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    Beekeeping

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    • Apiary

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    • Beehives

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    • Beekeepers

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    • Beekeeping in fiction

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    • Beekeeping organizations

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    • Beekeeping tools

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    • Beekeeping by country

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    • Bee diseases

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    • Documentary films about bees

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    • Bee products

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    • Western honey bee

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    • Beekeeping

    • Apiculture (from Latin: "bee") is the maintenance of honey bee colonies, commonly in hives, by humans. A beekeeper (or apiarist) keeps bees in order to collect their honey and other products that the hive produces (including beeswax, propolis, pollen, and royal jelly), to pollinate crops, or to produce bees for sale t ... Read »


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    • Glossary of beekeeping

    • This page is a glossary of beekeeping. ... Read »


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    • June Gap

    • The June Gap refers to a phenomenon in which a shortage of forage available for bees occurs (typically in June) and has been observed in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Subsequent to the massive volume of pollen and nectar produced by trees and hedges in the spring, there is a reduction in the amount of nectar availab ... Read »


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    • Melittology

    • Melittology (from Greek μέλιττα, melitta, "bee"; and -λογία -logia) is a branch of entomology concerning the scientific study of bees. Melittology covers the species found in the clade Anthophila within the superfamily Apoidea, comprising more than 20,000 species, including bumblebee ... Read »


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    • African Honey Bee (organization)

    • African Honey Bee

      African Honey Bee is a social-franchise beekeeping micro-business incubator established in 2007. Its purpose is to alleviate poverty through sustainable beekeeping, by enabling rural families to benefit from the unpolluted prime honey producing vegetation around them. African Honey Bee was set up by Guy Stubbs, a Chri ... Read »


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    • Apiary

    • An apiary (also known as a bee yard) is a place where beehives of honey bees are kept. Traditionally beekeepers (also known as apiarists) paid land rent in honey for the use of small parcels. Some farmers will provide free apiary sites, because they need pollination, and farmers who need many hives often pay for them t ... Read »


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    • Apifresh

    • Apifresh is a European project funded by the European Commission 7th Framework Program. It started on 1 July 2010 and it will last three years. The project is developed by a Consortium set up by partners from different European Countries. It is formed by four Industrial Associations, three SMEs and three research centr ... Read »


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    • Apis cerana

    • Apis cerana

      Apis cerana, or the Asiatic honey bee (or the eastern honey bee), is a species of honey bee found in southern and southeastern Asia, including China, Pakistan, India, Korea, Japan, Malaysia, Nepal, Bangladesh, Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands. This species is the sister species of Apis koschevnikovi, and both are i ... Read »


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    • Apis cerana nuluensis

    • Apis cerana nuluensis is a subspecies of honey bee described in 1996 by Tingek, Koeniger & Koeniger. The geographic distribution of the subspecies is the south-east Asian island of Borneo, politically divided between Indonesia, Malaysia, and Brunei. A. c. nuluensis is one of a number of Asiatic honey bees, including t ... Read »


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    • Apis dorsata

    • Apis dorsata

      Apis dorsata, the giant honey bee, is a honey bee of South and Southeast Asia, found mainly in forested areas such as the Terai of Nepal and sometimes even in Malaysia and Singapore. They are typically around 17–20 mm (0.7–0.8 in) long. Nests are mainly built in exposed places far off the ground, like o ... Read »


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    • Apis dorsata laboriosa

    • Apis dorsata laboriosa

      Apis dorsata laboriosa, the Himalayan honey bee, is the world’s largest honey bee; single adults can measure up to 3.0 cm (1.2 in) in length. Before 1980, Apis dorsata laboriosa was considered to be a subspecies of the widespread Apis dorsata, the giant honey bee, but in 1980 and for almost 20 years thereaft ... Read »


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    • Apis mellifera cecropia

    • Apis mellifera cecropia

      Apis mellifera cecropia or the Greek bee is the subspecies of honey bee that is native to southern Greece. It is very similar to Apis mellifera ligustica, the Italian bee. it is favored for its extreme gentleness and lack of tendency to swarm. However, if crossed with Apis mellifera mellifera (the northern dark bee) it ... Read »


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    • Apitoxin

    • Apitoxin, or honey bee venom, is a bitter colourless liquid; its active portion a mixture of proteins, which causes local inflammation and acts as an anticoagulant. A honeybee can inject 0.1 mg of venom via its stinger. It may have similarities to sea nettle toxin. The main component is melittin amounting to 52 ... Read »


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    • Aristaeus

    • A minor god in Greek mythology, attested mainly by Athenian writers, Aristaeus (/ærᵻˈstiːəs/; Greek: Ἀρισταῖος Aristaios), was the culture hero credited with the discovery of many useful arts, including bee-keeping; he was the son of Apollo and the huntress Cyrene. Ariste ... Read »


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    • Bee bearding

    • Bee bearding is the practice of wearing several hundred honey bees on the face, usually as a sideshow-type demonstration at agricultural shows. Hive bees are attracted into position by a queen in a small cage worn under the chin. Though beekeepers since ancient times have allowed bees to rest on their bodies in or ... Read »


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    • Bee pollen

    • Bee pollen is the pollen ball that has been packed by worker honeybees into pellets. Bee bread is also the bee pollen with added honey and bee secretions and stored in brood cells, chambers of honeybees or of wood and mud created by female ground-nesting (such as the Leafcutting Bee) bees. With the Leafcutting Bee, whe ... Read »


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    • Bee sting

    • Bee sting

      A bee sting is a sting from a bee (honey bee, bumblebee, sweat bee, etc.). The stings of most of these species can be quite painful, and are therefore keenly avoided by many people. Bee stings differ from insect bites, and the venom or toxin of stinging insects is quite different. Therefore, the body's reaction to a b ... Read »


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    • Bee tree

    • A bee tree is a tree in which a colony of honey bees makes its home. A colony of bees may live in a bee tree for many years. Most bee trees have a large inner hollow, often with an upper and lower entrance. Colonies in trees have fixed comb, so inspection and management is impossible, as is most harvesting without des ... Read »


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    • Beebase

    • BeeBase is an online bioinformatics database that displays data related to Apis mellifera, the European honey bee. It was developed in collaboration with the Honey Bee Genome Sequencing Consortium. In Feb 2007, BeeBase consisted of a GBrowse-based genome viewer and a CMap-based comparative map viewer, both modules of ... Read »


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    • Beehive

    • A beehive is an enclosed structure in which some honey bee species of the subgenus Apis live and raise their young. Though the word beehive is commonly used to describe the nest of any bee colony, scientific and professional literature distinguishes nest from hive. Nest is used to discuss colonies which house themselve ... Read »


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    • Beehive fence

    • A beehive fence is a fence which is built to deter elephants based on their natural fear of bees. The fence is set up off the ground at chest height and contains hives spaced every 10 metres. If an elephant disturbs the fence, then the hives shake and the bees become agitated, and the elephants are deterred. Elephants ... Read »


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    • Beeline (beekeeping)

    • Beelining (also known as bee lining, bee hunting, and coursing bees) is an ancient art used to locate feral bee colonies. It is performed by capturing and marking foraging worker bees, then releasing them from various points to establish (by elementary trigonometry) the direction and distance of the colony's home. Beel ... Read »


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    • Bees and toxic chemicals

    • Bees can suffer serious effects from toxic chemicals in their environments. These include various synthetic chemicals, such as insecticides and fertilizers, as well as a variety of naturally occurring chemicals from plants, such as ethanol resulting from the fermentation of organic materials. Bee intoxication can resul ... Read »


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    • Brood (honey bee)

    • In entomology, the term brood is used to refer to the embryo or egg, the larva and the pupa stages in the life of holometabolous insects. The brood of honey bees develops within a bee hive. In man-made, removable frame hives, such as Langstroth hives, each frame which is mainly brood is called a brood frame. Brood fram ... Read »


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    • Brood comb

    • The brood comb is the beeswax structure of cells where the queen bee lays eggs. It is the part of the beehive where a new brood is raised by the colony. During the summer a good queen may lay 1500-2000 eggs per day, which results in 1500-2000 bees hatching after the three-week development period. The brood comb is usu ... Read »


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    • Buzz pollination

    • Buzz pollination or sonication is a technique used by some bees, such as the Bombus morio and many other bumble bees, to release pollen which is more or less firmly held by the anthers. The anther of buzz-pollinated species of plants is typically tubular, with an opening at only one end, and the pollen inside is smooth ... Read »


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    • Characteristics of common wasps and bees

    • While observers can easily confuse common wasps and bees at a distance or without close observation, there are many different characteristics of large bees and wasps that can be used to identify them. (video) ... Read »


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    • Checkerboarding (beekeeping)

    • Checkerboarding is a term used in beekeeping that describes a specific hive management technique to prevent swarming. The technique was developed by Walt Wright, a long time beekeeper from Tennessee. Checkerboarding takes advantage of the bee colony's primary motivation, which is survival as survival of the existing c ... Read »


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    • Chronic bee paralysis virus

    • Chronic bee paralysis virus, abbreviated as CBPV, affects adult honey bees and causes a contagious case of chronic paralysis which can easily spread to other members of a colony. Symptoms include trembling of wings and body, loss of flight, loss of hair, and rejection by healthy members of the colony. Bees infected wit ... Read »


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    • Colony collapse disorder

    • Colony collapse disorder (CCD) is the phenomenon that occurs when the majority of worker bees in a colony disappear and leave behind a queen, plenty of food and a few nurse bees to care for the remaining immature bees and the queen. While such disappearances have occurred throughout the history of apiculture, and were ... Read »


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    • Comb honey

    • Comb honey is honey intended for consumption which is still contained within its original hexagonal-shaped beeswax cells, called honeycomb. It is eaten as produced by honey bees and has received no processing, filtering, or manipulation. Before the invention of the honey extractor almost all honey produced was in the ... Read »


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    • List of crop plants pollinated by bees

    • This is a list of crop plants pollinated by bees. Most of them are pollinated in whole or part by honeybees and by the crop's natural pollinators, like bumblebees, orchard bees, squash bees, and solitary bees. Where the same plants have non-bee pollinators such as birds or other insects, these are also indicated. Poll ... Read »


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    • Cubital index

    • Cubital index is the ratio of two of the wing vein segments of honeybees. The cubital index is used in morphology, the study of form and structure, one way to differentiate species and sub species of living organisms. The pattern of the veins of the fore wings is specific for each breed of bees. The cubital index is co ... Read »


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    • Cymbopogon citratus

    • Cymbopogon citratus

      Cymbopogon citratus, commonly known as lemon grass or oil grass, is a tropical plant from South Asia and Southeast Asia. Cymbopogon citratus is often sold in stem form. While it can be grown in warmer temperate regions, such as the UK, it is not hardy to frost. Cymbopogon citratus is abundant in the Philippines a ... Read »


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    • Demaree method

    • In beekeeping, the Demaree method is a swarming prevention method. It was first published by George Demaree (1832–1915) in an article in the American Bee Journal in 1892. Demaree also described a swarm prevention method in 1884, but that was a two-hive system that is unrelated to modern "demareeing". As with many ... Read »


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    • Drone (bee)

    • A drone is a male bee that is the product of an unfertilized egg. Unlike the female worker bee, drones do not have stingers and do not gather nectar and pollen. A drone's primary role is to mate with a fertile queen. Drones carry only one type of allele at each chromosomal position, because they are haploid (conta ... Read »


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    • Entomologia Carniolica

    • Entomologia Carniolica exhibens insecta Carnioliae indigena et distributa in ordines, genera, species, varietates is a taxonomic work by Giovanni Antonio Scopoli, published in Vienna in 1763. As well as describing hundreds of new species, Entomologia Carniolica contained observations on the species' biology, including ... Read »


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    • European dark bee

    • European dark bee

      The European dark bee (Apis mellifera mellifera) is a subspecies of honey bee whose original European range stretched from western Russia through Northern Europe and probably down to the Iberian Peninsula. It was domesticated in Europe and hives were brought to North America in the colonial era. They are large for hone ... Read »


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    • Fear of bees

    • Fear of bees (or of bee stings), technically known as melissophobia (from Greek: μέλισσα, melissa, "honey bee" + , phobos, "fear") and occasionally misspelled as melissaphobia and also known as apiphobia (from Latin apis for "honey bee" + Greek: φόβος, phobos, "fear"), is one of the ... Read »


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    • Feeder (beekeeping)

    • A feeder is a vessel or contraption used by beekeepers to feed pollen or honey (or substitutes) to honey bees from a honey bee colony. Beekeepers feed bees when there is a shortage of those resources in nature, or when beekeepers want to mimic an abundance of those resources to encourage bees to behave in a certain ma ... Read »


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    • For a Swarm of Bees

    • For a Swarm of Bees is an Anglo-Saxon metrical charm that was intended for use in keeping honey bees from swarming. The text was discovered by John Mitchell Kemble in the 19th century. The charm is named for its opening words, "wiþ ymbe", meaning "against (or towards) a swarm of bees". In the most often studied por ... Read »


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    • Fruit tree pollination

    • Pollination of fruit trees is required to produce seeds with surrounding fruit. It is the process of moving pollen from the anther to the stigma, either in the same flower or in another flower. Some tree species, including many fruit trees, do not produce fruit from self-pollination, so pollinizer trees are planted in ... Read »


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    • Grayanotoxin

    • Grayanotoxins are a group of closely related toxins found in rhododendrons and other plants of the family Ericaceae. They can be found in honey made from their nectar and cause a very rare poisonous reaction called grayanotoxin poisoning, honey intoxication, or rhododendron poisoning. Grayanotoxin I (see below) is also ... Read »


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    • Haplodiploidy

    • Haplodiploidy is a sex-determination system in which males develop from unfertilized eggs and are haploid, and females develop from fertilized eggs and are diploid. Haplodiploidy is sometimes called arrhenotoky. Haplodiploidy determines the sex in all members of the insect orders Hymenoptera (bees, ants, and wasps)p40 ... Read »


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    • Heath beekeeping

    • Heath beekeeping (German: Heideimkerei) was a specialist form of beekeeping, which was intensively practised by beekeepers on the Lüneburg Heath from the Middle Ages until the 19th century, but which is now very rarely encountered. It was also referred to as Lüneburger Schwarmbienenzucht (Lüneburg honey bee br ... Read »


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    • Hive management

    • Hive management is a term used in beekeeping. The term describes all the intervention techniques a beekeeper may perform to ensure hive survival and to maximize hive production. Hive management techniques vary widely depending on the objectives. The most common objectives are: The dependent factors for honey produ ... Read »


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    • Honey

    • Honey /ˈhʌni/ is a sugary food substance produced and stored by certain social hymenopteran insects. It is produced from the sugary secretions of plants or insects, such as floral nectar or aphid honeydew, through regurgitation, enzymatic activity, and water evaporation. The variety of honey produced by honey bee ... Read »


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    • Honey bee

    • Honey bee

      A honey bee (or honeybee) is any bee member of the genus Apis, primarily distinguished by the production and storage of honey and the construction of , colonial nests from wax. Currently, only seven species of honey bee are recognized, with a total of 44 subspecies, though historically, from six to eleven species have ... Read »


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    • Honey bee life cycle

    • The honey bee life cycle, here referring exclusively to the domesticated Western honey bee, depends greatly on their social structure. Unlike a bumble bee colony or a paper wasp colony, the life of a honey bee colony is . The three types of honey bees in a hive are: queens (egg-producers), workers (non-reproducing ... Read »


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    • Honey bee race

    • Honey bee race is a classifications of honey bees, in particular European dark bees (Apis mellifera mellifera) into various named instances of an informal taxonomic rank of race—below that of subspecies—on the basis of shared genetic traits. The race of honey bees is classified into various named instances o ... Read »


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    • Honey extraction

    • Honey extraction is the central process in beekeeping of removing honey from honeycomb so that it is isolated in a pure liquid form. Normally, the honey is stored by honey bees in their beeswax honeycomb; in framed bee hives, the honey is stored on a wooden structure called a frame. The honey frames are typically harv ... Read »


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    • Honey flow

    • Honey flow is a term used by beekeepers indicating that one or more major nectar sources are in bloom and the weather is favorable for bees to fly and collect the nectar in abundance. The higher northern and southern latitudes with their longer summer day time hours can be of considerable benefit for honey production. ... Read »


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    • Honey hunting

    • Honey hunting or honey harvesting is the gathering of honey from wild bee colonies and is one of the most ancient human activities and is still practiced by aboriginal societies in parts of Africa, Asia, Australia and South America. Some of the earliest evidence of gathering honey from wild colonies is from rock painti ... Read »


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    • Honeybee starvation

    • Backyard beekeepers produce 40% of all honey worldwide. Beehive management issues resulting in colony losses are a major concern for backyard beekeepers. According to a 2014-15 national survey, backyard beekeepers lost 52% and commercial beekeepers lost 32% of colonies. Backyard beekeepers face more colony losses in th ... Read »


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    • Honeycomb

    • A honeycomb is a mass of hexagonal wax cells built by honey bees in their nests to contain their larvae and stores of honey and pollen. Beekeepers may remove the entire honeycomb to harvest honey. Honey bees consume about 8.4 lb (3.8 kg) of honey to secrete 1 lb (454 g) of wax, so it makes economic sense to r ... Read »


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    • I Have a Bee

    • "I Have a Bee" foundation

      I Have a Bee (IHAB) is a worldwide organization established for hobby beekeepers. The organization hopes to deliver sustainable and long-term solutions to the pollinator decline through the hobby of beekeeping. Founded by Petar Petrov, Stefan Zlatev and Trifon Michailov 2014 in Bulgaria. The group has examined the roo ... Read »


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    • Imidacloprid effects on bees

    • Imidacloprid is a nicotine-derived systemic insecticide, belonging to a group of pesticides called neonicotinoids. Although it is off patent, the primary producer of imidacloprid is the German chemical firm Bayer CropScience. The trade names for imidacloprid include Gaucho, Admire, Merit, Advantage, Confidor, Provado, ... Read »


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    • Juvenile hormone

    • Juvenile hormones (JHs) are a group of acyclic sesquiterpenoids that regulate many aspects of insect physiology. JHs regulate development, reproduction, diapause, and polyphenisms. In insects, JH (formerly called neotenin) refers to a group of hormones, which ensure growth of the larva, while preventing metamorphosis. ... Read »


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    • Laying worker bee

    • A laying worker bee is a worker bee that lays unfertilized eggs usually in the absence of a queen bee. Only drones develop from the eggs of laying worker bees (with some exceptions, see thelytoky). A beehive cannot survive with only a laying worker bee. Even in a normal hive, about 1% of workers have ovaries devel ... Read »


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    • List of honey bee pheromones

    • The pheromones of the honey bee are mixtures of chemical substances released by individual bees into the hive or environment that cause changes in the physiology and behaviour of other bees. Honey bees (Apis mellifera) have one of the most complex pheromonal communication systems found in nature, possessing 15 kno ... Read »


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    • List of honey plants

    • Honeybees usually collect nectar, pollen, or both from the following species of plants, which are called honey plants, for making honey. All the plants of this family are found in the tropics and subtropics. All the plants of this family are found mostly in the tropics or subtropics. All the plants of this famil ... Read »


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    • List of honeydew sources

    • This is a list of honeydew sources. Honeydew is a sugary excretion from plant sap sucking insects such as aphids or scales. There are many trees that are hosts to aphids and scale insects that produce honeydew ... Read »


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    • Lorsch Bee Blessing

    • The Lorsch Bee Blessing (German: Lorscher Bienensegen) is an bee-keeping prayer intended to bring home honey bees in good health to their hives. It is believed to have been written in the 9th century, and was discovered in a manuscript (on fol. 58r of the Pal. lat. 220 in the Vatican Library, a copy of the Apocalypse o ... Read »


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    • Melipona subnitida

    • Melipona subnitida

      Melipona subnitida is a neotropical endemic bee species in the Apidae family found in the dry areas of Northeastern Brazil. This species of stingless bees practices single mating, monogynous habits. This species nests in hollow trunks of living trees, where the workers create a vertical colony. The dominance hierarchy ... Read »


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    • Melliferous flower

    • A melliferous flower is a plant which produces substances that can be collected by insects and turned into honey. Many plants are melliferous, but only certain examples can be harvested by honey bees, because of their physiognomy (body size and shape, length of proboscis, etc.) Apiculture classifies a plant as mellifer ... Read »


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    • Nasonov pheromone

    • The Nasonov (alternatively, Nasanov) pheromone is released by worker bees to orient returning forager bees back to the colony. To broadcast this scent, bees raise their abdomens, which contain the Nasonov glands, and fan their wings vigorously. Nasonov includes a number of different terpenoids including geraniol, nero ... Read »


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    • National Honey Bee Day

    • National Honey Bee Day

      National Honey Bee Day (formerly National Honey Bee Awareness Day) is an awareness day started by beekeepers in the United States to build community awareness of the bee industry, through education and promotion. According to its organizers, the National Honey Bee Day program started with a simple concept: Bring toge ... Read »


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    • Nectar source

    • A nectar source is a flowering plant that produces nectar as part of its reproductive strategy. These plants create nectar, which attract pollinating insects and sometimes other animals such as birds. Nectar source plants are important for beekeeping, as well as in agriculture and horticulture. Their use is particular ... Read »


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    • Northern American nectar sources for honey bees

    • The nectar resource in a given area depends on the kinds of flowering plants present and their blooming periods. Which kinds grow in an area depends on soil texture, soil pH, soil drainage, daily maximum and minimum temperatures, precipitation, extreme minimum winter temperature, and growing degree days. The plants lis ... Read »


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    • Nosema ceranae

    • Nosema ceranae is a microsporidian, a small, unicellular parasite that mainly affects Apis cerana, the Asiatic honey bee. It may cause nosemosis, also called nosema (see Nosema apis, the most widespread of the adult honey bee diseases). The dormant stage of nosema is a long-lived spore which is resistant to temperature ... Read »


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    • The Oak Openings

    • The Oak Openings; or, The Bee Hunter is an 1848 novel by James Fenimore Cooper. The novel focuses on the activities of professional honey-hunter Benjamin Boden, nicknamed "Ben Buzz". The novel is set in Kalamazoo, Michigan's Oak Opening, a wooded prairie that still exists in part today, during the War of 1812. Aft ... Read »


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    • Pesticide toxicity to bees

    • Pesticides vary in their effects on bees. Contact pesticides are usually sprayed on plants and can kill bees when they crawl over sprayed surfaces of plants or other areas around it. Systemic pesticides, on the other hand, are usually incorporated into the soil or onto seeds and move up into the stem, leaves, nectar, a ... Read »


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    • Pollen source

    • The term pollen source is often used in the context of beekeeping and refers to flowering plants as a source of pollen for bees or other insects. Bees collect pollen as a protein source to raise their brood. For the plant, the pollinizer, this can be an important mechanism for sexual reproduction, as the pollinator dis ... Read »


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    • Pollination management

    • Pollination management is the label for horticultural practices that accomplish or enhance pollination of a crop, to improve yield or quality, by understanding of the particular crop's pollination needs, and by knowledgeable management of pollenizers, pollinators, and pollination conditions. With the decline of bo ... Read »


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    • Pollinator

    • A pollinator is an animal that moves pollen from the male anther of a flower to the female stigma of a flower. This helps to bring about fertilization of the ovules in the flower by the male gametes from the pollen grains. Insect pollinators include bees, (honey bees, solitary species, bumblebees); pollen wasps (Masar ... Read »


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    • Pollinator decline

    • The term pollinator decline refers to the reduction in abundance of insect and other animal pollinators in many ecosystems worldwide beginning at the end of the twentieth century, and continuing into the present day. Pollinators participate in sexual reproduction of many plants, by ensuring cross-pollination, essentia ... Read »


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    • Precision beekeeping

    • Precision beekeeping (PB) (also known as precision apiculture) is an apiary management strategy based on the monitoring of individual bee colonies to minimize resource consumption and maximize the productivity of bees: PB can be considered as sub branch of precision agriculture (PA). Similar to PA, implementation of PB ... Read »


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    • Proboscis extension reflex

    • Proboscis extension reflex (PER) is the extension by an insect with an extendable proboscis (e.g. a bee or fly) of her proboscis (sticking out of her tongue) as a reflex to antennal stimulation. It is evoked when a sugar solution is touched to a bee's antenna. The proboscis extension reflex is part of an insect's ... Read »


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    • Propolis

    • Propolis or bee glue is a resinous mixture that honey bees produce by mixing saliva and beeswax with exudate gathered from tree buds, sap flows, or other botanical sources. It is used as a sealant for unwanted open spaces in the hive. Propolis is used for small gaps (approximately 6 millimeters (0.24 in) or less), w ... Read »


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    • Queen bee

    • The term "queen bee" is typically used to refer to an adult, mated female that lives in a honey bee colony or hive; she is usually the mother of most, if not all, of the bees in the beehive. The queens are developed from larvae selected by worker bees and specially fed in order to become sexually mature. There is norma ... Read »


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    • Queen mandibular pheromone

    • Queen mandibular pheromone, or QMP, is a honey bee pheromone produced by the queen and fed to her attendants who share it with the rest of the colony that gives the colony the sense of being queenright. Newly emerged queens produce very little QMP. By the sixth day they are producing enough to attract drones for mating ... Read »


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    • Queen retinue pheromone

    • Queen retinue pheromones (QRP) are a type of honey bee pheromones. The following compounds have also been identified, of which only coniferyl alcohol is found in the mandibular glands. The combination of the 5 QMP compounds and the 4 compounds below is called the Queen Retinue Pheromone (QRP). These nine compounds are ... Read »


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    • Royal jelly

    • Royal jelly is a honey bee secretion that is used in the nutrition of larvae, as well as adult queens. It is secreted from the glands in the hypopharynx of worker bees, and fed to all larvae in the colony, regardless of sex or caste. When worker bees decide to make a new queen, because the old one is either weakening ... Read »


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    • Saturation pollination

    • Saturation pollination is a pollination technique for agricultural crops in areas dominated by non-crop plant species that are preferred by pollinators. The technique involves keeping a larger number of bee colonies than normally maintained for honey production so as to exhaust the preferred plants and ensure visitatio ... Read »


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    • Slumgum

    • Slumgum in beekeeping is the residue of the beeswax rendering process. When the beeswax from brood comb is rendered to produce clean wax, it leaves behind the pupal lining, wax moth cocoons, excrement from larvae, and other residual debris included in the original material. Less slumgum can be expected from rendering ... Read »


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    • Tel Rehov

    • Tel Rehov

      Rehov (also Rehob), meaning "broad", "wide place", was an important Bronze and Iron Age city located at Tel Rehov (Hebrew: תל רחוב‎‎), an archaeological site in the Jordan Valley, Israel, approximately 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) south of Beit She'an and 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) west of the Jor ... Read »


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    • Telling the bees

    • The telling of the bees is a traditional European custom in which bees would be told of important events in their keeper's lives, such as births, marriages, or departures and returns in the household. If the custom was omitted or forgotten and the bees were not "put into mourning" then it was believed a penalty would b ... Read »


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    • Thelytoky

    • Thelytoky (from the Greek thēlys "female" and tokos "birth") is a type of parthenogenesis in which females are produced from unfertilized eggs, as for example in aphids. Thelytokous parthenogenesis is rare among animals and reported in about 1,500 species, about 1 in 1000 of described animal species, according to a ... Read »


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    • Urban beekeeping

    • Urban beekeeping is the practice of keeping bee colonies in urban areas. It may also be referred to as hobby beekeeping or backyard beekeeping. Bees from city apiaries are said to be "healthier and more productive than their country cousins". Their presence also provides cities with environmental and economic benefits. ... Read »


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    • Varroa

    • Varroa

      See text Varroa is a genus of parasitic mites associated with honey bees, placed in its own family, Varroidae. The genus was named for Marcus Terentius Varro, a Roman scholar and beekeeper. The condition of a honeybee colony being infested with Varroa mites is called varroosis (also, incorrectly, varroatosis). Varroa ... Read »


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    • Vitellogenin

    • Vitellogenin (VTG or less popularly known as VG) (from latin vitellus, yolk, and gener, to produce) is a precursor protein of egg yolk normally in the blood or hemolymph only of females that is used as a biomarker in vertebrates of exposure to environmental estrogens which stimulate elevated levels in males as well as ... Read »


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    • Wax foundation

    • Wax foundation or honeycomb base is a plate made of wax with the base of the honeycomb. It is used in beekeeping to give the bees a foundation on which they can build the honeycomb. Wax foundation is considered one of the most important inventions in modern beekeeping. Honeycomb built on wax foundation has important a ... Read »


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    • Western honey bee

    • Western honey bee

      Northern Europe Southern Europe Middle East Africa Apis mellifica Linnaeus, 1761 The western honey bee or European honey bee (Apis mellifera) is the most common of the 7-12 species of honey bee worldwide. The genus name Apis is Latin for "bee", and mellifera means "honey-bearing", referring to the species' tendenc ... Read »


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    • Worker bee

    • A worker bee is any female (eusocial) bee that lacks the full reproductive capacity of the colony's queen bee; under most circumstances, this is correlated to an increase in certain non-reproductive activities relative to a queen, as well. Worker bees occur in many bee species other than honey bees, but this is by far ... Read »


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  • What Else?

    • Beekeeping

Extras