • Ductile iron piles

    • The previous content of this page or section has been identified as posing a potential copyright issue, as a copy or modification of the text from the source(s) below, and is now listed on (listing): Unless the copyright status of the text on this page is clarified, the problematic text or the entire page may be de ... Read »


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    • Dunnage

    • In the technical sense treated here, dunnage is inexpensive or waste material used to load and secure cargo during transportation; more loosely, it refers to miscellaneous baggage, brought along during travel. The term can also refer to low priority cargo used to fill out transport capacity which would otherwise ship u ... Read »


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    • Earth structure

    • An earth structure is a building or other structure made largely from soil. Since soil is a widely available material, it has been used in construction since prehistoric times. It may be combined with other materials, compressed and/or baked to add strength. Soil is still an economical material for many applications, a ... Read »


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    • Earthbag construction

    • Earthbag construction is an inexpensive method using mostly local soils to create structures which are both strong and can be quickly built. It is a natural building technique that evolved from historic military bunker construction techniques and temporary flood-control dike building methods. The technique requires ve ... Read »


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    • El Salvador Project

    • The El Salvador Reconstruction and Development Project is a charitable volunteer project from Imperial College London's Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering which was launched in reaction to two major earthquakes that struck the country of El Salvador in 2001. The project has a voluntary student membership ... Read »


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    • Engineering, procurement, and construction management

    • "Engineering, Procurement, and Construction" (EPC) is a particular form of contracting arrangement used in some industries where the EPC Contractor is made responsible for all the activities from design, procurement, construction, to commissioning and handover of the project to the End-User or Owner. This form of contr ... Read »


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    • Erosion control

    • Erosion control is the practice of preventing or controlling wind or water erosion in agriculture, land development, coastal areas, river banks and construction. Effective erosion controls handle surface runoff and are important techniques in preventing water pollution, soil loss, wildlife habitat loss and human proper ... Read »


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    • External render

    • An external render is, in its most basic form, a coating applied to the walls of a building, to provide a protective coating which would prevent rain penetration. It also acts as a decorative finish to enhance the appearance of a building. Rendering is a traditional craft that has evolved over many centuries. Basi ... Read »


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    • External wall insulation

    • An external wall insulation system (or EWIS) is a thermally insulated, protective, decorative exterior cladding procedure involving the use of expanded polystyrene, mineral wool, polyurethane foam or phenolic foam, topped off with a reinforced cement based, mineral or synthetic finish and plaster. The thickness of the ... Read »


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    • Flat roof

    • A flat roof is a roof which is almost level in contrast to the many types of sloped roofs. The slope of a roof is properly known as its pitch and flat roofs have up to approximately 10°. Flat roofs are an ancient form mostly used in arid climates and allow the roof space to be used as a living space or a living roof ... Read »


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    • Flood opening

    • A flood opening or flood vent (also styled floodvent) is an orifice in an enclosed structure intended to allow the free passage of water between the interior and exterior. In the United States, flood openings are used to provide for the automatic equalization of hydrostatic pressure on either side of a wall. Build ... Read »


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    • Form liner

    • Form liners are the liners used in the preparation of designs on concrete walls. The use of form liners often results in more attractive walls for highways, neighborhoods, beaches and parks. Form liners come in many different shapes and designs, and can produce a variety of different results on concrete. The process t ... Read »


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    • Framing (construction)

    • Framing, in construction, is the fitting together of pieces to give a structure support and shape. Framing materials are usually wood, engineered wood, or structural steel. Building framing is divided into two broad categories,heavy-frame construction (heavy framing) if the vertical supports are few and heavy such as i ... Read »


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    • Frost damage (construction)

    • Frost damage is caused by moisture freezing in the construction. Frost damage can occur as cracks, stone splinters and swelling of the material. When water freezes, the volume of water increases by 9%. When the volumetric moisture content exceeds 91%, than the volume increase of water in the pores of the material caus ... Read »


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    • Gate operator

    • A gate operator is a mechanical device used to open and close a gate, such as one at the end of a driveway. There are two main types of electric gate openers – hydraulic or electromechanical; these can be further split into the following categories, worm (or screw) driven, arm openers and underground openers. Auto ... Read »


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    • Girt

    • In architecture or structural engineering, a girt is a horizontal structural member in a framed wall. Girts provide lateral support to the wall panel, primarily, to resist wind loads. May also be known as a sheeting rail. A comparable element in roof construction is a purlin. The girt is commonly used as a stabilizi ... Read »


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    • Glazing (window)

    • Glazing, which derives from the Middle English for 'glass', is a part of a wall or window, made of glass. Glazing also describes the work done by a professional "glazier". Glazing is also (less commonly) used to describe the insertion of ophthalmic lenses into an eyeglass frame. Common types of glazing that are used i ... Read »


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    • Glossary of British bricklaying


    • Glossary of construction cost estimating

    • A glossary of terms relating to construction cost estimating. ... Read »


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    • Grade (slope)

    • The grade (also called slope, incline, gradient, mainfall, pitch or rise) of a physical feature, landform or constructed line refers to the tangent of the angle of that surface to the horizontal. It is a special case of the gradient in calculus where zero indicates gravitational level. A larger number indicates higher ... Read »


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    • Grading (engineering)

    • Grading in civil engineering and landscape architectural construction is the work of ensuring a level base, or one with a specified slope, for a construction work such as a foundation, the base course for a road or a railway, or landscape and garden improvements, or surface drainage. The earthworks created for such a p ... Read »


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    • Grout

    • Grout is a particularly fluid form of concrete used to fill gaps. It is used in pressure grouting, construction to embed rebars in masonry walls, connect sections of pre-cast concrete, fill voids, and seal joints such as those between tiles. Grout is generally a mixture of water, cement, sand, often color tint, and som ... Read »


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    • Hard infrastructure

    • Hard infrastructure encompasses networks necessary for the functioning of a modern industrial nation. This article delineates both the fixed assets, and the control systems, software required to operate, manage and monitor the systems, as well as any accessory buildings, plants, or vehicles that are an essential part o ... Read »


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    • Hausman LLC

    • Hausman LLC

      Tami Hausman(Founder and President) Hausman LLC (Hausman Communications) is an American public relations firm based in Manhattan, New York City. Founded in 2008 by Tami Hausman, the firm is a privately held company primarily representing clients in architecture, engineering, construction, and other design-related indu ... Read »


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    • Home construction

    • Home construction is the process of constructing a home. Beginning with simple pre-historic shelters, home construction techniques have evolved to produce the vast multitude of living accommodations available today. Different levels of wealth and power have warranted various sizes, luxuries, and even defenses in a "hom ... Read »


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    • House construction phases

    • House construction phases are the phases a house goes through during its construction. The process often starts with a planning stage in which plans are prepared by an architect and approved by the client and any regulatory authority. Then the site is cleared, foundations are laid and trenches for connection to se ... Read »


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    • IKN GmbH

    • IKN GmbH

      Ingenieurbüro-Kühlerbau-Neustadt GmbH is a privately owned, medium-size company, specialising in the design and manufacturing of coolers and pyro lines for the production of cement clinker. The company was founded by Dipl.-Ing. Karl von Wedel in 1982, headquartered in Neustadt, near Hanover, Germany. With its loc ... Read »


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    • Indigenous architecture

    • The field of Indigenous Architecture refers to the study and practice of architecture of, for and by Indigenous people (including landscape architecture and other design for the built environment). It is a field of study and practice in the United States, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, Arctic area of Sápmi and many ... Read »


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    • Infrastructure

    • Infrastructure refers to structures, systems, and facilities serving the economy of a business, industry, country, city, town, or area, including the services and facilities necessary for its economy to function. It is typically a term to characterize the existence or condition of costly 'technical structures' such as ... Read »


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    • Infrastructure and economics

    • This article delineates the relationship between infrastructure and various economic issues. Infrastructure may be owned and managed by governments or by private companies, such as sole public utility or railway companies. Generally, most roads, major ports and airports, water distribution systems and sewage netwo ... Read »


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    • Infrastructure debt

    • Infrastructure debt is the fixed income component of infrastructure assets. It is a complex investment category reserved for sophisticated institutional investors who can gauge jurisdiction-specific risk parameters, assess a project’s long-term viability, understand transaction risks, conduct due diligence, negoti ... Read »


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    • Innowood

    • Innowood

      Innowood Australia Pty Ltd is an Australian company which manufactures engineered wood. The company's founder, John Kozlowski, invented the Innowood product which is a composite reconstituted wood based material primarily made of timber used for internal and external applications. It is made from recycled wood waste a ... Read »


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    • Integrated project delivery

    • Integrated project delivery (IPD), is a collaborative alliance of people, systems, business structures and practices into a process that harnesses the talents and insights of all participants to optimize project results, increase value to the owner, reduce waste, and maximize efficiency through all phases of design, fa ... Read »


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    • Interior protection

    • Interior protection is the general term for the installation of temporary dust and debris containment systems during re-roofing, remodeling, or other construction related projects. A temporary interior protection system can be installed in almost any environment, from manufacturing plants, production facilities, class ... Read »


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    • Job order contracting

    • Job order contracting (JOC) is a collaborative construction project delivery method that enables organizations to get numerous, commonly encountered construction projects done quickly and easily through IDIQ or multi-year umbrella contracts. JOC reduces unnecessary levels of engineering, design, and contract procuremen ... Read »


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    • Knockdown texture

    • Knockdown Texture is a drywall finishing style. It is a mottled texture, more intense than a simple flat finish, but less intense than orange peel, or popcorn, texture. Knockdown texture is created by watering down joint compound to a soupy consistency. A trowel is then used to apply the joint compound. The joint comp ... Read »


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    • Labor burden

    • Labor burden is the actual cost of a company to have an employee, aside from the salary the employee earns. Labor burden costs include benefits that a company must, or chooses to, pay for employees included on their payroll. These costs include but are not limited to payroll taxes, pension costs, health insurance, dent ... Read »


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    • Land development

    • Land development refers to altering the landscape in any number of ways such as: In an economics context, land development is also sometimes advertised as land improvement or land amelioration. It refers to investments making land more usable by humans. For accounting purposes it refers to any variety of projects ... Read »


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    • Land rehabilitation

    • Land rehabilitation is the process of returning the land in a given area to some degree of its former state, after some process (industry, natural disasters, etc.) has resulted in its damage. Many projects and developments will result in the land becoming degraded, for example mining, farming and forestry. Modern mine ... Read »


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    • Latticework

    • Latticework is an openwork framework consisting of a criss-crossed pattern of strips of building material, typically wood or metal. The design is created by crossing the strips to form a network. Latticework can be purely ornamental, or can be used as a truss structure such as a lattice girder bridge. Latticework in s ... Read »


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    • Level spreader

    • A level spreader is an erosion control device designed to reduce water pollution by mitigating the impact of high-velocity stormwater surface runoff. It is used both on construction sites and for permanent applications such as drainage for roads and highways. The device reduces the energy level in high-velocity flow by ... Read »


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    • Light clay

    • Light clay (also light straw clay, light clay straw, slipstraw) is a natural building material used to infill between a wooden frame in a timber framed building using a combination of clay and straw, woodchips or some other lighter material. A mixture of clay and straw was used as an infill material for timber fram ... Read »


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    • Lime-ash floor

    • Lime-ash floors were an economic form of floor construction from the 15th century to the 19th century, for upper floors in parts of England where limestone or chalk were easily available. They were strong, flexible, and offered good heat and sound insulation. Lime-ash is the residue found at the bottom of a wood-f ... Read »


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    • Line of thrust

    • The line of thrust is the locus of the points, through which forces pass in a retaining wall or an arch. It is the line, along which internal forces flow, [1], [2]. In a stone structure, the line of thrust is a theoretical line that through the structure represents the path of the resultants of the compressive forces, ... Read »


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    • Lois Builders

    • LOIS Builders Ltd is a Cyprus based construction company, founded in 1977 by Sotos Lois. The company is currently managing projects in all sectors of commerce, industry and services, in both private as well as public sectors. It has completed over 200 projects. In recent years, the company has commenced operations ... Read »


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    • Lunar regolith simulant

    • A lunar regolith simulant is a terrestrial material synthesized in order to approximate the chemical, mechanical, and engineering properties of, and the mineralogy and particle size distributions of, lunar regolith. Lunar regolith simulants are used by researchers who wish to research the materials handling, excavation ... Read »


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    • Macro BIM

    • Macro BIM (Building Information Model) is a building information model, assembled of higher level building elements, used for macro level analysis including visualization, spatial validation, cost modeling/estimating, phasing/sequencing, energy performance, and risk. Macro models are intended to be built quickly, faci ... Read »


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    • Martina (tunnel boring machine)

    • The Martina tunnel boring machine is a hard rock tunnel boring machine built by Herrenknecht AG. It is the largest hard rock tunnel boring machine in the world and has been used for drilling the Sparvo Tunnel, a part of the larger Variante di Valico project in Italy. The Martina has a shield diameter of 15.55 metr ... Read »


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    • Masonry

    • Masonry is the building of structures from individual units, which are often laid in and bound together by mortar; the term masonry can also refer to the units themselves. The common materials of masonry construction are brick, building stone such as marble, granite, travertine, and limestone, cast stone, concrete bloc ... Read »


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    • Material passport

    • A material passport is a document consisting of all the materials that are included in a product or construction. It consist of a set of data describing defined characteristics of materials in products, which give them value for recovery, recycling and re-use. The core idea behind the concept is that a material passpo ... Read »


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    • Mechanical floor

    • A mechanical floor, mechanical penthouse, or mechanical level is a story of a high-rise building that is dedicated to mechanical and electronics equipment. "Mechanical" is the most commonly used term, but words such as utility, technical, service, and plant are also used. They are present in all tall buildings includin ... Read »


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    • Megastructures

    • Megastructures

      Megastructures is a documentary television series appearing on the National Geographic Channel in the United States and the United Kingdom, Channel 5 in the United Kingdom, France 5 in France, and 7mate in Australia. Each episode is an educational look of varying depth into the construction, operation, and staffing of ... Read »


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    • Membrane roofing

    • Membrane roofing is a type of roofing system for buildings and tanks. It is used on flat or nearly flat roofs to prevent leaks and move water off the roof. Membrane roofs are most commonly made from synthetic rubber, thermoplastic (PVC or similar material), or modified bitumen. Membrane roofs are most commonly used in ... Read »


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    • Microtunneling

    • As the name implies, microtunneling or microtunnelling is a digging technique used to construct small tunnels. These small diameter tunnels make it impossible to have an operator in the machine itself. Instead, the microtunnel boring machine (MTBM) must be operated remotely. Microtunnel boring machines are very simila ... Read »


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    • Millwork (building material)

    • Millwork building materials are historically any woodmill-produced building construction interior-finish, exterior-finish, or decorative components. Stock profiled and patterned millwork building components fabricated by milling at a planing mill can usually be installed with minimal alteration. Today, millwork also en ... Read »


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    • Mobile office

    • A mobile office is an office built within a truck, motorhome, trailer or purpose built shipping container. Most common are towable offices built on an axled iron frame for easy relocation. Mobile field offices are often found on construction sites, or at disaster scenes where a temporary office space is needed. Typical ... Read »


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    • Ontario Municipal Board

    • The Ontario Municipal Board (OMB) is an independent administrative board, operated as an adjudicative tribunal, in the province of Ontario, Canada. It hears applications and appeals on municipal and planning disputes, as well as other matters specified in provincial legislation. The tribunal has reported to the Ministr ... Read »


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    • Opus emplectum

    • Opus emplectum is an advanced construction art relying on structuring both sides of the wall with hewn stone blocks and fulfilling area between them with broken stones with mortar. The good example of this technique are ruins of the romanesque tower in Strzelno. ... Read »


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    • Opus isodomum

    • Opus isodomum is an ancient technique of wall construction with ashlars. It uses perfectly cut, completely regular square stone blocks of equal height, and sometimes of the same length. In classical antiquity this technique was perfected and widely used, especially for public buildings (temples, theaters, amphitheater ... Read »


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    • Outdoor–indoor transmission class


    • Pile splice

    • A pile splice joins two segments of a driven pile, using either a weld (typical for H beams), grout or mechanical means (typical for precast concrete piles). Pile splices enable the use of shorter segments, which allows for driving piles in low-headroom situations such as under bridges or inside buildings. Reducing len ... Read »


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    • Pipe bursting

    • Pipe bursting is a trenchless method of replacing buried pipelines (such as sewer, water, or natural gas pipes) without the need for a traditional construction trench. "Launching and receiving pits" replace the trench needed by conventional pipe-laying. There are five key pieces of equipment used in a pipebursting ope ... Read »


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    • Planetary surface construction

    • Planetary-surface construction is the construction of artificial habitats and other structures on planetary surfaces. Planetary surface construction can be divided into three phases or classes, coinciding with a phased schedule for habitation (Kennedy 2002, Smith 1993): • Class I: Pre-integrated hard shell module ... Read »


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    • Plastic bending

    • Plastic bending is a nonlinear behaviour particular to members made of ductile materials that frequently achieve much greater ultimate bending strength than indicated by a linear elastic bending analysis. In both the plastic and elastic bending analyses of a straight beam, it is assumed that the strain distribution is ... Read »


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    • Ponding

    • Ponding is the (typically) unwanted pooling of water, typically on a flat roof or roadway. Ponding water accelerates the deterioration of many materials, including seam adhesives in single-ply roof systems, steel equipment supports, and particularly roofing asphalt. On low-slope asphalt roofs, ponding water allows the ... Read »


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    • Pre-construction services

    • Pre-construction services are used in planning a construction project before the actual construction begins. These services are often referred to as preconstruction or precon. It is a modern practice, considered to be part of construction project management, which is the overall planning, coordination, and control of a ... Read »


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    • Preconsolidation pressure

    • Preconsolidation pressure is the maximum effective vertical overburden stress that a particular soil sample has sustained in the past. This quantity is important in geotechnical engineering, particularly for finding the expected settlement of foundations and embankments. Alternative names for the preconsolidation press ... Read »


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    • Prestressed structure

    • Prestressed structure is the one whose overall integrity, stability and security depend, primarily, on a prestressing. Prestressing means the intentional creation of permanent stresses in a structure for the purpose of improving its performance under various service conditions. There are the following basic types of p ... Read »


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    • Punch list

    • A punch list is a document prepared near the end of a construction project listing work not conforming to contract specifications that the contractor must complete prior to final payment. The work may include incomplete or incorrect installations or incidental damage to existing finishes, material, and structures. In ... Read »


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    • PVC decking

    • PVC decking is composed entirely of Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and contains no wood. PVC decking is a more expensive option in the decking industry, but it provides significant fade and stain resistance and lower maintenance requirements compared to other products. PVC decking was introduced to the market over seven ... Read »


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    • Robert Quigg (developer)

    • Robert Quigg (also known as Bert Quigg) is a property developer in the United States and Canada. He was born on July 19, 1967, in British Columbia to Irish immigrant parents. At age 19, Quigg left his parent's home with $500 and an old pickup truck, and soon started building luxury developments. He went on to study an ... Read »


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    • Rapid construction

    • "Rapid construction is a systematic approach to deliver of one kind project with complexity in construction due to limited time schedule, contract agreement, approved construction method and meets client satisfaction.” (Yahya, 2009). Rapid construction can be achieved through the basic principle of focusing on el ... Read »


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    • Rastra

    • Rastra is a tradename for a particular insulating concrete form (ICF) used to make walls for buildings. It is one of the earliest such products, in production since 1972, and is composed of concrete and thastyron. Thastyron is a mixture of plastic foam and binder that is composed of eighty-five percent recycled post co ... Read »


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    • Real estate development

    • Real estate development, or property development, is a multifaceted business process, encompassing activities that range from the renovation and re-lease of existing buildings to the purchase of raw land and the sale of developed land or parcels to others. Real estate developers are the people and companies who coordin ... Read »


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    • Reflex (building design software)

    • Reflex was a 3D building design software application developed in the mid 1980s and - along with it predecessor Sonata - is now regarded as a forerunner to today's building information modelling applications. The application was developed by two former GMW Computers employees who had been involved with Sonata. After S ... Read »


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    • Regrading

    • Regrading is the process of grading for raising and/or lowering the levels of land. Such a project can also be referred to as a regrade. Regrading may be done on a small scale (as in preparation of a house site) or on quite a large scale (as in major reconfiguration of the terrain of a city, such as the Denny Regrade ... Read »


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    • Repointing

    • Repointing is the process of renewing the 'pointing, which is the external part of mortar joints, in masonry construction. Over time, weathering and decay cause voids in the joints between masonry units, usually in bricks, allowing the undesirable entrance of water. Water entering through these voids can cause signific ... Read »


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    • Resilience (engineering and construction)

    • Resilience is a design objective for buildings and infrastructure. It is the ability to absorb or avoid damage without suffering complete failure. ... Read »


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    • Retainage

    • Retainage is a portion of the agreed upon contract price deliberately withheld until the work is substantially complete to assure that contractor or subcontractor will satisfy its obligations and complete a construction project. The practice of retainage dates back to the construction of the United Kingdom railway ... Read »


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    • Rice-hull bagwall construction

    • Rice-hull bagwall construction is a system of building, with results aesthetically similar to the use of earthbag or cob construction, in which woven polypropylene bags (or tubes) are tightly filled with raw rice-hulls, and these are stacked up, layer upon layer, with strands of four-pronged barbed wire between, within ... Read »


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    • Rigid frame

    • A rigid frame in structural engineering is the load-resisting skeleton constructed with straight or curved members interconnected by mostly rigid connections which resist movements induced at the joints of members. Its members can take bending moment, shear, and axial loads. The two common assumptions as to the behavi ... Read »


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    • User:Rincl/sandbox


    • Roadbed

    • A road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two places that has been paved or otherwise improved to allow travel by foot or some form of , including a motor vehicle, cart, bicycle, or horse. Roads consist of one or two roadways (British English: carriageways), each with one or more lanes and any associated ... Read »


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    • Roaring rails

    • Roaring rails is a phenomenon of short-wave observed in railroad tracks. Despite being a widely observed type of railroad track deformity, the reason it occurs was not known or researched until recently. Roaring rails are very short wave corrugations that range from 25 to 75 millimeters in length. It is commonly ... Read »


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    • Scabbling

    • Scabbling—also called scappling—is the process of reducing stone or concrete. In masonry, it refers to shaping a stone to a rough square by use of an axe or hammer. In Kent, rag-stone masons call this "knobbling". It was similarly used to shape grindstones. In modern construction, scabbling is a mechanical p ... Read »


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    • Screed

    • Screed has three meanings in building construction. 1) a flat board (screed board, floating screed) or a purpose-made aluminium tool used to smooth and true materials like concrete, stucco and plaster after it has been placed on a surface or to assist in flattening; 2) a strip of plaster or wood applied to a surface to ... Read »


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    • Sediment basin

    • A sediment basin is a temporary pond built on a construction site to capture eroded or disturbed soil that is washed off during rain storms, and protect the water quality of a nearby stream, river, lake, or bay. The sediment-laden soil settles in the pond before the runoff is discharged. Sediment basins are typically u ... Read »


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    • Sediment control

    • A sediment control is a practice or device designed to keep eroded soil on a construction site, so that it does not wash off and cause water pollution to a nearby stream, river, lake, or sea. Sediment controls are usually employed together with erosion controls, which are designed to prevent or minimize erosion and thu ... Read »


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    • Seismic retrofit

    • Seismic retrofitting is the modification of existing structures to make them more resistant to seismic activity, ground motion, or soil failure due to earthquakes. With better understanding of seismic demand on structures and with our recent experiences with large earthquakes near urban centers, the need of seismic ret ... Read »


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    • Self-framing metal buildings

    • Self-framing metal buildings are a form of pre-engineered building which utilizes roll formed roof and wall panel diaphragms as significant parts of the structural supporting system. Additional structural elements may include mill or cold-formed elements to stiffen the diaphragm perimeters, transfer forces between diap ... Read »


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    • Set-off (architecture)

    • In architecture and masonry, the term set-off is given to the horizontal line shown on a floorplan indicating a reduced wall thickness, and consequently the part of the thicker portion appears projecting before the thinner. In plinths, this is generally simply chamfered. In other parts of stonework, the set-off is gene ... Read »


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    • Shear wall

    • In structural engineering, a shear wall is a structural system composed of braced panels (also known as shear panels) to counter the effects of lateral load acting on a structure. Wind and seismic loads are the most common loads that shear walls are designed to carry. Under several building codes, including the Interna ... Read »


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    • Silt fence

    • A silt fence, sometimes (misleadingly) called a "filter fence," is a temporary sediment control device used on construction sites to protect water quality in nearby streams, rivers, lakes and seas from sediment (loose soil) in stormwater runoff. Silt fences are widely used on construction sites in North America and els ... Read »


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    • Site manager

    • In the construction industry, site managers, often referred to as construction managers, site agents or building managers, are responsible for the day-to-day on site running of a construction project. Site managers are required to keep within the timescale and budget of a project, and manage any delays or problems enco ... Read »


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    • Slip forming

    • Slip forming, continuous poured, continuously formed, or slipform construction is a construction method in which concrete is poured into a continuously moving form. Slip forming is used for tall structures (such as bridges, towers, buildings, and dams), as well as horizontal structures, such as roadways. Slipforming en ... Read »


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    • Slipform stonemasonry

    • Slipform stone masonry is a method for making a reinforced concrete wall with stone facing in which stones and mortar are built up in courses within reusable slipforms. It is a cross between traditional mortared stone wall and a veneered stone wall. Short forms, up to 60 cm high, are placed on both sides of the wall ... Read »


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    • Snow knife

    • A snow knife or snow saw (Inuktitut: pana) is a tool used in the construction of igluit (snow houses) by the Inuit people of the Arctic. The snow knife was originally made from available materials such as bone or horn but the Inuit adapted to using metal after the arrival of Europeans. The American Association for the ... Read »


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    • Sod

    • Sod or turf is grass and the part of the soil beneath it held together by the roots, or a piece of thin material. In British English such material is more usually known as turf, and the word "sod" is limited mainly to agricultural senses (for example for turf when ploughed). Sod is typically used for lawns, golf ... Read »


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    • Sod Solutions

    • Sod Solutions, a sod company founded in 1994, develops, conducts research on, and markets patented and trademarked grasses. The company markets various types of sod brands like Celebration,Discovery, and others. On May 30, 2012, a partnership was announced between 21 Florida sod producers from the Florida Sod Growers ... Read »


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    • Soft infrastructure

    • Soft infrastructure refers to all the services which are required to maintain the economic, health, and cultural and social standards of a population. It includes both physical assets such as highly specialised buildings and equipment, as well as non-physical assets, such as communication, the body of rules and regulat ... Read »


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    • Soft story building

    • A soft story building is a multi-story building in which one or more floors have windows, wide doors, large unobstructed commercial spaces, or other openings in places where a shear wall would normally be required for stability as a matter of earthquake engineering design. A typical soft story building is an apartment ... Read »


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    • Solid ground floor

    • A solid ground floor consists of a layer of concrete, which in the case of a domestic building will be the surface layer brought up to ground floor level with hardcore filling under it. The advantage of a solid ground floor is the elimination of dry rot and other problems normally associated with hollow joisted floors. ... Read »


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    • Sonata (building design software)

    • Sonata was a 3D building design software application developed in the early 1980s and now regarded as the forerunner of today's building information modelling applications. Sonata was commercially released in 1986, having been developed by Jonathan Ingram independently and was sold to T2 Solutions (renamed from GMW Co ... Read »


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    • Sound reduction index

    • The sound reduction index is used to measure the level of sound insulation provided by a structure such as a wall, window, door, or ventilator. It is defined in the series of international standards ISO 16283 (parts 1-3) and the older ISO 140 (parts 1-14), or the regional or national variants on these standards. In the ... Read »


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    • Sound transmission class

    • Sound Transmission Class (or STC) is an integer rating of how well a building partition attenuates airborne sound. In the USA, it is widely used to rate interior partitions, ceilings/floors, doors, windows and exterior wall configurations (see ASTM International Classification E413 and E90). Outside the USA, the Sound ... Read »


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    • Stabilization (architecture)

    • Stabilization is the retrofitting of platforms or foundations as constructed for the purpose of improving the bearing capacity and levelness of the supported building. Soil failure can occur on a slope, a slope failure or landslide, or in a flat area due to liquefaction of water-saturated sand and/or mud. Generally, de ... Read »


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    • Staff (building material)

    • Staff is a kind of artificial stone used for covering and ornamenting temporary buildings. Staff is chiefly made of powdered gypsum or plaster of Paris, with a little cement, glycerin, and dextrin, mixed with water until it is about as thick as molasses. When staff is cast in molds it can form any shape. To strengthen ... Read »


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    • Staggered truss system

    • The Staggered truss system is a type of structural steel framing used in high-rise buildings. The system consists of a series of story-high trusses spanning the total width between two rows of exterior columns and arranged in a staggered pattern on adjacent column lines.William LeMessurier, the founder Cambridge, Massa ... Read »


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    • Stamped concrete

    • Stamped concrete is concrete that is patterned and/or textured or embossed to resemble brick, slate, flagstone, stone, tile, wood, and various other patterns and textures. Stamped concrete is commonly used for patios, sidewalks, driveways, pool decks, and interior flooring. The ability of stamped concrete to resemble o ... Read »


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    • Steel building

    • A steel building is a metal structure fabricated with steel for the internal support and for exterior cladding, as opposed to steel framed buildings which generally use other materials for floors, walls, and external envelope. Steel buildings are used for a variety of purposes including storage, work spaces and living ... Read »


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    • Steel frame

    • Steel frame is a building technique with a "skeleton frame" of vertical steel columns and horizontal I-beams, constructed in a rectangular grid to support the floors, roof and walls of a building which are all attached to the frame. The development of this technique made the construction of the skyscraper possible. ... Read »


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    • Stonemasonry

    • The craft of stonemasonry (or ) has existed since humanity could use and make tools - creating buildings, structures, and sculpture using stone from the earth. These materials have been used to construct many of the long-lasting, ancient monuments, artifacts, cathedrals, and cities in a wide variety of cultures. Famous ... Read »


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    • Straw-bale construction

    • Straw-bale construction is a building method that uses bales of straw (commonly wheat, rice, rye and oats straw) as structural elements, building insulation, or both. This construction method is commonly used in natural building or "brown" construction projects. Research has shown that straw-bale construction is a sust ... Read »


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    • Strongback (girder)

    • A strongback is a beam or girder which acts as a secondary support member to existing structure. A strongback in a staircase is usually ordinary two-by dimensional lumber attached to the staircase stringers to stiffen the assembly. In shipbuilding, a strongback is oriented lengthwise along a ship to brace across severa ... Read »


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    • Structural building components

    • Structural building components are specialized structural building products designed, engineered and manufactured under controlled conditions for a specific application. They are incorporated into the overall building structural system by a building designer. Examples are wood or steel roof trusses, floor trusses, floo ... Read »


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    • Structural repairs

    • In construction, structural repairs are a technical term, contrasted to renovations or non-structural repairs. They are changes to a property to bring it up to local health and safety standards. Unlike renovations, they add relatively little value to a property. ... Read »


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    • System information modelling

    • System information modelling (SIM) is a generic term used to describe the process of modelling complex connected systems. System information models are digital representations of connected systems, such as electrical instrumentation and control, power and communication systems. The objects modelled in a SIM have a 1:1 ... Read »


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    • Topology optimization

    • Topology optimization (TO) is a mathematical method that optimizes material layout within a given design space, for a given set of loads, boundary conditions and constraints with the goal of maximising the performance of the system. TO is different from shape optimization in the sense that the design can attain any sha ... Read »


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