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    Climate

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    • Category: Meteorology

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    • Climates

    • Climate is the statistics of weather, usually over a 30-year interval. It is measured by assessing the patterns of variation in temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, precipitation, atmospheric particle count and other meteorological variables in a given region over long periods of time. Climate differs fro ... Climates


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    • Earth

    • Earth Astronomical symbol of Earth

      Earth, otherwise known as the world, (Greek: Γαῖα Gaia; Latin: Terra) is the third planet from the Sun and the only object in the Universe known to harbor life. It is the densest planet in the Solar System and the largest of the four terrestrial planets. According to radiometric dating and other sourc ... Read »


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    • celestial bodies

    • Celestial bodies

      An astronomical object or celestial object is a naturally occurring physical entity, association, or structure that current science has demonstrated to exist in the observable universe. In astronomy, the terms "object" and "body" are often used interchangeably. However, an astronomical body or celestial body refers to ... celestial bodies


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    • Category: Meteorology

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    • Climate by city

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    • Climate by continent

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    • Climate by mountain range

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Climate by mountain range


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    • Climate history

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    • Climatic and glaciological subregions of the Andes

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Climatic and glaciological subregions of the Andes


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    • Climate by country

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    • Droughts

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Droughts


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    • Köppen climate classifications


    • Meteorology and climate education

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Meteorology and climate education


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    • Plants by climate

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Plants by climate


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    • Seasons

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Seasons


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    • Tropics

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Tropics


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    • Atmospheric science stubs

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    • Climate

    • Climate is the statistics of weather, usually over a 30-year interval. It is measured by assessing the patterns of variation in temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, precipitation, atmospheric particle count and other meteorological variables in a given region over long periods of time. Climate differs fro ... Read »


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    • Weather and climate

    • There is often confusion between weather and climate. Weather is the condition of the atmosphere at a particular place over a short period of time, whereas climate refers to the weather pattern of a place over a long period , long enough to yield meaningful averages. Meteorology studies weather, while climatology stud ... Read »


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    • Air basin

    • An air basin is an area within a ring or partial ring of mountains that in the absence of winds holds air and smog within the area. ... Read »


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    • Alpine climate

    • Alpine climate is the average weather (climate) for the regions above the tree line. This climate is also referred to as a mountain climate or highland climate. There are multiple definitions of alpine climate. One simple definition is the climate which causes trees to fail to grow due to cold. According to the H ... Read »


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    • Andrews Forest

    • Andrews Forest

      The H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, commonly referred to as Andrews Forest, is located near Blue River, Oregon, United States, and is managed cooperatively by the United States Forest Service's Pacific Northwest Research Station, Oregon State University, and the Willamette National Forest. It is one of only 610 UNESC ... Read »


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    • Antarctic Cold Reversal

    • The Antarctic Cold Reversal (ACR) was an important episode of cooling in the climate history of the Earth during the deglaciation at the close of the last ice age. It illustrates the complexity of the climate changes at the transition from the to the Holocene Epochs. The Last Glacial Maximum and sea-level minimum occ ... Read »


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    • Antarctic oscillation

    • The Antarctic oscillation (AAO, to distinguish it from the Arctic oscillation or AO) is a low-frequency mode of atmospheric variability of the southern hemisphere. It is also known as the Southern Annular Mode (SAM). It is defined as a belt of westerly winds or low pressure surrounding Antarctica which moves north or s ... Read »


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    • Arctic oscillation

    • The Arctic oscillation (AO) or Northern Annular Mode/Northern Hemisphere Annular Mode (NAM) is an index (which varies over time with no particular periodicity) of the dominant pattern of non-seasonal sea-level pressure variations north of 20N latitude, and it is characterized by pressure anomalies of one sign in the Ar ... Read »


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    • Atlantic multidecadal oscillation

    • The Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) is a climate cycle that affects the sea surface temperature of the North Atlantic Ocean based on different modes on multidecadal timescales. While there is some support for this mode in models and in historical observations, controversy exists with regard to its amplitude, an ... Read »


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    • Atmospheric temperature

    • Atmospheric temperature is a measure of temperature at different levels of the Earth's atmosphere. It is governed by many factors, including incoming solar radiation, humidity and altitude. When discussing surface temperature, the annual atmospheric temperature range at any geographical location depends largely upon th ... Read »


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    • Atmospheric temperature range

    • Atmospheric temperature range is the numerical difference between the minimum and maximum values of temperature observed in a given location during a period of time (e.g., in a given day, month, year, century) or the average (average of all temperature ranges in a period of time). The variation in temperature that occu ... Read »


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    • Bond event

    • Bond events are North Atlantic ice rafting events that are tentatively linked to climate fluctuations in the Holocene. Eight such events have been identified. Bond events were previously believed to exhibit a quasi ~1,500-year cycle, but the primary period of variability is now put at ~1,000 years. Gerard C. Bond of t ... Read »


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    • Canadian Arctic Tundra

    • Canadian Arctic Tundra

      The Canadian Arctic tundra is a biogeographic designation for Northern Canada's terrain generally lying north of the tree line or boreal forest, that corresponds with the Scandinavian Alpine tundra to the east and the Siberian Arctic tundra to the west inside the circumpolar tundra belt of the Northern hemisphere. Can ... Read »


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    • CC9

    • In 2008 the Club of Madrid, the Bellona Foundation and the utility company Hafslund ASA joined forces to organize the top level climate conference in Norway called #CC8 (Climate Conference 08: Technology and Finance in Climate Cooperation). In 2009 the same organizers are arranging CC9 (Climate Conference 09: Green Tec ... Read »


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    • Chilling requirement

    • The chilling requirement of a fruit is the minimum period of cold weather after which a fruit-bearing tree will blossom. It is often expressed in chill hours, which can be calculated in different ways, all of which essentially involve adding up the total amount of time in a winter spent at certain temperatures. Some b ... Read »


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    • Climate appraisal

    • A climate appraisal is a unique, location-based report for a specific property on climate change (from global warming) and other environmental risks. Information in a climate appraisal report enables property owners and/or buyers to assess for themselves how climate change risks could impact a specific property address ... Read »


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    • Climate as complex networks

    • The field of Complex Networks has emerged as an important area of science to generate novel insights into nature of complex systems. The application of the theory to Climate Science is a young and emerging field. , , , To identify and analyze patterns in global climate, scientists model the climate data as Complex Netw ... Read »


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    • Climate categories in viticulture

    • In viticulture, the climates of wine regions are categorised based on the overall characteristics of the area's climate during the growing season. While variations in macroclimate are acknowledged, the climates of most wine regions are categorised (somewhat loosely based on the Köppen climate classification) as bein ... Read »


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    • Climate classification

    • Climate classification systems are ways of classifying the world's climates. A climate classification may correlate closely with a biome category, as climate is a major influence on biological life in a region. The most popular classification scheme is probably the Köppen climate classification scheme. Climate clas ... Read »


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    • Climate ensemble

    • A climate ensemble involves slightly different models of the climate system. There are at least four different types, to be described below. For the equivalent in numerical weather prediction, see ensemble forecasting. The aim of running an ensemble is usually in order to be able to deal with uncertainties in the ... Read »


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    • Climate of the Alps

    • The climate of the Alps is the climate, or average weather conditions over a long period of time, of the exact middle Alpine region of Europe. As air rises from sea level to the upper regions of the atmosphere the temperature decreases. The effect of mountain topography on prevailing winds is to force warm air from the ... Read »


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    • Climate of the Arctic

    • The climate of the Arctic is characterized by long, cold winters and short, cool summers. There is a large amount of variability in climate across the Arctic, but all regions experience extremes of solar radiation in both summer and winter. Some parts of the Arctic are covered by ice (sea ice, glacial ice, or snow) yea ... Read »


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    • Climate of the Nordic countries

    • The climate of the Nordic countries is that of a region in Northern Europe that consists of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden and their associated territories, which include the Faroe Islands, Greenland and Åland. , Sweden has on average the warmest summer of the Nordic countries, with an average maximum ... Read »


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    • Climate of Uranus

    • The climate of Uranus is heavily influenced by both its lack of internal heat, which limits atmospheric activity, and by its extreme axial tilt, which induces intense seasonal variation. Uranus's atmosphere is remarkably bland in comparison to the other gas giants which it otherwise closely resembles. When Voyager 2 fl ... Read »


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    • Climate Savers Computing Initiative

    • The Climate Savers Computing Initiative was a nonprofit group of consumers, businesses and conservation organizations dedicated to promoting smart technologies that improve power efficiency and reduce energy consumption of computers. Formed in 2007, it was based in Portland, Oregon. In July 2012, Climate Savers Computi ... Read »


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    • Climate state

    • Climate state describes a state of climate on Earth and similar terrestrial planets based on a thermal energy budget, such as the greenhouse or icehouse climate state. The main climate state change is between periodical glacial and interglacial cycles in Earth history, studied from climate proxies. The climate system ... Read »


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    • Climatological normal

    • Climatological normal is a 30-year average of a weather variable. Climatological normals are used as an average or baseline to evaluate climate events and provide context for year-to-year variability. Normals can be calculated for a variety of weather variables including temperature and precipitation and rely on data f ... Read »


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    • Climograph

    • A climograph is a graphical representation of basic climatic parameters, that is monthly average temperature and precipitation, at a certain location. It is used for a quick-view of the climate of a location. One form of representation uses an overlapped combination of a bar and line chart used to show the climate of ... Read »


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    • Continental climate

    • Continental climates are defined in the Köppen climate classification has having a coldest month mean temperature below -3 C (26.6 F) or 0 °C depending on which isotherm used for the coldest month and four months above 10 °C. In the Köppen climate system, Continental climates were bordered to the sout ... Read »


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    • Dahomey Gap

    • In West Africa, the Dahomey Gap refers to the portion of the Guinean forest-savanna mosaic that extends all the way to the coast in Benin, Togo and Ghana, thus separating the forest zone that covers much of the south of the region into two separate parts. The forest region west of the gap is called the Upper Guinean fo ... Read »


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    • Dansgaard–Oeschger event


    • Dimethyl sulfide

    • Dimethyl sulfide

      Dimethyl selenideDimethyl telluride Dimethyl sulfone Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) or methylthiomethane is an organosulfur compound with the formula (CH3)2S. Dimethyl sulfide is a water-insoluble flammable liquid that boils at 37 °C (99 °F) and has a characteristic disagreeable odor. It is a component of the sme ... Read »


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    • Drawdown (climate)

    • Climate drawdown is the point at which greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere begin to decline on a year-to-year basis. Drawdown is a goal for reversing climate change, and eventually reducing global average temperatures. Project Drawdown is a climate change mitigation project initiated by Paul Hawken and cl ... Read »


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    • Dry punch

    • A dry punch is meteorological slang for a synoptic scale or mesoscale process. A dry punch at the surface results in a dry line bulge. A dry punch aloft above an area of warm, moist (buoyant) air at low levels often increases the potential for severe thunderstorms. ... Read »


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    • Dry season

    • The dry season is a yearly period of low rainfall, especially in the tropics. The weather in the tropics is dominated by the tropical rain belt, which moves from the northern to the southern tropics and back over the course of the year. The tropical rain belt lies in the southern hemisphere roughly from October to Marc ... Read »


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    • Earth rainfall climatology

    • Earth rainfall climatology Is the study of rainfall, a sub-field of Meteorology. Formally, a wider study includes water falling as ice crystals, i.e. hail, sleet, snow (parts of the hydrological cycle known as precipitation). The aim of rainfall climatology is to measure, understand and predict rain distribution across ... Read »


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    • Effect of Sun angle on climate

    • The amount of heat energy received at any location on the globe is a direct effect of Sun angle on climate, as the angle at which sunlight strikes the Earth varies by location, time of day, and season due to the Earth's orbit around the Sun and the Earth's rotation around its tilted axis. Seasonal change in the angle o ... Read »


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    • Effects of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation in the United States


    • Forest zone

    • In West Africa, the forest zone refers to the southern part of the region once covered by tropical rainforest. Sometimes this region is referred to as Guinea to distinguish it from the grassland-covered Sudan, drier Sahel and per-arid Sahara. The forest zone of West Africa, in the strict sense, covers all of Liber ... Read »


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    • Global temperature

    • In its AR4, WG1 report, Chapter3, the IPCC explains global temperature in these words: There is no single thermometer measuring the global temperature. Instead, individual thermometer measurements taken every day at several thousand stations over the land areas of the world are combined with thousands more measurement ... Read »


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    • Hardiness (plants)

    • Hardiness of plants describes their ability to survive adverse growing conditions. It is usually limited to discussions of climatic adversity. Thus a plant's ability to tolerate cold, heat, drought, flooding, or wind are typically considered measurements of hardiness. Hardiness of plants is defined by their native exte ... Read »


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    • Hardiness zone

    • A hardiness zone (a subcategory of vertical zonation) is a geographically defined area in which a specific category of plant life is capable of growing, as defined by climatic conditions, including its ability to withstand the minimum temperatures of the zone (see the scale on the right or the table below). For example ... Read »


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    • Height above ground level

    • In aviation, atmospheric sciences and broadcasting, a height above ground level (AGL) is a height measured with respect to the underlying ground surface. This is as opposed to altitude/elevation above mean sea level (AMSL), or (in broadcast engineering) height above average terrain (HAAT). In other words, these express ... Read »


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    • Hemiboreal

    • Hemiboreal means halfway between the temperate and subarctic (or boreal) zones. The term is most frequently used in the context of ecosystems. A hemiboreal forest has some characteristics of a boreal forest, and also shares features with temperate-zone forests to the south. Coniferous trees predominate in the hemi ... Read »


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    • History of climate change science

    • The history of the scientific discovery of climate change began in the early 19th century when ice ages and other natural changes in paleoclimate were first suspected and the natural greenhouse effect first identified. In the late 19th century, scientists first argued that human emissions of greenhouse gases could chan ... Read »


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    • Holdridge life zones

    • The Holdridge life zones system is a global bioclimatic scheme for the classification of land areas. It was first published by Leslie Holdridge in 1947, and updated in 1967. It is a relatively simple system based on few empirical data, giving objective mapping criteria. A basic assumption of the system is that both soi ... Read »


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    • Huelmo–Mascardi Cold Reversal


    • Humid continental climate

    • A humid continental climate (Köppen prefix D and a third letter of a or b) is a climatic region defined by Russian-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, which is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold) winters. Preci ... Read »


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    • Humid subtropical climate

    • A humid subtropical climate is a zone of climate characterised by hot, usually humid summers and mild to cool winters. It normally lies on the southeast side of all continents, generally between latitudes 25° and 40°. It tends to be located at coastal or near coastal locations. However, in some cases it extends i ... Read »


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    • Humidity

    • Humidity

      Humidity is the amount of water vapor present in the air. Water vapor is the gaseous state of water and is invisible. Humidity indicates the likelihood of precipitation, dew, or fog. Higher humidity reduces the effectiveness of sweating in cooling the body by reducing the rate of evaporation of moisture from the skin. ... Read »


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    • Ice cap climate

    • An ice cap climate is a polar climate where the temperature never or almost never exceeds 0 °C (32 °F). The climate covers areas in or near the polar regions, such as Antarctica and Greenland, as well as the highest mountaintops. Such areas are covered by a permanent layer of ice and have no vegetation, but ... Read »


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    • Ice sheet

    • An ice sheet is a mass of glacier ice that covers surrounding terrain and is greater than 50,000 km2 (19,000 sq mi), thus also known as continental glacier. The only current ice sheets are in Antarctica and Greenland; during the last glacial period at Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) the Laurentide ice sheet covered ... Read »


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    • Ice-albedo feedback

    • Ice-albedo feedback (or snow-albedo feedback) is a positive feedback climate process where a change in the area of snow-covered land, ice caps, glaciers or sea ice alters the albedo. This change in albedo acts to reinforce the initial alteration in ice area. Cooling tends to increase ice cover and hence the albedo, red ... Read »


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    • Impact winter

    • An impact winter is a hypothesized period of prolonged cold weather due to the impact of a large asteroid or comet on the Earth's surface. If an asteroid were to strike land or a shallow body of water, it would eject an enormous amount of dust, ash, and other material into the atmosphere, blocking the radiation from th ... Read »


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    • Köppen climate classification


    • La Niña


    • List of life zones by region

    • The climate and ecology of different locations on the globe naturally separate into life zones, depending on elevation, location, and latitude. The generally strong dependency on elevation is known as altitudinal zonation: the average temperature of a location decreases as the elevation increases. The general effect o ... Read »


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    • List of cities by sunshine duration

    • The following is a list of cities by sunshine duration. Sunshine duration is a climatological indicator, measuring duration of sunshine in given period (usually, a day or a year) for a given location on Earth, typically expressed as an averaged value over several years. It is a general indicator of cloudiness of a loca ... Read »


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    • List of cities by temperature

    • This is a list of cities by average temperature (monthly and yearly). The temperatures listed are averages of the daily highs and lows. Thus, the actual daytime temperature in a given month will be 2 to 10 °C (4 to 18 °F) higher than the temperature listed here, depending on how large the difference between ... Read »


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    • List of locations with a subtropical climate

    • This list of locations with a subtropical climate specifically lists locations considered within the subtropics. The subtropics are geographic and climate zones located roughly between the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn and the 39th parallel in both hemispheres. Subtropical climate regimes can exist at high e ... Read »


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    • Mangrove swamp

    • A Mangrove swamp is a distinct saline woodland or shrubland habitat formed by mangrove trees. They are characterized by depositional coastal environments, where fine sediments (often with high organic content) collect in areas protected from high-energy wave action. The saline conditions tolerated by various mangrove s ... Read »


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    • Marine layer

    • A marine layer is an air mass which develops over the surface of a large body of water such as the ocean or large lake in the presence of a temperature inversion. The inversion itself is usually initiated by the cooling effect of the water on the surface layer of an otherwise warm air mass. As it cools, the surface air ... Read »


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    • Mediterranean climate

    • A mediterranean climate /ˌmɛdɪtəˈreɪniən/ or dry summer climate is the climate typical of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin. The lands around the Mediterranean Sea form the largest area where this climate type is found, but it also is found in most of coastal California, in parts of Western and ... Read »


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    • Moisture recycling

    • In hydrology, moisture recycling or precipitation recycling refer to the process by which a portion of the precipitated water that evapotranspired from a given area contributes to the precipitation over the same area. Moisture recycling is thus a component of the hydrologic cycle. The ratio of the locally derived preci ... Read »


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    • Monsoon

    • Monsoon (UK: /mɒnˈsuːn/; US: /mɑːnˈsuːn/) is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea. Us ... Read »


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    • Morphoclimatic zones

    • In climatic geomorphology morphoclimatic zones are areas which are characterised by landforms associated with a particular climate. The geomorphological processes involved with distinct climates can have large impacts on the near-surface geology of the area. ... Read »


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    • Mousterian Pluvial

    • The Mousterian Pluvial was a prehistoric wet and rainy (pluvial) period in North Africa. It occurred during the Upper Paleolithic, toward the latter part of the Mousterian era. That is, it began around 50,000 years before the present (B.P), lasted roughly 20,000 years, and ended ca. 30,000 B.P. During the Mousterian P ... Read »


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    • National Integrated Drought Information System

    • The National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS) Act was signed into law in 2006 (Public Law 109-430). The Western Governors' Association described the need for NIDIS in a 2004 report, Creating a Drought Early Warning System for the 21st Century: The National Integrated Drought Information System. The NIDIS A ... Read »


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    • Neoglaciation

    • The neoglaciation ("renewed glaciation") describes the documented cooling trend in the Earth's climate during the Holocene, following the retreat of the Wisconsin glaciation, the most recent glacial period. Neoglaciation has followed the hypsithermal or Holocene Climatic Optimum, the warmest point in the Earth's climat ... Read »


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    • Neolithic Subpluvial

    • The Neolithic Subpluvial, or the Holocene Wet Phase, was an extended period (from about 7500–7000 BCE to about 3500–3000 BCE) of wet and rainy conditions in the climate history of northern Africa. It was both preceded and followed by much drier periods. The Neolithic Subpluvial was the most recent of a numbe ... Read »


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    • North Pacific Oscillation

    • The North Pacific Oscillation (NPO) is a teleconnection pattern first described by Walker and Bliss and characterized by a north-south seesaw in sea level pressure over the North Pacific. Rogers, using surface atmospheric temperature from St. Paul, Alaska and Edmonton, identified two phases of the NPO, an Aleutian belo ... Read »


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    • Amundsen-Nobile Climate Change Tower

    • Amundsen-Nobile Climate Change Tower

      The Amundsen-Nobile Climate Change Tower (CCT) is a 34-meter research tower installed in Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, Norway, for the study of various physical parameters in the boundary layer of the lower troposphere. In particular it continuously measured meteorological parameters (temperature, relative humidity, intens ... Read »


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    • Oceanic climate

    • An oceanic climate (also known as marine, west coast and maritime) is the climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features cool summers (relative to their latitude) and cool but not cold winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of tempera ... Read »


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    • Older Peron

    • The Older Peron was the name for a period identified in 1961 as an episode of a global sea-level (i.e. eustatic) high-stand during the Holocene Epoch. Modern understanding of the various factors involved in quantifying eustatic sea level, particularly processes relating to ocean siphoning and glacio-hydro-isostatic adj ... Read »


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    • Paleoclimatology

    • Paleoclimatology (in British spelling, palaeoclimatology) is the study of changes in climate taken on the scale of the entire history of Earth. It uses a variety of proxy methods from the Earth and life sciences to obtain data previously preserved within things such as rocks, sediments, ice sheets, tree rings, corals, ... Read »


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    • Piora Oscillation

    • The Piora Oscillation was an abrupt cold and wet period in the climate history of the Holocene Epoch; it is generally dated to the period of c. 3200 to 2900 BCE. Some researchers associate the Piora Oscillation with the end of the Atlantic climate regime, and the start of the Sub-Boreal, in the Blytt–Sernander seq ... Read »


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    • Pluvial

    • In geology and climatology, a pluvial is either a modern climate characterized by relatively high precipitation, or an interval of time of variable length – decades to thousands of years – during which a climate is characterized by either relatively high precipitation or humidity. Subdivisions of a pluvial, w ... Read »


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    • Polar climate

    • The polar climate regions are characterized by a lack of warm summers. Every month in a polar climate has an average temperature of less than 10 °C (50 °F). Regions with polar climate cover more than 20% of the Earth. The sun shines for long hours in the summer, and for many fewer hours in the winter. A pol ... Read »


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    • Pole of Cold

    • The Poles of Cold are the places in the southern and northern hemispheres where the lowest air temperatures have been recorded. In the southern hemisphere, the Pole of Cold is currently located in Antarctica, at the Russian (formerly Soviet) Antarctic station Vostok at 78°28′S 106°48′E / ï» ... Read »


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    • Potential evaporation

    • Potential evaporation or potential evapotranspiration (PET) is defined as the amount of evaporation that would occur if a sufficient water source were available. If the actual evapotranspiration is considered the net result of atmospheric demand for moisture from a surface and the ability of the surface to supply moist ... Read »


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    • Regional climate levels in viticulture

    • In viticulture, there are several levels of regional climates that are used to describe the terroir or immutable characteristics of an area. These levels can be as broad as a macroclimate which includes entire wine regions or as small as a microclimate which includes the unique environment around an individual grapevin ... Read »


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    • Sea ice concentration

    • Sea ice concentration is a useful variable for climate scientists and nautical navigators. It is defined as the area of sea ice relative to the total at a given point in the ocean. This article will deal primarily with its determination from remote sensing measurements. Sea ice concentration helps determine a numb ... Read »


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    • Sea ice growth processes

    • Sea ice is a complex composite composed primarily of pure ice in various states of crystallization along with air bubbles and included pockets of brine. Understanding its growth processes is important both for climate scientists for use in simulations as well remote sensing specialists since the composition and microst ... Read »


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    • Sea ice thickness

    • Sea ice thickness spatial extent, and open water within ice packs can vary rapidly in response to weather and climate.Sea ice concentration are measured by satellites, with the Special Sensor Microwave Imager / Sounder (SSMIS), and the European Space Agency's Cryosat-2 satellite to map the thickness and shape of the Ea ... Read »


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    • Season

    • A season is a division of the year marked by changes in weather, ecology and hours of daylight. Seasons result from the yearly orbit of the Earth around the Sun and the tilt of the Earth's rotational axis relative to the plane of the orbit. In temperate and polar regions, the seasons are marked by changes in the intens ... Read »


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    • Semi-arid climate

    • A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not extremely. There are different kinds of semi-arid climates, depending on such variables as temperature, and they give rise to different classes of ecology. A more precise definit ... Read »


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    • Agreste

    • Agreste

      The agreste (Portuguese pronunciation: [aˈɡɾɛʃti]) is a narrow zone of Brazil in the states of Rio Grande do Norte Paraíba, Pernambuco, Alagoas, Sergipe and Bahia between the coastal forest zona da mata and the semiarid sertão. The agreste fades out after it reaches Rio Grande do Norte due to th ... Read »


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    • Sertão


    • Vidas Secas

    • Vidas Secas (Pre-Reform spelling: Vidas Sêcas, literally "Dry Lives"; translated into English as Barren Lives) is a novel by twentieth-century Brazilian writer Graciliano Ramos, written in 1938. It tells the cyclical story of a family of five: Fabiano, the father; Sinhá Vitória, the mother; two sons (just call ... Read »


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    • Snow line

    • The climatic snow line is the point above which snow and ice cover the ground throughout the year. The actual snow line may seasonally be significantly lower. The interplay of altitude and latitude affects the precise placement of the snow line at a particular location. At or near the equator, it is typically situ ... Read »


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    • Snowfall in Israel

    • Snowfall in Israel is not uncommon but occurs mainly in certain parts of the country. In January and February 1950, Israel experienced the largest snowfall registered since the beginning of meteorological measurements in 1870. The snow event began in early January 1950 with a hailstorm in Tel Aviv and light snow i ... Read »


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    • Spatial Synoptic Classification system

    • Based upon the Bergeron air mass classification scheme is the Spatial Synoptic Classification system, or SSC. There are six categories within the SSC scheme: Dry Polar (similar to continental polar), Dry Moderate (similar to maritime superior), Dry Tropical (similar to continental tropical), Moist Polar (similar to mar ... Read »


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    • Stadial

    • Stadials and interstadials are phases dividing the Quaternary period, the last 2.6 million years. Stadial are colder periods and interstadials are warmer. Each phase has a Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) number, working backwards from the present, with stadial having even numbers and interstadials odd numbers. Thus the curr ... Read »


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    • Steppe

    • In physical geography, a steppe (Old Russian: степь [step'], grassland) is an ecoregion, in the montane grasslands and shrublands and temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biomes, characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes. In South Africa they are ref ... Read »


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    • Subarctic climate

    • The subarctic climate (also called subpolar climate, subalpine climate, or boreal climate) is a climate characterised by long, usually very cold winters, and short, cool to mild summers. It is found on large landmasses, away from the moderating effects of an ocean, generally at latitudes from 50° to 70°N poleward ... Read »


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    • Subtropical ridge

    • The subtropical ridge, also known as the subtropical high or horse latitudes, is a significant belt of atmospheric high pressure situated around the latitudes of 30°N in the Northern Hemisphere and 30°S in the Southern Hemisphere. It is the product of the global air circulation cell known as the Hadley Cell. The ... Read »


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    • Subtropics

    • The subtropics are geographic and climate zones located roughly between the tropic circle of latitude at 23.5 latitude (the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn) and temperate latitudes (normally temperate latitudes refer to locations higher than 40 latitude). Subtropical climates are often characterized by warm t ... Read »


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    • Temperate climate

    • In geography, temperate or tepid latitudes of Earth lie between the tropics and the polar regions. The temperatures in these regions are generally relatively moderate, rather than extremely hot or cold, and the changes between summer and winter are also usually moderate. The north temperate zone extends from the Tropi ... Read »


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    • Thermal equator

    • The thermal equator (also known as "the heat equator") is a belt encircling the Earth, defined by the set of locations having the highest mean annual temperature at each longitude around the globe. Because local temperatures are sensitive to the geography of a region, mountain ranges and ocean currents ensure that smoo ... Read »


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    • Vinod Thomas

    • Vinod Thomas

      Vinod Thomas (born in Thiruvananthapuram, India) is Director General of Independent Evaluation at the Asian Development Bank (ADB). He reports to ADB’s Board of Directors through the Development Effectiveness Committee. His work aims to assess ADB’s development effectiveness while providing lessons to help in ... Read »


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    • Tierra caliente

    • Tierra caliente is a pseudo-climatological term used in Latin America to refer to those places within that realm which have a distinctly tropical climate. The tierra caliente forms at Sea Level from 0-3,000 feet. The Peruvian geographer Javier Pulgar Vidal used the altitude of 1,000 m as the border between the Tropical ... Read »


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    • Tierra fría


    • Tierra helada

    • Tierra Helada (Spanish for "frozen land"), also known as Tierra Nevada (Spanish for "snowy land"), is a term used in Latin America to refer to the highest places found within the Andes mountains. The Tierra Helada comprises the montane grasslands and shrublands, sunis, punas and páramos between the tree line and th ... Read »


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    • Tierra templada

    • Tierra templada (Spanish for temperate land) is a pseudoclimatological term used in Latin America to refer to places which are either located in the tropics at a moderately high elevation or are marginally outside the astronomical tropics, producing a somewhat cooler overall climate than that found in the tropical lowl ... Read »


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    • Tree line

    • The tree line is the edge of the habitat at which trees are capable of growing. It is found at high elevations and in frigid environments. Beyond the tree line, trees cannot tolerate the environmental conditions (usually cold temperatures or lack of moisture). The tree line should not be confused with a lower timberlin ... Read »


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    • Trewartha climate classification

    • The Trewartha climate classification is a climate classification system published by American geographer Glenn Thomas Trewartha in 1966, and updated in 1980. It is a modified version of the 1899 Köppen system, created to answer some of the deficiencies of the Köppen system. The Trewartha system attempts to redefi ... Read »


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    • Tropical climate

    • A tropical climate in the Köppen climate classification it is a non-arid climate in which all twelve months have mean temperatures of at least 18 °C (64 °F). In tropical climates there is often only two seasons, a wet season and a dry season. Tropical climates are frost-free and changes in the solar angl ... Read »


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    • Tropical marine climate

    • A tropical marine climate is usually experienced by islands and coastal areas 10° to 20° north or south of the equator. The ocean is the main influence in creating the tropical marine climate. There are two main seasons — the wet season and the dry season. The annual rainfall is 1000 to over 1500 mm. T ... Read »


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    • Tropical monsoon climate

    • Tropical monsoon climate, occasionally also known as a tropical wet climate or tropical monsoon and trade-wind littoral climate in climate classification, is a relatively rare type of climate that corresponds to the Köppen climate classification category "Am". Tropical monsoon climates have monthly mean temperature ... Read »


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    • Tropical rain belt

    • Rainfall and the tropical climate dominate the tropical rain belt, which oscillates from the northern to the southern tropics over the course of the year, roughly following the solar equator. The tropical rain belt is an area of active rain that is positioned mostly around the tropics. According to the website Journey ... Read »


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    • Tropical rainforest climate

    • A tropical rainforest climate, also known as an equatorial climate, is a tropical climate usually (but not always) found along the equator. Regions with this climate typically feature tropical rainforests, and it is designated Af by the Köppen climate classification. Tropical rainforests have a type of tropical ... Read »


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    • Tropical savanna climate

    • Tropical savanna climate or tropical wet and dry climate is a type of climate that corresponds to the Köppen climate classification categories "Aw" and "As". Tropical savanna climates have monthly mean temperatures above 18 °C (64 °F) in every month of the year and typically a pronounced dry season, with ... Read »


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    • Tundra

    • Tundra

      In physical geography, tundra is a type of biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons. The term tundra comes through Russian тундра (tûndra) from the Kildin Sami word tÅ«ndâr "uplands", "treeless mountain tract". There are three types of tundra: Arcti ... Read »


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    • Velvet season

    • Velvet season (Russian: Бархатный сезон) is a Russian term for one of the most favorable periods for rest and spending time for human in conditions of the subtropics, particularly in the mediterranean climate conditions. During the velvet season weather is not so hot, such as i ... Read »


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    • Westerlies

    • The westerlies, anti-trades, or prevailing westerlies, are prevailing winds from the west toward the east in the middle latitudes between 30 and 60 degrees latitude. They originate from the high-pressure areas in the horse latitudes and tend towards the poles and steer extratropical cyclones in this general manner.Trop ... Read »


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    • Western Disturbance

    • A Western Disturbance is an extratropical storm originating in the Mediterranean region that brings sudden winter rain to the northwestern parts of the Indian subcontinent. It is a non-monsoonal precipitation pattern driven by the westerlies. The moisture in these storms usually originates over the Mediterranean Sea an ... Read »


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    • Wind rose

    • A wind rose is a graphic tool used by meteorologists to give a succinct view of how wind speed and direction are typically distributed at a particular location. Historically, wind roses were predecessors of the compass rose (found on maps), as there was no differentiation between a cardinal direction and the wind which ... Read »


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    • Younger Dryas

    • The Younger Dryas is a geological period from c. 12,900 to c. 11,700 calendar years ago (BP). It is named after an indicator genus, the alpine-tundra wildflower Dryas octopetala. Leaves of Dryas octopetala are occasionally abundant in the Late Glacial, often minerogenic-rich, like the lake sediments of Scandinavian lak ... Read »


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  • What Else?

    • Climate

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