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    Building materials

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    • Buildings and structures by construction material

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    • Aluminium composite panels

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    • Artificial stone

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    • Asphalt

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    • Bricks

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    • Building automation

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    • Building stone

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    • Building materials companies

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    • Composite materials

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    • Concrete

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    • Doors

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    • Electrical systems

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    • Fasteners

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    • Glass architecture

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    • Hemp

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    • Building insulation materials

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    • Metals

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    • Moisture protection

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    • Pavements

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    • Plastering

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    • Plastics

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    • Plumbing

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    • Rammed earth

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    • Recycled building materials

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    • Reflective building components

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    • Road construction materials

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    • Roof tiles

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    • Sand

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    • Soil-based building materials

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    • Terracotta

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    • Thermoplastics

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    • Tiling

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    • Walls

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    • Wood

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    • Building material

    • Building material is any material which is used for construction purposes. Many naturally occurring substances, such as clay, rocks, sand, and wood, even twigs and leaves, have been used to construct buildings. Apart from naturally occurring materials, many man-made products are in use, some more and some less syntheti ... Read »


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    • List of building materials

    • This is a List of building materials. Many types of Building materials are used in the building and construction industry to create buildings and structures. These categories of materials and products are used by architects and construction project managers to specify the materials and methods used for building projec ... Read »


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    • Alternative natural materials

    • Alternative natural materials is a general term that describes natural materials like rock or adobe that are not as commonly in use as materials such as wood or iron. Alternative natural materials have many practical uses in areas such as sustainable architecture and engineering. The main purpose of using such material ... Read »


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    • Akoustolith

    • Akoustolith is a porous ceramic material resembling stone. It was used to limit acoustic reflection and noise in large vaulted ceilings. The most prevalent use was to aid speech intelligibility in cathedrals and churches prior to the widespread use of public address systems. Akoustolith was bonded as an additional laye ... Read »


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    • Anthropic rock

    • Anthropic rock is rock that is made, modified and moved by humans. Concrete is the most widely known example of this. The new category has been proposed to recognise that man-made rocks are likely to last for long periods of Earth's future geological time, and will be important in humanity's long-term future. Hist ... Read »


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    • Architectural ironmongery

    • Architectural ironmongery is the manufacture and wholesale distribution of items made from iron, steel, aluminium, brass, or other metals, as well as plastics, for use in all types of buildings. Such items, sometimes also described as architectural hardware, include door handles, locks, closers and hinges ("door furnit ... Read »


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    • Architectural metals

    • Metals used for architectural purposes include lead, for water pipes, roofing, and windows; tin, formed into tinplate; zinc, copper and aluminium, in a range of applications including roofing and decoration; and iron, which has structural and other uses in the form of cast iron or wrought iron, or made into steel. Meta ... Read »


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    • Artex

    • Artex is a surface coating used for interior decorating, most often found on ceilings, which allows the decorator to add a texture to it. The name Artex is a trademark of Artex Ltd., a company based in the United Kingdom. The name is a genericised trademark often used to refer to similar products from other manufacture ... Read »


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    • Artificial stone

    • Artificial stone is a name for various kinds of synthetic stone products used from the 18th century onward. As well as artistic uses, they have been used in building construction, civil engineering work, and industrial uses such as grindstones. One of the earliest was Lithodipyra (also called Coade stone), a ceram ... Read »


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    • Asbestos cement

    • The name fibro is short for "fibrous (or fibre) cement sheet", more commonly called "asbestos cement sheet" or "AC sheet". It is a building material in which asbestos fibres are used to reinforce thin rigid cement sheets. Although fibro was used in a number of countries, it was in Australia where its use was the most ... Read »


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    • Asbestos shingle

    • Asbestos shingles are roof or wall shingles made with asbestos cement board. They often resemble slate shingles and were mass-produced during the 20th century as these were more resilient to weathering than tradition slate shingles for the reason that slate is very soft and prone to weathering. Due to health risks of a ... Read »


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    • Asphalt concrete

    • Asphalt concrete (commonly called asphalt,blacktop, or pavement in North America, and tarmac or bitumen macadam in Great Britain and Ireland) is a composite material commonly used to surface roads, parking lots, and airports. It consists of mineral aggregate bound together with asphalt, laid in layers, and compacted. T ... Read »


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    • Asphalt roll roofing

    • Asphalt roll roofing or membrane is a roofing material commonly used for buildings that feature a low sloped roof pitch in North America. The material is based on the same materials used in asphalt shingles; an organic felt or fiberglass mat, saturated with asphalt, and faced with granular stone aggregate. Roll ... Read »


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    • Avonite

    • Avonite Studio collection is a polyester solid surface material. Avonite Foundations collection is an acrylic solid surface material. Both Avonite series are solid surfaces that have a textured granite or gemstone look manufactured by the company Avonite Surfaces and Aristech Acrylics LLC. Avonite resembles stone, wi ... Read »


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    • Bamboo

    • Bamboo

      The bamboos i/bæmˈbuː/ are a subfamily (Bambusoideae) of flowering perennial evergreen plants in the grass family Poaceae. Giant bamboos are the largest members of the grass family. In bamboo, the internodal regions of the stem are usually hollow and the vascular bundles in the cross section are scattered thr ... Read »


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    • Bamboo construction

    • Bamboo can be utilized as a building material as for scaffolding, bridges and houses. Bamboo, like true wood, is a natural composite material with a high strength-to-weight ratio useful for structures. Bamboo has a higher compressive strength than wood, brick or concrete and a tensile strength that rivals steel. Bambo ... Read »


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    • Barnstar

    • A barnstar (or barn star, primitive star, or Pennsylvania star) is a decorative painted object or image, often in the shape of a five-pointed star but occasionally in a circular "wagon wheel" style, used to adorn a barn in some parts of the United States, and many rural homes in Canada. They have no structural purpose, ... Read »


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    • Barrier cable

    • Barrier cable is a vehicular or pedestrian restraint system used in parking garages. It installed along the ramps or around the perimeter of the parking structure. It consists of a 0.5-inch, 7-wire steel strand which is similar to the strand used in Post-tensioned concrete. There are three types of barrier cables ... Read »


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    • Batten

    • Batten has multiple meanings in construction and shipbuilding but is generally a strip of solid material, historically made from wood but can also be made from plastic, metal, or fiberglass. In a sense used in flooring a batten may be relatively large, up to 2.5 inches (6.4 cm) thick by 7 inches (18 cm) wide and ... Read »


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    • Beaverboard

    • Beaverboard (also beaver board) is a fiberboard building material, formed of wood fibre compressed into sheets. It was originally a trademark. It has occasionally been used as a canvas by artists; most famously, the iconic painting American Gothic (1930) by Grant Wood is painted on a beaverboard panel. ... Read »


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    • Bioasphalt

    • Bioasphalt is an asphalt alternative made from non-petroleum based renewable resources. These sources include sugar, and rice, corn and potato starches, natural tree and gum resins, natural latex rubber and vegetable oils, lignin, cellulose, palm oil waste, coconut waste, peanut oil waste, canola oil waste, dried sew ... Read »


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    • Biocidal natural building material

    • A biocidal natural building material is a natural building material which has biocidal properties. The biocidal properties of biocidal natural building materials are inherent to the material, rather than being supplemented afterwards. This makes that the material is long lasting and inexpensive, as no additional proces ... Read »


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    • Biorock

    • Biorock, also known as Seacrete or Seament, is a trademark name used by Biorock, Inc. to refer to the substance formed by electro-accumulation of minerals dissolved in seawater. Prof. Wolf Hilbertz developed the process and patented it in 1979. The building process, popularly called , is not to be confused with Biorock ... Read »


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    • Bituminous waterproofing

    • Bituminous waterproofing systems are designed to protect residential and commercial buildings. Bitumen (asphalt or coal-tar pitch) is a mixed substance made up of organic liquids that are highly sticky, viscous, and waterproof. These systems are sometimes used to construct roofs, in the form of roofing felt or roll roo ... Read »


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    • Bottle wall


    • Brick

    • A brick is building material used to make walls, pavements and other elements in masonry construction. Traditionally, the term brick referred to a unit composed of clay, but it is now used to denote any rectangular units laid in mortar. A brick can be composed of clay-bearing soil, sand, and lime, or concrete materials ... Read »


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    • Building diagnostics

    • Building diagnostics is the process of determining the causes and solutions to problems in buildings. More specifically, building diagnostics are holistic process of data collection methods and techniques regarding inspection and analysis, and of future prediction of faults/abnormality/defects in the condition, interna ... Read »


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    • Building insulation

    • Building insulation refers broadly to any object in a building used as insulation for any purpose. While the majority of insulation in buildings is for thermal purposes, the term also applies to acoustic insulation, fire insulation, and impact insulation (e.g. for vibrations caused by industrial applications). Often an ... Read »


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    • Building insulation materials

    • Building insulation materials are the building materials which form the thermal envelope of a building or otherwise reduce heat transfer. Insulation may be categorized by its composition (natural or synthetic materials), form (batts, blankets, loose-fill, spray foam, and panels), structural contribution (insulating co ... Read »


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    • Building supplies

    • Building material is any material which is used for construction purposes. Many naturally occurring substances, such as clay, rocks, sand, and wood, even twigs and leaves, have been used to construct buildings. Apart from naturally occurring materials, many man-made products are in use, some more and some less syntheti ... Read »


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    • Building-integrated photovoltaics

    • Building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) are photovoltaic materials that are used to replace conventional building materials in parts of the building envelope such as the roof, skylights, or facades. They are increasingly being incorporated into the construction of new buildings as a principal or ancillary source of el ... Read »


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    • Bullnose

    • Bullnose is a term used in building construction for rounded convex trim, particularly in masonry and ceramic tile. Bullnose trim is used to provide a smooth, rounded edge for countertops, staircasesteps, building corners, verandahs, or other construction. Masonry units such as bricks, concrete masonry units or stru ... Read »


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    • Bungaroosh

    • Bungaroosh (also spelt bungeroosh,bungarouche,bungarooge, bunglarooge,bunglarouge and other variations) is a composite building material used almost exclusively in the English seaside resort of Brighton and its attached neighbour Hove between the mid-18th and late 19th centuries, when it grew from a fishing village int ... Read »


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    • Burmantofts Pottery

    • Burmantofts Pottery was the common trading name of a manufacturer of ceramic pipes and construction materials, named after the Burmantofts district of Leeds, England, United Kingdom. The business began in 1859 when fire clay was discovered in a coal mine owned by William Wilcock and John Lassey. In 1863 Lassey's s ... Read »


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    • Cadjan

    • Cadjan are made from coconut palm leaves, used for roofing and walls. Cadjan houses were available in many Asian countries in past, but with development these houses are now limited to very rural areas in India, Sri Lanka and a few other Asian countries. ... Read »


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    • Calcium hydroxide

    • Calcium hydroxide

      Calcium hydroxide, traditionally called slaked lime, is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ca(OH)2. It is a colorless crystal or white powder and is obtained when calcium oxide (called lime or quicklime) is mixed, or "" with water. It has many names including hydrated lime, caustic lime, builders' lime, sl ... Read »


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    • Cast iron

    • Cast iron is a group of iron-carbon alloys with a carbon content greater than 2%. Its usefulness derives from its relatively low melting temperature. The alloy constituents affect its colour when fractured: white cast iron has carbide impurities which allow cracks to pass straight through; grey cast iron has graphite f ... Read »


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    • Cast stone

    • Cast stone is a concrete masonry product simulating natural-cut stone and is used in architectural applications. Cast stone is used for architectural features: trim, or ornament; facing buildings or other structures; and for garden ornaments. Cast stone can be made from white and/or grey cements, manufactured or natura ... Read »


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    • Caulking

    • Caulking is both the processes and material (also called sealant) to seal joints or seams in various structures and some types of piping. The oldest form of caulking is used to make the seams in wooden boats or ships watertight, by driving fibrous materials into the wedge-shaped seams between boards. A related process ... Read »


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    • Cellulose insulation

    • The word cellulose comes from the French word cellule, for a living cell, and glucose, which is sugar. Building insulation is low-thermal-conductivity material used to reduce building heat loss and gain, and reduce noise transmission. Cellulose insulation is plant fiber used in wall and roof cavities to insulate, draug ... Read »


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    • Cement

    • A cement is a binder, a substance used in construction that sets and hardens and can bind other materials together. The most important types of cement are used as a component in the production of mortar in masonry, and of concrete, which is a combination of cement and an aggregate to form a strong building material. C ... Read »


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    • Cement board

    • A cement board is a combination of cement and reinforcing fibers formed into 4 foot by 8 foot sheets (or 3 foot by 5 foot sheets), 1/4 to 1/2 inch thick that are typically used as a tile backing board. Cement board can be nailed or screwed to wood or steel studs to create a substrate for vertical tile and attached h ... Read »


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    • Cement render

    • Cement rendering is the application of a premixed layer of sand and cement to brick, cement, stone, or mud brick. It is often textured, colored, or painted after application. It is generally used on exterior walls but can be used to feature an interior wall. Depending on the 'look' required, rendering can be fine or c ... Read »


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    • Cement tile

    • Cement tiles or hydraulic tiles are handmade colourful tiles used as floor coverings. They appeared in Catalonia in the 1850s, and have been widely used in Europe and America. They are mostly known throughout the world as encaustic cement tile. Like their predecessors, encaustic clay tiles, they derive their name from ... Read »


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    • Cement-bonded wood fiber

    • Cement-bonded wood fiber is a composite material manufactured throughout the world. It is made from wood (usually waste wood), chipped into a specially graded aggregate that is then mineralized and combined with portland cement. Cement-bonded wood fiber is used to manufacture a wide variety of products primarily for t ... Read »


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    • Cementitious

    • Any of various building materials which may be mixed with a liquid, such as water, to form a cement base substance, and to which an aggregate may be added; includes cements, limes, and mortar ... Read »


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    • Cementitious foam insulation

    • Cementitious foam insulation is a cement-based thermal and acoustic insulation, with an R-value which is similar to that of fiberglass It is installed as a foam with a consistency like shaving cream, or as pre-cast slabs. The current cost is similar to that of polyurethane foams. Unlike many foam-in-place polyurethane ... Read »


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    • Cemesto

    • Cemesto is a sturdy, light-weight, waterproof and fire-resistant composite building material made from a core of sugar cane fiber insulating board surfaced on both sides with asbestos and cement. Its name is a portmanteau word combining "cem" from "cement" and "esto" from "asbestos." A type of prefabricated home using ... Read »


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    • CEN/TC 125


    • Cenocell

    • Cenocell is a patented concrete material that is manufactured without the addition of Portland cement. It is produced from a chemical reaction involving fly ash with organic and inorganic chemicals. It was invented by Mulalo Doyoyo and Paul Biju-Duval at the Georgia Institute of Technology. It is generally known as "ce ... Read »


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    • Certified wood

    • Certified wood and paper products come from responsibly managed forests – as defined by a particular standard. With third-party forest certification, an independent organization develops standards of good forest management, and independent auditors issue certificates to forest operations that comply with those sta ... Read »


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    • Chinese glazed roof tile

    • Glazed tiles (Chinese: 琉璃瓦) have been used in China since the Zhou Dynasty (c. 1046 – 256 BC) as a material for roofs. During the Song Dynasty, the manufacture of glazed tiles was standardized in Li Jie's Architecture Standard. In the Ming Dynasty and Qing Dynasty, glazed tiles became ever more ... Read »


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    • Chipseal

    • Chipseal (also chip seal) is a pavement surface treatment that combines one or more layer(s) of asphalt with one or more layer(s) of fine aggregate. In the United States, chipseals are typically used on rural roads carrying lower traffic volumes, and the process is often referred to as "asphaltic surface treatment". In ... Read »


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    • Cladding (construction)

    • Cladding is the application of one material over another to provide skin or layer intended to control the infiltration of weather elements, or for aesthetic purposes. Cladding does not necessarily have to provide a waterproof condition but is instead a control element. This control element may only serve to safely dire ... Read »


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    • Clapboard (architecture)

    • Clapboard a United States of America style of cladding, also called bevel siding, lap siding, and weatherboard, with regional variation in the definition of these terms, is wooden siding of a building in the form of horizontal boards, often overlapping. Clapboard in modern (American English) usage is a word for lo ... Read »


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    • Cold-formed steel

    • Cold-formed steel (CFS) is the common term for products made by rolling or pressing steel into semi-finished or finished goods at relatively low temperatures (cold working). Cold-formed steel goods are created by the working of steel billet, bar, or sheet using stamping, rolling (including roll forming), or presses to ... Read »


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    • Composite construction

    • Composite construction is a generic term to describe any building construction involving multiple dissimilar materials. Composite construction is often used in building aircraft, watercraft, and building construction. There are several reasons to use composite materials including increased strength, aesthetics, and env ... Read »


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    • Composite lumber

    • Composite lumber is a material that is a mixture of wood fiber, plastic, and some type of binding agent. These ingredients are put together to form a material that is denser, stronger, and heavier than wood alone, a wood-plastic composite. Until the 1990s, wood was the material of choice for deck construction. How ... Read »


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    • Concrete

    • Concrete is a composite material composed of coarse aggregate bonded together with a fluid cement that hardens over time. Most concretes used are lime-based concretes such as Portland cement concrete or concretes made with other hydraulic cements, such as ciment fondu. However, asphalt concrete, which is frequently use ... Read »


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    • Concrete sealer

    • Concrete sealers are applied to concrete to protect it from surface damage, corrosion, and staining. They either block the pores in the concrete to reduce absorption of water and salts or form an impermeable layer which prevents such materials from passing. Research from major concrete authorities, including American ... Read »


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    • Construction aggregate

    • Construction aggregate, or simply "aggregate", is a broad category of coarse particulate material used in construction, including sand, gravel, crushed stone, slag, recycled concrete and geosynthetic aggregates. Aggregates are the most mined materials in the world. Aggregates are a component of composite materials su ... Read »


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    • Construction waste

    • Construction waste consists of unwanted material produced directly or incidentally by the construction or industries. This includes building materials such as insulation, nails, electrical wiring, shingle, and roofing as well as waste originating from site preparation such as dredging materials, tree stumps, and rubble ... Read »


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    • Copper cladding

    • There are four main techniques used today in the UK and mainland Europe for copper cladding a building: When selecting size of a cladding element, take wind-loadings into account, and also consider the standard sizes available of the sheet (or coil) pre-material, to minimise material wastage through off-cuts. This hel ... Read »


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    • Corn construction

    • Corn construction refers to the use of corn (maize) in construction. The tassel, leaf, silk, cob in husks, and the stalk are the parts of corn. According to the Michigan Department of Agriculture, "corn can be made into fuel, abrasives, solvents, charcoal, animal feed, bedding for animals, insulation, adhesives, and mo ... Read »


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    • Corrugated galvanised iron

    • Corrugated galvanised iron or steel (colloquially corrugated iron (near universal), wriggly tin (taken from UK military slang), pailing (in Caribbean English), corrugated sheet metal (in North America) and occasionally abbreviated CGI) is a building material composed of sheets of hot-dip galvanised mild steel, cold-rol ... Read »


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    • Crushed stone

    • Crushed stone or angular rock is a form of construction aggregate, typically produced by mining a suitable rock deposit and breaking the removed rock down to the desired size using crushers. It is distinct from gravel which is produced by natural processes of weathering and erosion, and typically has a more rounded sha ... Read »


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    • Deconstruction (building)

    • In the context of physical construction, deconstruction is the selective dismantlement of building components, specifically for re-use, repurposing, recycling, and waste management. It differs from demolition where a site is cleared of its building by the most expedient means. Deconstruction has also been defined as â ... Read »


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    • Dimension stone

    • Dimension stone is natural stone or rock that has been selected and finished (i.e., trimmed, cut, drilled, ground, or other) to specific sizes or shapes. Color, texture and pattern, and surface finish of the stone are also normal requirements. Another important selection criterion is durability: the time measure of the ... Read »


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    • Donnybrook stone

    • Donnybrook stone is a fine to medium-grained feldspathic and kaolinitic sandstone found near the town of Donnybrook, Western Australia. It originates from the early Cretaceous (144-132 MYA) and features shale partings and colour variations which range from white to beige and pink. Donnybrook stone is used as dimension ... Read »


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    • Double glazing

    • Insulating glass (IG), more commonly known as double glazing (or double-pane, and increasingly triple glazing/pane), consists of two or three glass window panes separated by a vacuum or gas filled space to reduce heat transfer across a part of the building envelope. Insulating glass units (IGUs) are manufactured with ... Read »


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    • Dry mortar production line

    • Dry mortar production line (or dry mortar machine) is a set of machinery that produces dry mortar (also known as dry premixed mortar or hydraulicity cement mortar) for construction industry and other uses. It is mainly composed of elevator, premix bin, stock bin, mixing engine, finished product warehouse, packer, dust ... Read »


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    • Dry stone

    • Dry stone (also called drystack) is a building method by which structures are constructed from stones without any mortar to bind them together. Dry stone structures are stable because of their unique construction method, which is characterized by the presence of a load-bearing façade of carefully selected interlocki ... Read »


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    • Drywall

    • Drywall (also known as plasterboard, wallboard, gypsum panel, sheet rock, or gypsum board) is a panel made of calcium sulfate dihydrate (gypsum) with or without additives and normally pressed between a facer and a backer (typically thick sheets of paper). It is used to make interior walls and ceilings. The plaster is m ... Read »


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    • Earth structure

    • An earth structure is a building or other structure made largely from soil. Since soil is a widely available material, it has been used in construction since prehistoric times. It may be combined with other materials, compressed and/or baked to add strength. Soil is still an economical material for many applications, a ... Read »


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    • Eco-Block

    • Eco-Block, which was invented by the Hong Kong Polytechnic University in 2006, is an environmental friendly brick made from recycled materials and construction waste. The major feature of Eco-Block is to catalyze the nitrogen oxide and other pollutants in air into non-hazardous substances. Eco-Block has been mainly use ... Read »


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    • Eco-cement

    • Eco-Cement is a brand-name for a type of cement which incorporates reactive magnesia (sometimes called caustic calcined magnesia or magnesium oxide, MgO), another hydraulic cement such as Portland cement, and optionally pozzolans and industrial by-products, to reduce the environmental impact relative to conventional ce ... Read »


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    • Energetically modified cement

    • Energetically modified cements (EMC) are a class of cementitious materials made from pozzolans (e.g. fly ash, volcanic ash, pozzolana), silica sand, blast furnace slag, or Portland cement (or blends of these ingredients). The term "energetically modified cement" (abbreviated as "EMC" or "EMC cement") refers to a c ... Read »


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    • Engineered cementitious composite

    • Engineered Cementitious Composite (ECC), also called bendable concrete, is an easily molded mortar-based composite reinforced with specially selected short random fibers, usually polymer fibers. Unlike regular concrete, ECC has a strain capacity in the range of 3–7%, compared to 0.01% for ordinary portland cement ... Read »


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    • Engineered wood

    • Engineered wood, also called composite wood, man-made wood, or manufactured board, includes a range of derivative wood products which are manufactured by binding or fixing the strands, particles, fibres, or veneers or boards of wood, together with adhesives, or other methods of fixation to form composite materials. The ... Read »


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    • Enviroboard

    • Enviroboard is a paper-like or cardboard-like construction and packaging material, generally manufactured using compressed, ecologically safe, agricultural material. Most often this means employing the use of high-cellulose waste fibres, such as the post-harvest straw of rice, barley, wheat, and elephant grass or alter ... Read »


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    • Eternit

    • Eternit is a registered trademark for fibre cement. The name "Eternit" is sometimes used as a generic term for fibre cement, but in fact it is a trademark for a brand of fibre cement, currently owned by the Belgian company Etex. Fibre is often applied in building and construction materials, mainly in roofing and facade ... Read »


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    • ETFE

    • ETFE

      Ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) is a fluorine-based plastic. It was designed to have high corrosion resistance and strength over a wide temperature range. ETFE is a polymer and its source-based name is poly(ethene-co-tetrafluoroethene). ETFE has a relatively high melting temperature, excellent chemical, electrical ... Read »


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    • Expanded metal

    • Expanded metal is a type of metal which has been squeezed and stretched to form a diamond pattern of metal wire-like material. This material is commonly used for walkways and fences. Expanded metal is stronger than wire because the material is flattened allowing the metal to stay solid. The other benefit to expande ... Read »


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    • Exterior insulation finishing system

    • Exterior insulation and finish system (EIFS) is a general class of non-load bearing building cladding systems that provides exterior walls with an insulated, water-resistant, finished surface in an integrated composite material system. In Europe, systems similar to EIFS are known as External Wall Insulation System (EWI ... Read »


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    • Felt

    • Felt is a textile that is produced by matting, condensing and pressing fibers together. Felt can be made of natural fibers such as wool, or from synthetic fibers such as petroleum-based acrylic or acrylonitrile or wood pulp-based rayon. Blended fibers are also common. Felt from wool is considered to be the oldest ... Read »


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    • Ferrocement

    • Ferrocement or ferro-cement (also called thin-shell concrete or ferro-concrete) is a system of reinforced mortar or plaster (lime or cement, sand and water) applied over layer of metal mesh, woven expanded-metal or metal-fibers and closely spaced thin steel rods such as rebar, metal commonly used is iron or some type o ... Read »


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    • Fiber cement siding

    • Fiber cement siding (or "fibre cement cladding" in the UK and Australia) is a building material used to cover the exterior of a building in both commercial and domestic applications. Fiber cement is a composite material made of sand, cement and cellulose fibers. In appearance fiber cement siding most often consist ... Read »


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    • Fiber roll

    • A fiber roll is a temporary erosion control and sediment control device used on construction sites to protect water quality in nearby streams, rivers, lakes and seas from sediment erosion. It is made of straw, coconut fiber or similar material formed into a tubular roll. Each horizontal contour level row of fiber ... Read »


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    • Fiber-reinforced concrete

    • Fiber-reinforced concrete (FRC) is concrete containing fibrous material which increases its structural integrity. It contains short discrete fibers that are uniformly distributed and randomly oriented. Fibers include steel fibers, glass fibers, synthetic fibers and natural fibers – each of which lend varying prope ... Read »


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    • Fiberboard

    • Fiberboard (American spelling) or fibreboard (Commonwealth spelling) is a type of engineered wood product that is made out of wood fibers. Types of fiberboard (in order of increasing density) include particle board, medium-density fiberboard (MDF), and hardboard. Fiberboard is sometimes used as a synonym for particle ... Read »


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    • Fiberglass reinforced plastic grating

    • Fiberglass reinforced plastic grating (also known as FRP grating, glass reinforced plastic grating or fiberglass grating) is a composite material manufactured by combining a matrix of resin and fiberglass. Fiberglass grating does not corrode like steel grating and is therefore used in corrosive environments to reduce m ... Read »


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    • Fibre cement

    • Fibre cement is a composite building and construction material, used mainly in roofing and facade products because of its strength and durability. The term "cement" originates from the Latin word "Caementum", which signifies chopped stone. Cement describes a substance, which will react chemically with water and de ... Read »


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    • Fill dirt

    • Fill dirt is earthy material which is used to fill in a depression or hole in the ground or create mounds or otherwise artificially change the grade or elevation of real property. Fill dirt is usually subsoil (soil from beneath the top soil) and underlying soil parent material which has little soil organic matter or b ... Read »


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    • Firestop

    • A firestop is a fire protection system made of various components used to seal openings and joints in fire-resistance rated wall or floor assemblies. For penetrating cables, these can also be called as Multi Cable Transits (MCTs). Firestops are designed to restore the continuous fire-resistance of wall or floor assembl ... Read »


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    • Flashing (weatherproofing)

    • Flashing refers to thin pieces of impervious material installed to prevent the passage of water into a structure from a joint or as part of a weather resistant barrier (WRB) system. The origin of flash and flashing are uncertain, but may come from the Middle English verb flasshen, 'to sprinkle, splash', related to ... Read »


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    • Floating floor

    • A floating floor is a floor that does not need to be nailed or glued to the subfloor. The term floating floor refers to the installation method, but is often used synonymously with laminate flooring but is applied now to other coverings such as floating tile systems and vinyl flooring in a domestic context. A sprung f ... Read »


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    • Floating tile flooring

    • Floating tile flooring, also called modular tile flooring, includes a range of porcelain and ceramic tile products that can be installed without adhesive or mortar. Generally, the tile is rectified to precise dimensions, and fused to an interlocking base. Some products require use of a flexible grout and others have an ... Read »


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    • Floor

    • A floor is the bottom surface of a room or vehicle. Floors vary from in a cave to many-layered surfaces modern technology. Floors may be stone, wood, bamboo, metal, or any other material that can support the expected load. The levels of a building are often referred to as floors although a more proper term is story o ... Read »


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    • Foam concrete

    • Foam concrete, also known as foamed concrete, foamcrete, cellular lightweight concrete or reduced density concrete, is defined as a cement based slurry, with a minimum of 20% (per volume) foam entrained into the plastic mortar. As mostly no coarse aggregate is used for production of foam concrete the correct term would ... Read »


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    • Foam glass

    • Foam glass is a porous glass foam material. Its advantages as a building material include its light weight, high strength and its thermal and acoustic insulating properties. It is made by heating a mixture of crushed or granulated glass and a blowing agent (chemical foaming agent) such as carbon or limestone. Near the ... Read »


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    • Foaming agent

    • A foaming agent is a material that facilitates formation of foam such as a surfactant or a blowing agent. A surfactant, when present in small amounts, reduces surface tension of a liquid (reduces the work needed to create the foam) or increases its colloidal stability by inhibiting coalescence of bubbles. A blowing age ... Read »


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    • Formstone

    • Formstone is a type of stucco commonly applied to brick rowhouses in many East Coast urban areas in the United States, although it is most strongly associated with Baltimore. Formstone is commonly colored and shaped on the building to imitate various forms of masonry compound, creating the trompe l'oeil appearance of r ... Read »


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    • Formwork

    • Formwork is the term given to either temporary or permanent molds into which concrete or similar materials are poured. In the context of concrete construction, the falsework supports the shuttering molds. Formwork comes in several types: Some of the earliest examples of concrete slabs were built by Roman engineer ... Read »


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    • Furring

    • In construction, furring (furring strips) are thin strips of wood or other material to level or raise surfaces of another material to prevent dampness, to make space for insulation, or to level and resurface ceilings or walls. Furring refers to the process of installing the strips and to the strips themselves. "Firring ... Read »


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    • Gabion

    • A gabion (from Italian gabbione meaning "big cage"; from Italian gabbia and Latin cavea meaning "cage") is a cage, cylinder, or box filled with rocks, concrete, or sometimes sand and soil for use in civil engineering, road building, military applications and landscaping. For erosion control, caged riprap is used. For ... Read »


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    • Geofoam

    • Geofoam is expanded polystyrene (EPS) or extruded polystyrene (XPS) manufactured into large lightweight blocks. The blocks vary in size but are often 2 m × 0.75 m × 0.75 m (6.6 ft × 2.5 ft × 2.5 ft). The primary function of geofoam is to provide a lightweight void fill below a ... Read »


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    • Geomembrane

    • A geomembrane is very low permeability synthetic membrane liner or barrier used with any geotechnical engineering related material so as to control fluid (or gas) migration in a human-made project, structure, or system. Geomembranes are made from relatively thin continuous polymeric sheets, but they can also be made fr ... Read »


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    • Geopolymer

    • Geopolymers are inorganic, typically ceramic, materials that form long-range, covalently bonded, non-crystalline (amorphous) networks. Obsidian is an example of naturally occurring geopolymer. Commercially produced geopolymers may be used for fire- and heat-resistant coatings and adhesives, medicinal applications, high ... Read »


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    • Geotextile

    • Geotextiles are permeable fabrics which, when used in association with soil, have the ability to separate, filter, reinforce, protect, or drain. Typically made from polypropylene or polyester, geotextile fabrics come in three basic forms: woven (resembling mail bag sacking), needle punched (resembling felt), or heat bo ... Read »


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    • GigaCrete

    • GigaCrete refers to a family of green building products based on proprietary non-silica, non-toxic, non-combustible, cementitious, mineral-based binders commixed with filler materials that may include coal ash, non-silica-based sands, agricultural waste fibers, and/or post-industrial recycled materials. GigaCrete buil ... Read »


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    • Glass brick

    • Glass brick, also known as glass block, is an architectural element made from glass. Glass bricks provide visual obscuration while admitting light. The glass block was originally developed in the early 1900s to provide natural light in manufacturing plants. Glass bricks are produced for both wall and floor application ... Read »


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    • Glassphalt

    • Glassphalt (also spelled "glasphalt") is a variety of asphalt that uses crushed glass. It has been used as an alternative to conventional bituminous asphalt pavement since the early 1970s. Glassphalt must be properly mixed and placed if it is to meet roadway pavement standards, requiring some modifications to generally ... Read »


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    • Glazed architectural terra-cotta

    • Glazed architectural terra-cotta is a ceramic masonry building material used as a decorative skin. It has been popular in the United States from the late 19th century until the 1930s, and still one of the most common building materials found in U.S. urban environments. It is the glazed version of architectural terra-co ... Read »


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    • Grout

    • Grout is a particularly fluid form of concrete used to fill gaps. It is used in pressure grouting, construction to embed rebars in masonry walls, connect sections of pre-cast concrete, fill voids, and seal joints such as those between tiles. Grout is generally a mixture of water, cement, sand, often color tint, and som ... Read »


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    • Guastavino tile

    • Guastavino tile is the "Tile Arch System" patented in the United States in 1885 by Valencian (Spanish) architect and builder Rafael Guastavino (1842–1908). Guastavino vaulting is a technique for constructing robust, self-supporting arches and architectural vaults using interlocking terracotta tiles and layers ... Read »


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    • Gypsum block

    • Gypsum block is a massive lightweight building material composed of solid gypsum, for building and erecting lightweight fire-resistant non-load bearing interior walls, partition walls, cavity walls, skin walls and pillar casing indoors. Gypsum blocks are composed of gypsum plaster, water and in some cases additives lik ... Read »


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    • Hard landscape materials

    • The term hard landscape is used by practitioners of landscape architecture and garden design to describe the construction materials which are used to improve a landscape by design. The corresponding term soft landscape materials is used to describe vegetative materials such as plants, grasses, shrubs, trees etc. to imp ... Read »


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    • Harl

    • In Scottish usage, harling describes an exterior building-surfacing technique which results in a long-lasting weatherproof shield for a stone building. A pigment can be embedded in the harled material, thus obviating the need for repainting. Harling as a technique provides the surface of many Scottish castles, but it i ... Read »


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    • Hempcrete

    • Hempcrete or Hemplime is bio-composite material, a mixture of hemp hurds (shives) and lime (possibly including natural hydraulic lime,sand, pozzolans) used as a material for construction and insulation. It is marketed under names like Hempcrete, Canobiote, Canosmose, and Isochanvre. Hempcrete is easier to work with tha ... Read »


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    • Hollow-core slab

    • A hollow core slab, also known as a voided slab, hollow core plank or simply a concrete plank is a precast slab of prestressed concrete typically used in the construction of floors in multi-story apartment buildings. The slab has been especially popular in countries where the emphasis of home construction has been on p ... Read »


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    • Housewrap

    • Housewrap generally denotes a synthetic material used to protect buildings. Housewrap is a replacement for the older asphalt-treated paper, or asphalt saturated felt. These materials are all lighter in weight and usually wider than asphalt designs, so contractors can apply the material much faster to a house shell. Hou ... Read »


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    • Hummelstown brownstone

    • Hummelstown brownstone is a medium-grain, dense sandstone quarried near Hummelstown in Dauphin County, Pennsylvania, USA. It is a dark brownstone with reddish to purplish hues, and was once widely used as a building stone in the United States. The Hummelstown Brownstone Company quarried high quality brownstone near Hu ... Read »


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    • Hybrid wood

    • Hybrid wood or wood hybrid systems (WHS) is a multilayer composite material, composed on the surface of a skin made of composite wood (WPC) adhering to an underneath structural core, in general aluminum. Invented in Japan in 2008, this technological evolution is based on wood composite technology which was conceived in ... Read »


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    • Hydraulic lime

    • Hydraulic lime (HL) is a general term for varieties of lime (calcium oxide), or slaked lime (calcium hydroxide), used to make lime mortar which set through hydration: thus they are called hydraulic. The other common types of lime mortar set through carbonation (re-absorbing carbon dioxide (CO2) from the air) and are so ... Read »


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    • Hyparrhenia hirta

    • Hyparrhenia hirta

      Hyparrhenia hirta is a species of grass known by the common names common thatching grass and Coolatai grass. It is native to much of Africa and Eurasia, and it is known on other continents as an introduced species. In eastern Australia it is a tenacious noxious weed. In South Africa, where it is native, it is very comm ... Read »


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    • I-joist

    • An engineered wood joist, more commonly known as an I-joist, is a product designed to eliminate problems that occur with conventional wood joists. Invented in 1969, the I-joist is an engineered wood product that has great strength in relation to its size and weight. The biggest notable difference from dimensional lumbe ... Read »


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    • Innowood

    • Innowood

      Innowood Australia Pty Ltd is an Australian company which manufactures engineered wood. The company's founder, John Kozlowski, invented the Innowood product which is a composite reconstituted wood based material primarily made of timber used for internal and external applications. It is made from recycled wood waste a ... Read »


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    • Insulating concrete form

    • Insulating concrete form or insulated concrete form (ICF) is a system of formwork for reinforced concrete usually made with a rigid thermal insulation that stays in place as a permanent interior and exterior substrate for walls, floors, and roofs. The forms are interlocking modular units that are dry-stacked (without m ... Read »


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    • Insulated siding

    • Insulated siding is home siding that includes rigid foam insulation, fused behind the exterior surface of the wall, for the purpose of reducing energy consumption, increasing the insulation value of the wall system and improving the stability and appearance of the siding. Currently, insulated siding is commercially ava ... Read »


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    • Iron

    • Iron,  26Fe

      Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from Latin: ferrum) and atomic number 26. It is a metal in the first transition series. It is by mass the most common element on Earth, forming much of Earth's outer and inner core. It is the fourth most common element in the Earth's crust. Its abundance in rocky planets like ... Read »


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    • IS 456

    • IS 456-2000 Plain and Reinforced Concrete - Code of Practice is an Indian Standard code of practice for general structural use of plain and reinforced concrete. The latest revision of this standard was done in year 2000, reaffirmed 2005. This code uses the limit state design approach as well working stress design appro ... Read »


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    • Jesmonite

    • Jesmonite is a composite material used in fine arts, crafts, and construction. It consists of a gypsum-based material in an acrylic resin. Jesmonite is a versatile material and is used in several ways. It is typically used for creating sculptures and other three-dimensional works, but can be used with other materi ... Read »


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    • Johnson bar

    • A Johnson bar (also Johnson corrugated bar) is a type of corrugated high-carbon steelrebar used to reinforce concrete. The Johnson bar was invented by A.L. Johnson of the St. Louis Expanded Metal Company. Its specific efficacy comes from having "alternate elevations and depressions to grip the concrete," with the shou ... Read »


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    • Joint compound

    • Joint compound (also known as drywall compound or Mastic) is a white powder of primarily gypsum dust mixed with water to form a mud the consistency of cake frosting, which is used with paper or fiber joint tape to seal joints between sheets of drywall to create a seamless base for paint on interior walls. It is often r ... Read »


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    • Laminated Veneer Bamboo

    • Laminated Veneer Bamboo (LVB) is a product that uses multiple layers of thin bamboo assembled with adhesives. In 2007 LVB was evaluated for structural use by ASTM International and added to its standards. The U.S. Green Building Council offers courses on the use of laminated veneer bamboo in construction projects. ... Read »


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    • Lamination paper

    • Lamination paper is a paper used for laminates. Normally on particle or fiberboards giving a good-looking and resistant surface for use as furniture, decoration panels and flooring. A laminate consists of a single or multiple layers, each having its own distinct function. The base is most often particle- or fiberb ... Read »


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    • Larssen sheet piling

    • Larssen sheet piling is a kind of sheet piling retaining wall. Segments with indented profiles (troughs) interlock to form a wall with alternating indents and outdents. The troughs increase resistance to bending. The segments are typically made of steel or another metal. Larssen sheet piling was developed in 1912 for ... Read »


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    • Laterite

    • Laterite is a soil and rock type rich in iron and aluminium, and is commonly considered to have formed in hot and wet tropical areas. Nearly all laterites are of rusty-red coloration, because of high iron oxide content. They develop by intensive and long-lasting weathering of the underlying parent rock. Tropical weathe ... Read »


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    • Lath

    • A lath or slat is a thin, narrow strip of straight-grained wood used under roof shingles or tiles, on lath and plaster walls and ceilings to hold plaster, and in lattice and trellis work. Lath has expanded to mean any type of backing material for plaster including a metal wire mesh or expanded metal that is applied to ... Read »


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    • Lime (material)

    • Lime is a calcium-containing inorganic material in which carbonates, oxides, and hydroxides predominate. In the strict sense of the term, lime is calcium oxide or calcium hydroxide. It is also the name of the natural mineral (native lime) CaO which occurs as a product of coal seam fires and in altered limestone xenolit ... Read »


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    • Lime mortar

    • Lime mortar is composed of lime and an aggregate such as sand, mixed with water. The Ancient Egyptians were the first to use lime mortars. About 6,000 years ago, they used lime to plaster the pyramids at Giza. In addition, the Egyptians also incorporated various limes into their religious temples as well as their homes ... Read »


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    • Lime plaster

    • Lime plaster is a type of plaster composed of sand, water, and lime, usually non-hydraulic hydrated lime (also known as slaked lime, high calcium lime or air lime). Ancient lime plaster often contained horse hair for reinforcement and pozzolan additives to reduce the working time. Traditional non-hydraulic hydrated li ... Read »


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    • Lime putty

    • Lime mortar is composed of lime and an aggregate such as sand, mixed with water. The Ancient Egyptians were the first to use lime mortars. About 6,000 years ago, they used lime to plaster the pyramids at Giza. In addition, the Egyptians also incorporated various limes into their religious temples as well as their homes ... Read »


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    • Lime render

    • Lime render is the first coat of lime "plaster or the like" applied to the external surfaces of traditionally-built stone or brick buildings. It allows the building to 'breathe' - as lime is porous, it allows for the collection and evaporation of moisture. Portland cement in contrast, an often applied render for stone ... Read »


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    • Lunarcrete

    • Lunarcrete, also known as "mooncrete", an idea first proposed by Larry A. Beyer of the University of Pittsburgh in 1985, is a hypothetical aggregate building material, similar to concrete, formed from lunar regolith, that would reduce the construction costs of building on the Moon. Only comparatively small amounts ... Read »


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    • Maccaferri gabion

    • A Maccaferri gabion is a name given to a type of gabion produced by the Maccaferri family. In 1893, in Casalecchio di Reno near Bologna, Italy, for the first time large amounts of wire mesh Maccaferri sack gabions were used to repair dams destroyed by a flood of the river Reno. At the beginning of the 20th century, th ... Read »


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    • Magnesium oxide wallboard

    • Magnesium oxide, more commonly called magnesia, is a versatile mineral that when used as part of a cement mixture and cast into thin cement panels under proper curing procedures and practices can be used in residential and commercial building construction. Some versions are suitable for a wide range of general building ... Read »


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    • Marmorino

    • Marmorino Veneziano is a type of plaster or stucco. It is based on calcium oxide and used for interior and exterior wall decorations. Marmorino plaster can be finished via multiple techniques for a variety of matte, satin, and glossy final effects. It was used as far back as Roman times, but was made popular once more ... Read »


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    • Martensitic stainless steel

    • Martensitic stainless steel is a specific type of stainless steel alloy. Stainless steels may be classified by their crystalline structure into three main types: austenitic, ferritic and martensitic. Martensitic stainless steels can be high- or low-carbon steels built around the Type 410 composition of iron, 12% chrom ... Read »


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    • Masonry

    • Masonry is the building of structures from individual units, which are often laid in and bound together by mortar; the term masonry can also refer to the units themselves. The common materials of masonry construction are brick, building stone such as marble, granite, travertine, and limestone, cast stone, concrete bloc ... Read »


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    • Masonry veneer

    • Masonry veneer walls consist of a single non-structural external layer of masonry work, typically made of brick or manufactured stone, which has the appearance of natural stone, but is manufactured with concrete. The innermost element is usually structural wall, and may consist of wood or metal frame within the Cavity ... Read »


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    • Mass concrete

    • Mass concrete is defined by American Concrete Institute Committee 207 as "any volume of concrete with dimensions large enough to require that measures be taken to cope with the generation of heat from hydration of cement and attendant volume change to minimize cracking." As interior temperature of mass concrete rises ... Read »


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    • MasterFormat

    • MasterFormat is a standard for organizing specifications and other written information for commercial and institutional building projects in the U.S. and Canada. Sometimes referred to as the "Dewey Decimal System" of building construction, MasterFormat is a product of the Construction Specifications Institute (CSI) and ... Read »


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    • Materiality (architecture)

    • Materiality in architecture is the concept of, or applied use of, various materials or substances in the medium of building. Material is a relative term in architectural design and so may be used to designate materials which are considered to be virtual, (such as photographs, images or text) or other materials which a ... Read »


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    • Mathematical tile

    • Mathematical tiles are a building material used extensively in the southeastern counties of England—especially East Sussex and Kent—in the 18th and early 19th centuries. They were laid on the exterior of timber-framed buildings as an alternative to brickwork, which their appearance closely resembled. A distin ... Read »


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    • Mechanical Concrete

    • Mechanical Concrete is a building material that uses stronger materials and is an advancement in geocellular confinement systems, which were pioneered by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers beginning in 1975. Geo-cylinder confinement is made by using a cylindrical segment to mechanically confine crushed stone, soils, or ... Read »


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    • Melamine resin

    • Melamine resin or melamine formaldehyde (also shortened to melamine) is a hard, thermosetting plastic material made from melamine and formaldehyde by polymerization. In its butylated form, it is dissolved in n-butanol and xylene. It is then used to cross-link with alkyd, epoxy, acrylic, and polyester resins, used in su ... Read »


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    • Mesh

    • A mesh is a barrier made of connected strands of metal, fiber, or other flexible/ductile materials. A mesh is similar to a web or a net in that it has many attached or woven strands. ... Read »


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    • Metal faced insulating sandwich panels

    • A sandwich panel is any structure made of three layers: a low-density core, and a thin skin-layer bonded to each side. Sandwich panels are used in applications where a combination of high structural rigidity and low weight is required. Sandwich panels are an example of a sandwich structured composite: the strength and ... Read »


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    • Metal profiles

    • Metal profile sheet systems provide an efficient and reliable solution to the need to build envelopes of single story buildings. Over the years, these systems have evolved from the single skin metal cladding often associated with agricultural buildings to highly developed systems used with industrial, retrial and leisu ... Read »


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    • Metal roof

    • A metal roof is a roofing system made from metal pieces or tiles. It is a component of the building envelope. One of the main disadvantages of a metal roof is the noise created when it rains outside. Copper has played a significant role in architecture for thousands of years (see: copper in architecture). In the 3 ... Read »


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    • Monel

    • Monel is a group of nickel alloys, primarily composed of nickel (up to 67%) and copper, with small amounts of iron, manganese, carbon, and silicon. Stronger than pure nickel, Monel alloys are resistant to corrosion by many agents, including rapidly flowing seawater. They can be fabricated readily by hot- and cold-worki ... Read »


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    • Monocrete construction

    • Monocrete is a building construction method utilising modular bolt-together pre-cast concrete wall panels. Monocrete construction was widely used in the construction of government housing in the 1940s and 1950s in Canberra, Australia. The expansion of the new capital was exceeding the ability of the Government to buil ... Read »


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    • Mundic

    • Mundic was used from the 1690s to describe a copper ore that began to be smelted at Bristol and elsewhere in southwestern Britain. Smelting was carried out in cupolas, that is reverberatory furnaces using mineral coal. For more details, see copper extraction. Mundic once referred to pyrite, but has now adopted the wid ... Read »


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    • Nanak Shahi bricks

    • Nanak Shahi bricks ( ਨਾਨਕਸ਼ਾਹੀ ਇੱਟ ) were decorative bricks used for structural walls during the Mughal era. This variety of brick tiles were of moderate dimensions and could be used for reinforcing lime concretes in the structural walls and other thick c ... Read »


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    • National Concrete Masonry Association

    • National Concrete Masonry Association

      The National Concrete Masonry Association (NCMA) is a United States trade association of manufactures of concrete and masonry products. The association was founded in 1918. NCMA publishes methods and specifications, which are used by the industry, and are cited within professional manuals. NCMA published a monthly ma ... Read »


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    • Natural building

    • A natural building involves a range of building systems and materials that place major emphasis on sustainability. Ways of achieving sustainability through natural building focus on durability and the use of minimally processed, plentiful or renewable resources, as well as those that, while recycled or salvaged, produc ... Read »


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    • Neoparium

    • Neoparium, also known as Neopariés, is a glass material made in Japan by Nippon Electric Glass. Described as "crystalized glass ceramic," it was developed as an architectural cladding material for use in harsh environments. Typical units are 5/8" thick in a number of opaque colors. Panels can be fabricated with curv ... Read »


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    • Non-shrink grout

    • Non-shrink grout is a hydraulic cement grout that produces a big volume that, when hardened under stipulated test conditions, is greater than or equal to the original installed volume; often used as a transfer medium between load-bearing members. Test standards used to designate a grout as non-shrink include, but ... Read »


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    • Opus (architecture)

    • In architecture, the latin term opus is a word that generically indicates various techniques of constructing buildings that were in use in ancient Rome. Usually the word opus is not used alone in building descriptions, but is paired with specific attributes (incertum, latericium, etc.), whose purpose is to show precise ... Read »


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    • Opus albarium

    • Opus albarium is the Latin name for a refined type of plasterwork used in the interiors of houses, consisting of a special stucco incorporating marble dust, then beaten compact with rammers: the technique is described by Vitruvius (VII.3.4-11). Varro states (R.R. I.59.2) that such wall coatings make buildings cooler ... Read »


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    • Opus signinum

    • Opus signinum ('cocciopesto' in modern Italian) is a building material used in ancient Rome. It is made of tiles broken up into very small pieces, mixed with mortar, and then beaten down with a rammer. Pliny in his Natural History describes its manufacture: "Even broken pottery has been utilized; it being found that, b ... Read »


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    • Orangeburg pipe

    • Orangeburg pipe (also known as "fiber conduit", "bituminous fiber pipe" or "Bermico") is bitumenized fiber pipe made from layers of wood pulp and pitch pressed together. It was used from the 1860s through the 1970s, when it was replaced by PVC pipe for water delivery and ABS pipe for drain-waste-vent (DWV) applications ... Read »


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    • Outline of architecture

    • The following is an overview and topical guide to architecture: Architecture – the process and the product of designing and constructing buildings. Architectural works with a certain indefinable combination of design quality and external circumstances may become cultural symbols and / or be considered works of a ... Read »


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    • Palandomus

    • The Palandomus invented in 1919 by architect Mario Palanti, consists of a cement block of 18x18x36cm made with the vibration system, to serve as the cellular element of construction, being designed with a particular shape "hermaphrodite", which allows placement in any sense, without the constraints of location if not h ... Read »


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    • Pantile

    • A pantile is a type of fired roof tile, normally made from clay. It is S-shaped in appearance and is single lap, meaning that the end of the tile laps only the course immediately below. Flat tiles normally lap two courses. A pantile-covered roof is considerably lighter than a flat-tiled equivalent and can be laid to a ... Read »


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    • Paper honeycomb

    • Paper honeycomb is a building and packing material. One of the most commons uses of paper honeycomb is for standard doors inside houses. Typically a layer of fiberglass and then the enforced paper made into honeycomb shapes (hexagon tubes) and then another layer of fiberglass. Compared pound for pound, it is stronger t ... Read »


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    • Pavement (architecture)

    • Pavement in construction is an outdoor floor or superficial surface covering. Paving materials include asphalt, concrete, stone such as flagstone, cobblestone, and setts, artificial stone, bricks, tiles, and sometimes wood. In landscape architecture pavements are part of the hardscape and are used on sidewalks, road su ... Read »


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    • Paver base

    • Paver base is a form of aggregate used in the construction of patios and walkways whose topmost layer consists of mortarless (or "dry-laid") pavers. The first layer in the construction of such a surface is called the subgrade-- this is the layer of native material underneath the intended surface. It is usually compacte ... Read »


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    • Pavonazzo marble

    • Pavonazzetto marble also known as Docimaean marble, is a white marble originally from Docimium, or modern Iscehisar, Turkey. The name derives from the Italian word for peacock (pavone). "In natural stone trade, Pavonazzo is often simply called a Marble." It is one of the many varieties of Carrara marble, distinguishe ... Read »


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    • Permeable paving

    • Permeable paving is a range of sustainable materials and techniques for permeable pavements with a base and subbase that allow the movement of stormwater through the surface. In addition to reducing runoff, this effectively traps suspended solids and filters pollutants from the water. Examples include roads, paths, law ... Read »


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    • Pervious concrete

    • Pervious concrete (also called porous concrete, permeable concrete, no fines concrete and porous pavement) is a special type of concrete with a high porosity used for concrete flatwork applications that allows water from precipitation and other sources to pass directly through, thereby reducing the runoff from a site a ... Read »


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    • Plank (wood)

    • A plank is timber that is flat, elongated, and rectangular with parallel faces that are higher and longer than wide. Used primarily in carpentry, planks are critical in the construction of ships, houses, bridges, and many other structures. Planks also serve as supports to form shelves and tables. Usually made from saw ... Read »


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    • Plaster

    • Plaster is a building material used for the protective and/or decorative coating of walls and ceilings and for moulding and casting decorative elements. In English "plaster" usually means a material used for the interiors of buildings, while "render" commonly refers to external applications. Another imprecise term used ... Read »


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    • Polished plaster

    • Polished plaster is a term for the finish of some plasters and for the description of new and updated forms of traditional Italian plaster finishes. The term covers a whole range of decorative plaster finishes—from the very highly polished Venetian plaster and Marmorino to the rugged look of textured polished plas ... Read »


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    • Porcelain tile

    • Porcelain tiles are ceramic tiles commonly used to cover floors and walls, with a water absorption rate of less than 0.5 percent. They can either be glazed or unglazed. Porcelain tiles are one type of vitrified tiles, and are sometimes referred to as porcelain vitrified tiles. Although porcelain has been used f ... Read »


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    • Portland cement

    • Portland cement is the most common type of cement in general use around the world, used as a basic ingredient of concrete, mortar, stucco, and most non-speciality grout. It was developed from other types of hydraulic lime in England in the mid 19th century and usually originates from limestone. It is a fine powder prod ... Read »


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    • Prestressed concrete

    • Prestressed concrete is a concrete construction material which is placed under compression prior to it supporting any applied loads (i.e. it is "pre" stressed). A more technical definition is "Structural concrete in which internal stresses have been introduced to reduce potential tensile stresses in the concrete result ... Read »


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    • PVC decking

    • PVC decking is composed entirely of Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and contains no wood. PVC decking is a more expensive option in the decking industry, but it provides significant fade and stain resistance and lower maintenance requirements compared to other products. PVC decking was introduced to the market over seven ... Read »


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    • Qadad

    • Qadad (Qadâd, Kʉðað) is a waterproof plaster surface, made of a lime plaster treated with slaked lime and oils and fats. The technique is well over a millennium old and can be used as a roof covering. Due to the slowness of some of the chemical reactions, qadad mortar can take over a hundred days to prepar ... Read »


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    • Quarry tile

    • Quarry tile is a building construction material, usually  1⁄2 to  3⁄4 inch (13 to 19 mm) thick, made by the extrusion process from natural clay or shales. Quarry tile is manufactured from clay in a manner similar to bricks. It is shaped from clay, and fired at a high temperature, ~2,000 F°. ... Read »


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    • Quarry-faced stone

    • Quarry-faced stone is stone with a rough, unpolished surface, straight from the quarry. Many residential and public buildings in Jerusalem, Israel are built from quarry-faced Jerusalem stone. Kurtz, Jean-Paul (1 Jan 2004). "XXXVI". Dictionary of Civil Engineering. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. pp. 1022–10 ... Read »


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    • QuietRock

    • QuietRock is a brand of internally damped drywall panels by PABCO Gypsum which acquired the line from Serious Materials, an American manufacturer of building materials started by Kevin Surace. It is designed to provide high levels of sound transmission loss between rooms. the first product was introduced in 2003. ... Read »


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    • Quincha

    • Quincha is a traditional construction system that uses, fundamentally, wood and cane or giant reed forming an earthquake-proof framework that is covered in mud and plaster. Quincha is a Spanish term widely known in Latin America, borrowed from Quechua qincha (kincha in Kichwa), which means "fence, wall, enclosure, cor ... Read »


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    • Ready-mix concrete

    • Ready-mix concrete is concrete that is manufactured in a factory or batching plant, according to a set recipe, and then delivered to a work site by truck mounted in–transit mixers. This results in a precise mixture, allowing specialty concrete mixtures to be developed and implemented on construction sites. The fir ... Read »


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    • Rebar

    • Rebar (short for reinforcing bar), collectively known as reinforcing steel and reinforcement steel, is a steel bar or mesh of steel wires used as a tension device in reinforced concrete and reinforced masonry structures to strengthen and hold the concrete in tension. Rebar's surface is often patterned to form a better ... Read »


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    • Rebar spacer

    • A rebar spacer is a device that secures the reinforcing steel or "rebar" in reinforced concrete structures as the rebar is assembled in place prior to the final concrete pour. The spacers are left in place for the pour to keep the reinforcing in place, and become a permanent part of the structure. The main categories ... Read »


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    • Red List building materials

    • Red List Building Materials contain chemicals that have been designated as harmful to living creatures, including humans, or the environment. There are many "Red Lists" that have been developed specifically for building materials. These lists have primarily been developed by green building rating system developers and ... Read »


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    • Reed mat (plastering)

    • Reed mat is lathing supplied in a roll. It is made from natural reeds laid parallel, and bound using zinc-plated narrow gauge wire to form a long sheet. Reed mat is suitable for internal use as a base for plastering on walls and ceilings. It can be used against a solid background or over studs or joists as a practical ... Read »


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    • Building materials

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