Main

  • Climate history

    Climate history

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Climate history

    • Climate change

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Climate change


      Wikipedia
    • Droughts

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Droughts


      Wikipedia
    • Ice ages

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Ice ages


      Wikipedia
    • Land surface effects on climate

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Land surface effects on climate


      Wikipedia
    • Paleoceanography

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Paleoceanography


      Wikipedia
    • Paleoclimatology

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Paleoclimatology


      Wikipedia
    • Table of historic and prehistoric climate indicators

    • To Add: ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • 4.2 kiloyear event

    • The 4.2 kiloyear BP aridification event was one of the most severe climatic events of the Holocene period. Starting in about 2200 BC, it probably lasted the entire 22nd century BC. The drought may have initiated southeastward habitat tracking within the Indus Valley Civilization. The 4.2 kiloyear BP event has been ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • 5.9 kiloyear event

    • The 5.9 kiloyear event was one of the most intense aridification events during the Holocene Epoch. It occurred around 3900 BC (5900 years Before Present) and ended the Neolithic Subpluvial and probably initiating the most recent desiccation of the Sahara, as well a five century period of colder climate in more northerl ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • 8.2 kiloyear event

    • In climatology, the 8.2 kiloyear event was a sudden decrease in global temperatures that occurred approximately 8,200 years before the present, or c. 6,200 BCE, and which lasted for the next two to four centuries. Milder than the Younger Dryas cold spell that preceded it, but more severe than the Little Ice Age that wo ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • 100,000-year problem

    • The 100,000-year problem ("100 ky problem", "100 ka problem") of the Milankovitch theory of orbital forcing refers to a discrepancy between the reconstructed geologic temperature record and the reconstructed amount of incoming solar radiation, or insolation over the past 800,000 years. Due to variations in the Ea ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Abbassia Pluvial

    • The Abbassia Pluvial was an extended wet and rainy period in the climate history of North Africa. It began c. 120,000 years before the present (ybp), lasted approximately 30,000 years, and ended c. 90,000 ybp. The Abbassia Pluvial spanned the end of the Lower Paleolithic and the start of the Middle Paleolithic eras â ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Allerød oscillation


    • Antarctic Cold Reversal

    • The Antarctic Cold Reversal (ACR) was an important episode of cooling in the climate history of the Earth during the deglaciation at the close of the last ice age. It illustrates the complexity of the climate changes at the transition from the to the Holocene Epochs. The Last Glacial Maximum and sea-level minimum occ ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Atmospheric Circulation Reconstructions over the Earth

    • The Atmospheric Circulation Reconstructions over the Earth, ACRE, is an international science project, began in 2008, that recovers historical weather observations to reconstruct past global and local weather patterns and so support meteorological reanalysis. The project aims to collect weather data from the past 250 y ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Azolla event

    • The Azolla event occurred in the middle Eocene epoch, around 49 million years ago, when blooms of the freshwater fern Azolla are thought to have happened in the Arctic Ocean. As they sank to the stagnant sea floor, they were incorporated into the sediment; the resulting draw-down of carbon dioxide has been speculated t ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Beestonian stage

    • The Beestonian Stage is the name for an early stage used in the British Isles. It precedes the Cromerian Stage and follows the Pastonian Stage. This stage consists of alternating glacial and interglacial phases instead of being a continuous glacial epoch. It is equivalent to the Bavelian, Waalian, and Eburonian stages ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Bølling oscillation


    • Bølling-Allerød


    • Bond event

    • Bond events are North Atlantic ice rafting events that are tentatively linked to climate fluctuations in the Holocene. Eight such events have been identified. Bond events were previously believed to exhibit a quasi ~1,500-year cycle, but the primary period of variability is now put at ~1,000 years. Gerard C. Bond of t ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Boreal (age)

    • Boreal (age)

      In paleoclimatology of the Holocene, the Boreal was the first of the Blytt-Sernander sequence of north European climatic phases that were originally based on the study of Danish peat bogs, named for Axel Blytt and Rutger Sernander, who first established the sequence. In peat bog sediments, the Boreal is also recognized ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Boreotropical flora

    • Boreotropical flora were plants that may have formed a belt of vegetation around the Northern Hemisphere during the Eocene epoch. These included forests composed of large, fast-growing trees (such as dawn redwoods) as far north as 80°N. ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Bramertonian Stage

    • The Bramertonian Stage is the name for an early stage used in the British Isles. It precedes the Pre-Pastonian Stage (Baventian Stage). It derives its name from Bramerton Pits in Norfolk, where the deposits can be found on the surface. The exact timing of the beginning and end of the Bramertonian Stage is currently un ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Bull Lake glaciation

    • The Bull Lake glaciation is the name of a glacial period in North America that is part of the Quaternary Ice Age. The Bull Lake glaciation began about 200,000 years ago and ended about 130,000 years ago, and was concurrent with the Illinoian Stage of the Quaternary Ice Age. There is disagreement over these time frames, ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Cambrian–Ordovician extinction event


    • Carbonate–silicate cycle


    • Champlain Sea

    • The Champlain Sea was a temporary inlet of the Atlantic Ocean, created by the retreating glaciers during the close of the last ice age. The Sea once included lands in what are now the Canadian provinces of Quebec and Ontario, as well as parts of the American states of New York and Vermont. The mass of ice from the con ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Climate change

    • Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years). Climate change may refer to a change in average weather conditions, or in the time variation of weather around longer-term average conditions (i.e., ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Climate of Ancient Rome

    • The climate of Ancient Rome varied throughout the existence of that civilization. In the first half of the 1st millennium BC the climate of Italy was more humid and cool than now and the presently arid south saw more precipitation. The northern regions were situated in the temperate climate zone, while the rest of Ital ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Climate of Mars

    • The climate of Mars has been an issue of scientific curiosity for centuries, not least because Mars is the only terrestrial planet whose surface can be directly observed in detail from the Earth with help from a telescope. Although Mars is smaller, at 11% of Earth's mass, and 50% farther from the Sun than the Earth, i ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Climate of Titan

    • The climate of Titan, the largest moon of Saturn, is similar in many respects to that of Earth, despite having a far lower surface temperature. Its thick atmosphere, methane rain, and possible cryovolcanism create an analogue, though with different materials, to the climatic changes undergone by Earth during its far sh ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Climate oscillation

    • A climate oscillation or climate cycle is any recurring cyclical oscillation within global or regional climate, and is a type of climate pattern. These fluctuations in atmospheric temperature, sea surface temperature, precipitation or other parameters can be quasi-periodic, often occurring on inter-annual, multi-annual ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Climate: Long range Investigation, Mapping, and Prediction

    • Climate: Long range Investigation, Mapping, and Prediction, known as CLIMAP, was a major research project of the 1970s and 80s to produce a map of climate conditions during the Last Glacial Maximum. The project was funded by the National Science Foundation as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration (1970s ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • CLIWOC

    • The Climatological database for the world's oceans (CLIWOC) was a research project to convert ships' logbooks into a computerised database. It was funded by the European Union, and the bulk of the work was done between 2001 and 2003. The database draws on British, Dutch, French and Spanish ships' logbook records for th ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Cretaceous Thermal Maximum

    • Cretaceous Thermal Maximum, also known as Cretaceous Thermal Optimum, was a period early in the Late Cretaceous notable for its dramatic increase in global temperatures. Carbon dioxide levels rose to over 1000 parts per million (compared with recent pre-industrial average of 280 ppm), which resulted in a significa ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Climate across Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary


    • Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary


    • Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event


    • Cyclostratigraphy

    • Cyclostratigraphy is the study of astronomically forced climate cycles within sedimentary successions. Astronomical cycles are variations of the Earth's orbit around the sun due to the gravitational interaction with other masses within the solar system. Due to this cyclicity solar irradiation differs through time on di ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Dalton Minimum

    • The Dalton Minimum was a period of low sunspot count, representing low solar activity, named after the English meteorologist John Dalton, lasting from about 1790 to 1830 or 1796 to 1820, corresponding to the period solar cycle 4 to solar cycle 7. Like the Maunder Minimum and Spörer Minimum, the Dalton Minimum c ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Early anthropocene

    • The Early Anthropocene Hypothesis (sometimes called Early Anthropogenic) was proposed by William Ruddiman. It posits that the Anthropocene era, as some scientists call the most recent period in Earth's history when the activities of the human race first began to have a significant global impact on Earth's climate and e ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Eemian

    • The Eemian (also called the last interglacial,Sangamonian, Ipswichian, Mikulin, Kaydaky, Valdivia or Riss-Würm) was the interglacial period which began about 130,000 years ago and ended about 115,000 years ago. It corresponds to Marine Isotope Stage 5e. Although sometimes referred to as the "last interglacial" (in t ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Environmental magnetism

    • Environmental magnetism is the study of magnetism as it relates to the effects of climate, sediment transport, pollution and other environmental influences on magnetic minerals. It makes use of techniques from rock magnetism and magnetic mineralogy. The magnetic properties of minerals are used as proxies for environmen ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Eocene Thermal Maximum 2

    • Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM-2), also called H-1 or the Elmo (Eocene Layer of Mysterious Origin) event, was a transient period of global warming that occurred approximately 53.7 million years ago (Ma). It appears to be the second major hyperthermal that punctuated the long-term warming trend from the Late Paleocene th ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Extinction event

    • An extinction event (also known as a mass extinction or biotic crisis) is a widespread and rapid decrease in the biodiversity on Earth. Such an event is identified by a sharp change in the diversity and abundance of multicellular organisms. It occurs when the rate of extinction increases with respect to the rate of spe ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Extreme weather events of 535–536


    • Faint young Sun paradox

    • The faint young Sun paradox describes the apparent contradiction between observations of liquid water early in Earth's history and the astrophysical expectation that the Sun's output would be only 70 percent as intense during that epoch as it is during the modern epoch. The issue was raised by astronomers Carl Sagan an ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Geologic temperature record

    • The Geologic temperature record are changes in Earth's environment as determined from geologic evidence on multi-million to billion (109) year time scales. The study of past temperatures provides an important paleoenvironmental insight because it is a crucial component of the climate and oceanography of the time. ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Glacial series

    • The glacial series refers to a particular sequence of landforms in Central Europe that were formed during the Pleistocene glaciation beneath the ice sheets, along their margins and on their forelands during each glacial advance. The term "glacial series" (German: Glaziale Serie) was used as early as 1882 by Albrec ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Global Historical Climatology Network

    • The Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) is a database of temperature, precipitation and pressure records managed by the National Climatic Data Center, Arizona State University and the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center. The aggregate data are collected from many continuously reporting fixed stations a ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Global warming

    • Global warming and climate change are terms for the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects. Multiple lines of scientific evidence show that the climate system is warming. Although the increase of near-surface atmospheric temperature is the measure of ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Great Oxygenation Event

    • The Great Oxygenation Event (GOE, also called the Oxygen Catastrophe, Oxygen Crisis, Oxygen Holocaust, Oxygen Revolution, or Great Oxidation) was the biologically induced appearance of dioxygen (O2) in Earth's atmosphere. Although geological, isotopic, and chemical evidence suggest that this major environmental change ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Greenhouse and icehouse Earth

    • Throughout the history of the Earth, the planet's climate has been fluctuating between two dominant climate states: the greenhouse earth and the icehouse earth. These two climate states last for millions of years and should not be confused with glacial and interglacial periods, which occur only during an icehouse perio ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • HadCRUT

    • HadCRUT is the dataset of monthly instrumental temperature records formed by combining the sea surface temperature records compiled by the Hadley Centre of the UK Met Office and the land surface air temperature records compiled by the Climatic Research Unit (CRU) of the University of East Anglia. The data is provided ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Heinrich event

    • A Heinrich event is a natural phenomenon in which large armadas of icebergs break off from glaciers and traverse the North Atlantic. First described by marine geologist Hartmut Heinrich (Heinrich, H., 1988), they occurred during five of the last seven glacial periods or "ice ages" over the past 640,000 years (Hodell, e ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Historical climatology

    • Historical climatology is the study of historical changes in climate and their effect on human history and development. This differs from paleoclimatology which encompasses climate change over the entire history of Earth. The study seeks to define periods in human history where temperature or precipitation varied from ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • History of climate change science

    • The history of the scientific discovery of climate change began in the early 19th century when ice ages and other natural changes in paleoclimate were first suspected and the natural greenhouse effect first identified. In the late 19th century, scientists first argued that human emissions of greenhouse gases could chan ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Hockey stick controversy

    • In the hockey stick controversy, the data and methods used in reconstructions of the temperature record of the past 1000 years have been disputed. Reconstructions have consistently shown that the rise in the instrumental temperature record of the past 150 years is not matched in earlier centuries, and the name "hockey ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Hockey stick graph

    • Hockey stick graphs present the global or hemispherical mean temperature record of the past 500 to 2000 years as shown by quantitative climate reconstructions based on climate proxy records. These reconstructions have consistently shown a slow long term cooling trend changing into relatively rapid warming in the 20th c ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Holocene climatic optimum

    • The Holocene Climate Optimum (HCO) was a warm period during roughly the interval 9,000 to 5,000 years BP. This event has also been known by many other names, including: Hypsithermal, Altithermal, Climatic Optimum, Holocene Optimum, Holocene Thermal Maximum, and Holocene Megathermal. This warm period was followed by a ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Holocene glacial retreat

    • Holocene glacial retreat had a profound effect on landscapes in many areas that were covered by ice at the Last Glacial Maximum. The many valleys of the Cairngorms, a mountainous region in the Eastern Scottish Highlands are littered with deposits from this period. The modern Ohio River was formed when the river w ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Homogenization (climate)

    • Homogenization in climate research means the removal of non-climatic changes. Next to changes in the climate itself, raw climate records also contain non-climatic jumps and changes for example due to relocations or changes in instrumentation. The most used principle to remove these inhomogeneities is the relative homog ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Huelmo–Mascardi Cold Reversal


    • Ice age

    • An ice age is a period of long-term reduction in the temperature of Earth's surface and atmosphere, resulting in the presence or expansion of continental and polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers. Within a long-term ice age, individual pulses of cold climate are termed "glacial periods" (or alternatively "glacials" or " ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Illinoian (stage)

    • The Illinoian Stage is the name used by Quaternary geologists in North America to designate the period c.191,000 to c.130,000 years ago, during the middle , when sediments comprising the Illinoian Glacial Lobe were deposited. It precedes the Sangamonian stage and follows the Pre-Illinoian Stage in North America. The Il ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Instrumental temperature record

    • The instrumental temperature record provides the temperature of Earth's climate system from the historical network of in situ measurements of surface air temperatures and ocean surface temperatures. Data are collected at thousands of meteorological stations, buoys and ships around the globe. The longest-running tempera ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set

    • The International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS) is a digital database of 261 million weather observations made by ships, weather ships, and weather buoys spanning the years 1662 to 2007. The database was initially constructed in 1985 and continues to be expanded upon and updated on a regular basis ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Iron Age Cold Epoch

    • The Iron Age Cold Epoch (also referred to as Iron Age climate pessimum or Iron Age neoglaciation) was a period of unusually cold climate in the North Atlantic region, lasting from about 900 BC to about 300 BC, with an especially cold wave in 450 BC during the expansion of ancient Greece. It was followed by the Roman Wa ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Kansan glaciation

    • The Kansan glaciation or Kansan glacial (see Pre-Illinoian) was a glacial stage and part of an early conceptual climatic and chronological framework composed of four glacial and interglacial stages. Kansan glaciation was used by early geomorphologists and Quaternary geologists to subdivide glacial and nonglacial d ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Keeling Curve

    • External video

      The Keeling Curve is a graph that plots the ongoing change in concentration of carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere since the 1950s. It is based on continuous measurements taken at the Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii that began under the supervision of Charles David Keeling. Keeling's measurements showed the first sign ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Land surface effects on climate

    • Land surface effects on climate are wide-ranging and vary by region. Deforestation and exploitation of natural landscapes play a significant role. Some of these environmental changes are similar to those caused by the effects of global warming. Major land surface changes affecting climate include deforestation (es ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • List of large-scale temperature reconstructions of the last 2,000 years

    • This list of large scale temperature reconstructions of the last 2,000 years includes climate reconstructions which have contributed significantly to the modern consensus on the temperature record of the past 2000 years. The instrumental temperature record only covers the last 150 years at a hemispheric or global scal ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Last Glacial Maximum

    • The Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) was the last period in the Earth's climate history during the last glacial period when ice sheets were at their greatest extension. Growth of the ice sheets reached their maximum positions in about 24,500 BCE. Deglaciation commenced in the Northern Hemisphere gradually between approximate ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Last glacial period

    • The last glacial period, popularly known as the Ice Age, was the most recent glacial period, which occurred from c. 110,000 to 12,000 years ago. This most recent glacial period is part of a larger pattern of glacial and interglacial periods known as the Quaternary glaciation (c. 2,588,000 years ago to present). From th ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Late Antique Little Ice Age

    • The Late Antique Little Ice Age was a long-lasting Northern Hemisphere cooling period in the 6th and 7th century AD, proposed as theory in 2015, and subsequently confirmed as the interval from 536 to about 660 AD. This period followed three immense volcanic eruptions in 536, 540 and 547. One of the suspected volca ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Late Devonian extinction

    • The Late Devonian extinction was one of five major extinction events in the history of the Earth's biota. A major extinction, the Kellwasser event, occurred at the boundary that marks the beginning of the last phase of the Devonian period, the Famennian faunal stage (the Frasnian–Famennian boundary), about 375†... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Late Glacial

    • The Late Glacial (c. 13,000–10,000 years ago), or Tardiglacial ("Late Glacial"), is defined primarily by the beginning of the modern warm period, in which climates in the Northern Hemisphere warmed substantially, causing a process of accelerated deglaciation following the Last Glacial Maximum (c. 25,000–13,00 ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • List of periods and events in climate history

    • Knowledge of precise climatic events decreases as the record goes further back in time. Some notable climate events known to paleoclimatology are listed here. The timeline of glaciation covers ice ages specifically, which tend to have their own names for phases, often with different names used for different parts of th ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Little Ice Age

    • The Little Ice Age (LIA) was a period of cooling that occurred after the Medieval Warm Period. Although it was not a true ice age, the term was introduced into scientific literature by François E. Matthes in 1939. It has been conventionally defined as a period extending from the 16th to the 19th centuries, but some ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Llanquihue glaciation

    • The last glacial period and its associated glaciation is known in southern Chile as the Llanquihue glaciation (Spanish: Glaciación de Llanquihue). Its type area lies west of Llanquihue Lake where various drifts or end moraine systems belonging to the last glacial period have been identified. The glaciation is the la ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Marine isotope stage

    • Marine isotope stages (MIS), marine oxygen-isotope stages, or oxygen isotope stages (OIS), are alternating warm and cool periods in the Earth's paleoclimate, deduced from oxygen isotope data reflecting changes in temperature derived from data from deep sea core samples. Working backwards from the present, which is MIS ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Marine Isotope Stage 5

    • Marine Isotope Stage 5 or MIS 5 is a Marine Isotope Stage in the geologic temperature record, between 130,000 and 80,000 years ago. Sub-stage MIS 5e, called the Eemian or Ipswichian, covers the last major interglacial period before the Holocene, which extends to the present day. Interglacial periods which occurred duri ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Marine Isotope Stage 11

    • Marine Isotope Stage 11 or MIS 11 is a Marine Isotope Stage in the geologic temperature record, covering the interglacial period between 424,000 and 374,000 years ago. It corresponds to the geological Hoxnian Stage. Interglacial periods which occurred during the are investigated to better understand present and futur ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Marine Isotope Stage 13

    • Marine Isotope Stage 13 or MIS 13 is a Marine isotope stage in the geologic temperature record, in Britain covering the Cromerian interglacial period between ~524,000 and 474,000 years ago. It is split into three substages, MIS 13a MIS 13b, and MIS 13c. Some records indicate that MIS 13a was an unstable warm peak with ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Marinoan glaciation

    • The Marinoan glaciation was a period of worldwide glaciation that lasted from approximately 650 to 635 Ma (million years ago) during the Cryogenian period. The glaciation may have covered the entire planet, in an event called the Snowball Earth. The end of the glaciation may have been sped by the release of methane fro ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Mars general circulation model

    • The Mars general circulation model (MGCM) is the result of a research project by NASA to understand the nature of the general circulation of the atmosphere of Mars, how that circulation is driven and how it affects the climate of Mars in the long term. Mars climate simulation models date as far back as the Viking ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Maunder Minimum

    • The Maunder Minimum, also known as the "prolonged sunspot minimum", is the name used for the period starting in about 1645 and continuing to about 1715 when sunspots became exceedingly rare, as noted by solar observers of the time. The term was introduced after John A. Eddy published a landmark 1976 paper in Science. ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Medea hypothesis

    • The Medea hypothesis is a term coined by paleontologist Peter Ward for the anti-Gaian hypothesis that multicellular life, understood as a superorganism, is suicidal; in this view, microbial-triggered mass extinctions are attempts to return the Earth to the microbial-dominated state it has been for most of its history. ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Medieval Warm Period

    • The Medieval Warm Period (MWP), Medieval Climate Optimum, or Medieval Climatic Anomaly was a time of warm climate in the North Atlantic region that may also have been related to other climate events around the world during that time, including China and other areas, lasting from about 950 to 1250. It was followed by a ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Megadrought

    • A megadrought (or mega-drought) is a prolonged drought lasting two decades or longer. Past megadroughts have been associated with persistent multiyear La Niña conditions (cooler than normal water temperatures in the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean). The term megadrought is generally used to describe the length of a ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Middle Bronze Age Cold Epoch

    • The Middle Bronze Age Cold Epoch was a period of unusually cold climate in the North Atlantic region, lasting from about 1800 BC to about 1500 BC. It was followed by the Bronze Age Optimum (1500—900 year BC). During that epoch, a series of severe volcanic eruptions occurred, including Mount Vesuvius (Avellino eru ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Milankovitch cycles

    • Milankovitch cycles describes the collective effects of changes in the Earth's movements on its climate over thousands of years. The term is named after Serbian geophysicist and astronomer Milutin Milanković. In the 1920s, he theorized that variations in eccentricity, axial tilt, and precession of the Earth's orbit ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Monthly Climatic Data for the World

    • Monthly Climatic Data for the World (MCDW) is a monthly publication of the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) division of the National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) division of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of the United States. According to the website, ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Mousterian Pluvial

    • The Mousterian Pluvial was a prehistoric wet and rainy (pluvial) period in North Africa. It occurred during the Upper Paleolithic, toward the latter part of the Mousterian era. That is, it began around 50,000 years before the present (B.P), lasted roughly 20,000 years, and ended ca. 30,000 B.P. During the Mousterian P ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Neoglaciation

    • The neoglaciation ("renewed glaciation") describes the documented cooling trend in the Earth's climate during the Holocene, following the retreat of the Wisconsin glaciation, the most recent glacial period. Neoglaciation has followed the hypsithermal or Holocene Climatic Optimum, the warmest point in the Earth's climat ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Neolithic Subpluvial

    • The Neolithic Subpluvial, or the Holocene Wet Phase, was an extended period (from about 7500–7000 BCE to about 3500–3000 BCE) of wet and rainy conditions in the climate history of northern Africa. It was both preceded and followed by much drier periods. The Neolithic Subpluvial was the most recent of a numbe ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Old Weather

    • Old Weather

      Old Weather is an online weather data project that currently invites members of the public to assist in digitising weather observations recorded in US log books dating from the mid-19th century onwards. It is an example of citizen science that enlists members of the public to help in scientific research. It contributes ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Older Dryas

    • The Older Dryas was a stadial (cold) period between the Bølling and Allerød interstadials (warmer phases) approximately 14,000 years ago (BP), towards the end of the epoch. Its age is not well defined, with estimates varying by 400 years, but its duration is agreed to have been around two centuries. The gradual ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Older Peron

    • The Older Peron was the name for a period identified in 1961 as an episode of a global sea-level (i.e. eustatic) high-stand during the Holocene Epoch. Modern understanding of the various factors involved in quantifying eustatic sea level, particularly processes relating to ocean siphoning and glacio-hydro-isostatic adj ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Oldest Dryas

    • The Oldest Dryas was a climatic period, which occurred during the coldest stadial after the Weichselian glaciation in north Europe. In the Alps, the Oldest Dryas corresponds to the Gschnitz stadial of the Würm glaciation. The three “Dryas” periods (younger, older, oldest) are named for a marker species, Dr ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Ordovician–Silurian extinction events


    • Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum


    • Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project

    • The Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project is a project, somewhat along the lines of AMIP or CMIP, to coordinate and encourage the systematic study of atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs) and to assess their ability to simulate large climate changes such as those that occurred in the distant past. Pro ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Paleoclimatology

    • Paleoclimatology (in British spelling, palaeoclimatology) is the study of changes in climate taken on the scale of the entire history of Earth. It uses a variety of proxy methods from the Earth and life sciences to obtain data previously preserved within things such as rocks, sediments, ice sheets, tree rings, corals, ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Pastonian Stage

    • The Pastonian interglacial, now called the Pastonian Stage (from Paston, Norfolk), is the name for an early or middle stage used in the British Isles. It precedes the Beestonian Stage and follows the Pre-Pastonian Stage. Unfortunately the precise age of this stage cannot yet be defined in terms of absolute dating or M ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Permian–Triassic extinction event


    • Piora Oscillation

    • The Piora Oscillation was an abrupt cold and wet period in the climate history of the Holocene Epoch; it is generally dated to the period of c. 3200 to 2900 BCE. Some researchers associate the Piora Oscillation with the end of the Atlantic climate regime, and the start of the Sub-Boreal, in the Blytt–Sernander seq ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Pliocene climate

    • During the Pliocene epoch (5.3 Ma to 2.6 Ma) climate became cooler and drier, and seasonal, similar to modern climates. The global average temperature in the mid-Pliocene (3.3 Ma–3 Ma) was 2–3 °C higher than today, global sea level 25m higher and the northern hemisphere ice sheet was ephemeral before ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Pluvial

    • In geology and climatology, a pluvial is either a modern climate characterized by relatively high precipitation, or an interval of time of variable length – decades to thousands of years – during which a climate is characterized by either relatively high precipitation or humidity. Subdivisions of a pluvial, w ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Polar forests of the Cretaceous

    • Cretaceous polar forests were temperate forests that grew at polar latitudes during the final period of the Mesozoic Era, known as the Cretaceous Period 145–66 Ma. During this period, global average temperature was about 10 °C (18 °F) higher and carbon dioxide (CO2) levels were approximately 1000 pa ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Pre-Illinoian

    • The Pre-Illinoian Stage is used by Quaternary geologists for the early and middle glacial and interglacial periods of geologic time in North America from ~2.5–0.5 Ma (million years ago), a period of ~2 million years. As the oldest stage in the North American regional subdivision of the Quaternary, the Pre ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Pre-Pastonian Stage

    • The Pre-Pastonian Stage or Baventian Stage (from Easton Bavents in Suffolk), is the name for an early stage used in the British Isles. It precedes the Pastonian Stage and follows the Bramertonian Stage. This stage ended 1.806 Ma (million years ago) at the end of Marine Isotope Stage 65. It is not currently known when ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Retreat of glaciers since 1850

    • The retreat of glaciers since 1850 affects the availability of fresh water for irrigation and domestic use, mountain recreation, animals and plants that depend on glacier-melt, and, in the longer term, the level of the oceans. Studied by glaciologists, the temporal coincidence of glacier retreat with the measured incre ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Roman Warm Period

    • The Roman Warm Period or the Roman climatic optimum has been proposed as a period of unusually warm weather in Europe and the North Atlantic that ran from approximately 250 BC to AD 400. The phrase "Roman Warm Period" appears in a 1995 doctoral thesis. It was popularized by an article published in Nature in 1999. ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Sahara pump theory

    • The Sahara pump theory is a hypothesis that explains how flora and fauna migrated between Eurasia and Africa via a land bridge in the Levant region. It posits that extended periods of abundant rainfall lasting many thousands of years (pluvial periods) in Africa are associated with a "wet-Sahara" phase, during which lar ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Sangamonian

    • The Sangamonian Stage, (or Sangamon interglacial) is the term used in North America to designate the last interglacial. In its most common usage, it is used for the period of time between 75,000 and 125,000 BP. This period of time is equivalent all of Marine Isotope Stage 5 and the combined Eemian period and early part ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • The Sixth Extinction: An Unnatural History

    • The Sixth Extinction: An Unnatural History

      The Sixth Extinction: An Unnatural History is a 2014 non-fiction book written by Elizabeth Kolbert and published by Henry Holt & Company. The book demonstrates that the Earth is in the midst of a modern, man-made, sixth extinction. In the book, Kolbert chronicles previous mass extinction events, and compares them to th ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Soon and Baliunas controversy

    • The Soon and Baliunas controversy involved the publication in 2003 of a review study written by aerospace engineer Willie Soon and astronomer Sallie Baliunas in the journal Climate Research, which was quickly taken up by the G.W. Bush administration as a basis for amending the first Environmental Protection Agency Repo ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Spörer Minimum


    • Stadial

    • Stadials and interstadials are phases dividing the Quaternary period, the last 2.6 million years. Stadial are colder periods and interstadials are warmer. Each phase has a Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) number, working backwards from the present, with stadial having even numbers and interstadials odd numbers. Thus the curr ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Temperature record

    • The temperature record shows the fluctuations of the temperature of the atmosphere and the oceans through various spans of time. The most detailed information exists since 1850, when methodical thermometer-based records began. There are numerous estimates of temperatures since the end of the glaciation, particularly d ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Temperature record of the past 1000 years

    • The temperature record of the past 1,000 years is reconstructed using data from climate proxy records in conjunction with the modern instrumental temperature record which only covers the last 150 years at a global scale. Large-scale reconstructions covering part or all of the 1st millennium and 2nd millennium have show ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Termination (geomorphology)

    • Termination, as used by Quaternary geologists, oceanographers, and paleoclimatologists is the period of time during an glacial cycle when there is a relatively rapid transition from full glacial climates to full interglacial climates. For the Quaternary period, terminations are numbered using Roman numerals from the mo ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Thermal optimum

    • A thermal optimum is either a portion of a specified geological time span in which the average temperature was above that of the average temperature for the entire specified time or the optimum range within which a biological process may take place or the ambient optimal range for a species' niche. In geology, scienti ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Timeline of glaciation

    • There have been five known ice ages in the Earth's history, with the Earth experiencing the Quaternary Ice Age during the present time. Within ice ages, there exist periods of more severe glacial conditions and more temperate referred to as glacial periods and interglacial periods, respectively. The Earth is currently ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Todd Weather Folios

    • The Todd Weather Folios are a collection of continental Australian synoptic charts that were published from 1879 to 1909. The charts were created by Sir Charles Todd's office at the Adelaide Observatory. In addition to the charts, the folios include clippings of newspaper articles and telegraphic and handwritten infor ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Triassic–Jurassic extinction event


    • Lake Vermont

    • Lake Vermont, also called Glacial Lake Vermont, was a temporary lake created by the retreating glaciers during the close of the last ice age. The lake once included land in the Canadian province of Quebec and the American states Vermont and New York. It was a geographical predecessor of Lake Champlain. Once the glacier ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Weichselian glaciation

    • The last glacial period and its associated glaciation is known in Northern Europe as the Weichselian glaciation, Weichselian ice age (German: Weichsel-Eiszeit), Vistulian glaciation, Weichsel or, less commonly, the Weichsel glaciation, Weichselian cold period (Weichsel-Kaltzeit), Weichselian glacial (Weichsel-Glazial), ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Wolstonian Stage

    • The Wolstonian Stage is a middle stage of the geological history of earth that precedes the Ipswichian Stage (Eemian Stage in Europe) and follows the Hoxnian Stage in the British Isles. The Wolstonian Stage apparently includes three periods of glaciation. The Wolstonian Stage is temporally analogous to the Warthe Stag ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Women in climate change

    • The contributions of women in climate change have received increasing attention in the early 21st century. Feedback from women and the issues faced by women have been described as "imperative" by the United Nations and "critical" by the Population Reference Bureau. A report by the World Health Organization concluded th ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Year Without a Summer

    • Year Without a Summer

      The year 1816 is known as the Year Without a Summer (also the Poverty Year, the Summer that Never Was, Year There Was No Summer, and Eighteen Hundred and Froze to Death) because of severe climate abnormalities that caused average global temperatures to decrease by 0.4–0.7 °C (0.7–1.3 °F). This res ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Younger Dryas

    • The Younger Dryas is a geological period from c. 12,900 to c. 11,700 calendar years ago (BP). It is named after an indicator genus, the alpine-tundra wildflower Dryas octopetala. Leaves of Dryas octopetala are occasionally abundant in the Late Glacial, often minerogenic-rich, like the lake sediments of Scandinavian lak ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    Wikipedia
  • What Else?

    • Climate history

Extras