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    Automotive technologies

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    • Emission standards

    • Emission standards are the legal requirements governing air pollutants released into the atmosphere. Emission standards set quantitative limits on the permissible amount of specific air pollutants that may be released from specific sources over specific timeframes. They are generally designed to achieve air quality sta ... Read »


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    • Horsepower

    • Horsepower (hp) is a unit of measurement of power (the rate at which work is done). There are many different standards and types of horsepower. Two common definitions in use today are the mechanical horsepower (or imperial horsepower), which is approximately 746 watts, and the metric horsepower, which is approximately ... Read »


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    • Torque

    • Torque, moment, or moment of force (see the terminology below) is rotational force. Just as a linear force is a push or a pull, a torque can be thought of as a twist to an object. Mathematically, torque is defined as the cross product of the vector by which the force's application point is offset relative to the fixed ... Read »


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    • Automotive engine technologies

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    • Adapted automobiles

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    • Automotive engineering

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    • Automotive tools

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    • Autonomous cars

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    • Automotive chassis types

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    • Automotive cooling systems

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    • Drivetrain

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    • Electric vehicle technologies

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    • Automotive electrics

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    • Green automobiles

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    • Automotive lamps

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    • Automobile layouts

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    • Automotive navigation systems

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    • Auto parts

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    • Automobile platforms

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    • Automotive safety technologies

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    • Automotive software

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    • Automotive standards

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    • Automotive steering technologies

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    • Automotive suspension technologies

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    • Automotive technology tradenames

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    • Automotive transmission technologies

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    • Vehicle dynamics

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    • Vehicle modification

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    • Wheel hub motors

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    • Automotive technology stubs

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    • 6×4 (drivetrain)


    • AC Propulsion eBox

    • AC Propulsion eBox

      The eBox is a conversion of a Scion xB hatchback into a battery electric vehicle produced by the U.S. company AC Propulsion. AC Propulsion executives announced their intention to convert Scion xBs to battery electric vehicles in October, 2003. Company executives stated that the Scion xB was chosen in part due to i ... Read »


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    • AC Propulsion tzero

    • The tzero is a handmade electric sports car designed and built in very limited numbers by the U.S. company AC Propulsion. The tzero was based on the Piontek Sportech kit car, which consists of a fiberglass body built over a reinforced steel space frame with double wishbone independent suspension and rack and pinion ste ... Read »


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    • Airless tire

    • Airless tires, or non-pneumatic tires (NPT), are tires that are not supported by air pressure. They are used on some small vehicles such as riding lawn mowers and motorized golf carts. They are also used on heavy equipment such as backhoes, which are required to operate on sites such as building demolition, where risk ... Read »


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    • Alcantara (material)

    • Alcantara is a covering material manufactured and marketed by Alcantara S.p.A. It is primarily used in the design, fashion, accessories, consumer electronics, automotive and marine industries. The material was developed in the early 1970s by Miyoshi Okamoto, a scientist working for the Japanese chemical company Toray ... Read »


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    • All-wheel drive

    • An all-wheel drive vehicle (AWD vehicle) is one with a powertrain capable of providing power to all its wheels, whether full-time or on-demand. The most common forms of all-wheel drive are: Vehicles may be either part-time all-wheel drive or full-time: Today, the designation AWD is becoming narrowed, particularl ... Read »


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    • Appleton spotlight

    • Appleton spotlights, or simply Appletons, were a common feature in early automobiles, up to the "muscle car" era. The bullet-shaped spotlights (usually installed in pairs) included a handle which was mounted through the side window pillar of the cab (just above the hood) into the interior of the vehicle. This allowed a ... Read »


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    • Articulated vehicle

    • An articulated vehicle is a vehicle which has a permanent or semi-permanent pivot joint in its construction, allowing the vehicle to turn more sharply. There are many kinds of articulated vehicles, from heavy equipment to buses, trams and trains. Steam locomotives were sometimes articulated in that the driving wheels c ... Read »


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    • Automobile accessory power

    • Automobile accessory power can be transferred by several different means. However, it is always ultimately derived from the automobile's internal combustion engine, battery, or other "prime mover" source of energy. The advent of high-powered batteries in hybrid and all-electrical vehicles is shifting the balance of tec ... Read »


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    • Automobile air conditioning

    • Automobile air conditioning (also called A/C) systems use air conditioning to cool the air in a vehicle. A company in New York City in the United States first offered installation of air conditioning for cars in 1933. Most of their customers operated limousines and luxury cars. In 1939, Packard became the first a ... Read »


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    • Car platform

    • A car platform is a shared set of common design, engineering, and production efforts, as well as major components over a number of outwardly distinct models and even types of cars, often from different, but related marques. It is practiced in the automotive industry to reduce the costs associated with the development o ... Read »


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    • Automotive Electronics Council

    • The Automotive Electronics Council (AEC) is an organisation based in the United States that sets standards for the supply of components in the automotive electronics industry. AEC was formed in 1993 by Chrysler, Ford Motor, Delco Electronics. AEC developed several notable specifications for automotive electronics: ... Read »


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    • Automotive head-up display

    • An automotive head-up display or automotive heads-up display —also known as a auto-HUD— is any transparent display that presents data in the automobile without requiring users to look away from their usual viewpoints. The origin of the name stems from a pilot being able to view information with the head posit ... Read »


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    • Automotive paint

    • Automotive paint is paint used on automobiles for both protection and decoration purposes. The paint layers total to around 100 µm. Modern automobile paint is applied in several layers, with a total thickness of around 100 µm(0.1mm). In the early days of the automobile industry, paint was applied manually an ... Read »


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    • Automotive Technician Accreditation

    • The Automotive Technician Accreditation (ATA) is a trade qualification for all facets of automotive repair in the UK. It is a voluntary scheme (not legally binding) similar to that for electricians run by the NICEIC, and similarly is not government-run. It began in June 2005. It was introduced because the level of ... Read »


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    • Autonomous car

    • An autonomous car (also known as a driverless car, auto,self-driving car,robotic car) is a vehicle that is capable of sensing its environment and navigating without human input. Many such vehicles are being developed, but as of February 2017 automated cars permitted on public roads are not yet fully autonomous. They al ... Read »


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    • Autotech

    • Autotech is a concept used to describe the disruptive technology that has grown out of the automotive sector. For over two decades, major progress has been made in fuel economy, ride quality and safety. The progress has driven the development of advanced embedded systems that has accelerated the increase of new user fe ... Read »


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    • Ballast weight

    • Ballast weight is something that is added to a race car to alter its performance. In most racing series, cars have a minimum weight. Often, the actual weight of the car is lower, so ballast is used to bring it up to the minimum. The advantage is that the ballast can be positioned to affect the car's handling by changi ... Read »


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    • Battery electric vehicle

    • A battery electric vehicle (BEV), battery-only electric vehicle (BOEV) or all-electric vehicle is a type of electric vehicle (EV) that uses chemical energy stored in rechargeable battery packs. BEVs use electric motors and motor controllers instead of internal combustion engines (ICEs) for propulsion. They derive all p ... Read »


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    • Bi-fuel vehicle

    • Bi-fuel vehicles or otherwise known as dual fuel are vehicles with multifuel engines capable of running on two fuels. On internal combustion engines one fuel is gasoline or diesel, and the other is an alternate fuel such as natural gas (CNG), LPG, or hydrogen. The two fuels are stored in separate tanks and the engine r ... Read »


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    • Body solder

    • Body solder is a type of solder used to smooth the surface of automobile bodies before painting. It has been largely supplanted by polyester body fillers, such as Bondo, and others, but many purists and auto customizers continue to use body solder, asserting that it bonds better to sheet metal, feels better, wears bett ... Read »


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    • Bondo (putty)

    • Bondo putty is an automotive body filler and a brand name used by 3M for a line of American-made products for automotive, marine and household repairs. Before the 1940s, body solder was often used to repair large imperfections prior to painting. Solder repairs were conducted using a flame and wooden paddles covere ... Read »


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    • Car controls

    • Car controls are the components in automobiles and other powered road vehicles, such as trucks and buses, used for driving and parking. While controls like steering wheels and pedals have existed since the invention of cars, other controls have developed and adapted to the demands of drivers. For example, manual trans ... Read »


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    • Car DVR

    • A Car DVR is a device that records video inside a car. This device is used to capture the images of the road while the car is being driven, usually to increase the protection of the driver in case of an accident against false claims or to identify the car whose drivers run from the accident scene. ... Read »


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    • Car phone

    • A car phone is a mobile phone device specifically designed for and fitted into an automobile. This service originated with the Bell System, and was first used in St. Louis on June 17, 1946. The original equipment weighed 80 pounds (36 kg), and there were initially only 3 channels for all the users in the metropolit ... Read »


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    • Catalytic converter

    • A catalytic converter is an emissions control device that converts toxic gases and pollutants in exhaust gas to less toxic pollutants by catalyzing a redox reaction (an oxidation and a reduction reaction). Catalytic converters are used with internal combustion engines fueled by either petrol (gasoline) or diesel—i ... Read »


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    • Challenge X

    • Challenge X: Crossover to Sustainable Mobility, known more commonly as Challenge X, is a four-year competition series amongst engineering students from across North America. Its purpose is to advance vehicle technology towards a goal of sustainable mobility. The headline sponsors of the competition are The U.S. Depart ... Read »


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    • Charge control

    • Charge control is a technology that lets an electric utility control, in real time, the charging of a gridable (plug-in) vehicle, such as a plug-in hybrid (PHEV) or a battery electric vehicle (BEV). Through charge control, the utility is able to postpone charging of the vehicle during time of peak demand. Additionally, ... Read »


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    • Charge-depleting

    • Charge-depleting or EV mode refers to a mode of vehicle operation that is dependent on energy from the battery pack. Battery electric vehicles operate solely in this mode. Most plug-in hybrids operate in charge-depleting mode at startup, and switch to charge-sustaining mode after the battery has reached its minimum sta ... Read »


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    • Chassis dynamometer

    • Chassis dynamometer, sometimes called rolling road is device for measurement and testing developed to simulate the road in controlled environment, mainly inside building. Instead of the road there is roller. Vehicle is fixed to the building with restraint device and it is on roller either with driven only or all axles. ... Read »


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    • Cherry top (slang)

    • Cherry top is American slang which refers to a specific type of Police car with only red rotating emergency vehicle lighting mounted to the roof. The term originated in the 1960s, which is when these red rotating "beacon" lights were common. [1] Most modern Police cars have more elaborate lighting systems than the tra ... Read »


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    • Sustainable automotive air conditioning

    • Sustainable automotive air conditioning is the subject of a debate – nicknamed the Cool War – about the next-generation refrigerant in car air conditioning. The Alliance for CO2 Solutions supports the uptake of carbon dioxide (CO2) as a refrigerant in passenger cars, and the chemical industry is developing ne ... Read »


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    • Cruise control

    • Cruise control (sometimes known as speed control or autocruise, or tempomat in some countries) is a system that automatically controls the speed of a motor vehicle. The system is a servomechanism that takes over the throttle of the car to maintain a steady speed as set by the driver. Speed control was used in auto ... Read »


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    • Curb weight

    • Curb weight (US English) or kerb weight (UK English) is the total weight of a vehicle with standard equipment, all necessary operating consumables such as motor oil, transmission oil, coolant, air conditioning refrigerant, and a full tank of fuel, while not loaded with either passengers or cargo. This definition may d ... Read »


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    • Custom car

    • A custom car is a passenger vehicle that has been substantially modified in either of the following two ways Although the two are related, custom cars are distinct from hot rods. The extent of this difference has been the subject of debate among customizers and rodders for decades. Additionally, a street rod can be co ... Read »


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    • Dashcam

    • A dashcam or dashboard camera is an onboard camera that continuously records the view through a vehicle's windscreen. It may be attached to the interior windscreen or to the top of the dashboard, by suction cup or adhesive-tape mount. Dashcams may provide video evidence in the event of an accident. By targeted fie ... Read »


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    • DAVI

    • The Dutch Automated Vehicle Initiative (DAVI) is a research and demonstration initiative developing automated vehicles for use on public roads. The project is special in that, besides simply making driverless cars, it also focuses on having the automated vehicles share information amongst each other. The aim is to hav ... Read »


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    • Daytime running lamp

    • A daytime running lamp (DRL, also daytime running light) is an automotive lighting and bicycle lighting device on the front of a roadgoing motor vehicle or bicycle, automatically switched on when the vehicle is moving forward, emitting white, yellow, or amber light to increase the of the vehicle during daylight condit ... Read »


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    • Decorative vehicle lighting

    • Decorative vehicle lighting is lighting which is intended entirely as an decorative or ornamental addition to a vehicle, rather than lighting which is required for safety (i.e. automotive lighting, bicycle lighting, emergency vehicle lighting). Blue lights are often prohibited while in motion so that they will not int ... Read »


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    • Dedicated short-range communications

    • Dedicated short-range communications are one-way or two-way short-range to medium-range wireless communication channels specifically designed for automotive use and a corresponding set of protocols and standards. In October 1999, the United States Federal Communications Commission (FCC) allocated 75 MHz of spec ... Read »


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    • Delay box

    • "Delay Box" is a common slang term used in drag racing to describe an on-board timer which is a Transmission Brake Delay Timer. A transbrake forces the race car to remain stationary at the starting line, in gear, regardless of how much engine power is applied. When the visual signal is given to start the race, the driv ... Read »


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    • Development mule

    • A development mule (test mule, or simply mule) in the automotive industry is a testbed vehicle equipped with prototype components requiring evaluation. They are often camouflaged to deceive competitors and thwart a curious automotive press. Mules are necessary because automakers must assess new aspects of vehicles for ... Read »


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    • Diffuser (automotive)

    • A diffuser, in an automotive context, is a shaped section of the car underbody which improves the car's aerodynamic properties by enhancing the transition between the high-velocity airflow underneath the car and the much slower freestream airflow of the ambient atmosphere. It works by providing a space for the underbod ... Read »


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    • DIN 72552

    • DIN 72552 is a DIN standard for automobile electric terminal numbers, standardizing almost every contact in an automobile with a number code. This table gives most frequently used numbers. A different standard, European Norm (EN) 50005 recommends terminal numbering for general application relays (e.g. 11/12/14/A1/A2 ... Read »


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    • Direct TPMS

    • Direct TPMS, or direct tire pressure monitoring systems (direct sensor TPMS) refers to the use of a pressure sensor directly mounted on the wheels or tires of a vehicle. The pressure inside the tire is measured using a pressure transducer with the pressure information being subsequently sent to the vehicle to warn the ... Read »


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    • Drivetrain

    • The drivetrain of a motor vehicle is the group of components that deliver power to the driving wheels. This excludes the engine or motor that generates the power. In contrast, the powertrain is considered to include both the engine or motor and the drivetrain. The market for drivetrain components is economically impor ... Read »


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    • Driving cycle

    • A driving cycle is a series of data points representing the speed of a vehicle versus time. Driving cycles are produced by different countries and organizations to assess the performance of vehicles in various ways, as for example fuel consumption and polluting emissions. Fuel consumption and emission tests are perfo ... Read »


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    • Dynamic steering response

    • Dynamic steering response (DSR) is a car safety technique that corrects the rate of hydraulic or electric power steering system to adapt it to vehicle's speed and road conditions. Similar to DIRAVI, this system was first featured in the SEAT Leon Cupra R and has since been used in a wide range of models including the I ... Read »


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    • Dynamometer

    • A dynamometer or "dyno" for short, is a device for measuring force, torque, or power. For example, the power produced by an engine, motor or other rotating can be calculated by simultaneously measuring torque and rotational speed (RPM). In addition to being used to determine the torque or power characteristics of a m ... Read »


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    • E-four

    • E-Four is an all-wheel drive (AWD) system developed by Toyota Motor Corporation for hybrid vehicles. Front wheels are powered directly by the hybrid powertrain, rear wheels are powered by a dedicated electric motor with its own power control unit, reduction gear and differential. Amount of torque transferred to the rea ... Read »


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    • EcoCAR

    • EcoCAR: The NeXt Challenge is a three-year competition that builds on the 19-year history of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) advanced vehicle technology competitions by giving engineering students the chance to design and build advanced vehicles that demonstrate leading-edge automotive technologies, with the goal of mi ... Read »


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    • Electric car

    • External image

      An electric car is an automobile that is propelled by one or more electric motors, using electrical energy stored in rechargeable batteries or another energy storage device. Electric motors give electric cars instant torque, creating strong and smooth acceleration. They are also around three times as efficient as cars ... Read »


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    • Electric Park Brake

    • Electric park brakes (EPB) are used on passenger vehicles to hold the vehicle stationary on grades and flat roads. This was accomplished traditionally using a manual parking brake. With electric park brakes, the driver activates the holding mechanism with a button and the brake pads are then electrically applied onto t ... Read »


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    • Electric vehicle conversion

    • An electric vehicle conversion is the modification of a conventional internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) to electric propulsion, creating an all-electric or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. Solar cells could be used to power a vehicle converted to electric. However, currently the relatively small power gener ... Read »


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    • ELM327

    • The ELM327 is a programmed microcontroller produced by ELM Electronics for translating the on-board diagnostics (OBD) interface found in most modern cars. The ELM327 command protocol is one of the most popular PC-to-OBD interface standards and is also implemented by other vendors. The original ELM327 is implemented on ... Read »


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    • Emergency vehicle lighting

    • Emergency vehicle lighting is one or more visual warning lights fitted to a vehicle for use when the driver wishes to convey to other road users the urgency of their journey, to provide additional warning of a hazard when stationary, or in the case of law enforcement as a means of signalling another driver to stop for ... Read »


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    • Emission test cycle

    • An emission test cycle is a protocol contained in an emission standard to allow repeatable and comparable measurement of exhaust emissions for different engines or vehicles. Test cycles specify the specific conditions under which the engine or vehicle is operated during the emission test. There are many different test ... Read »


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    • Equalising beam

    • An equalising beam, equalising lever or equalising bar (German: Ausgleichshebel or Ausgleichhebel) links the suspension of two or more adjacent axles of a vehicle with more than two axles, especially railway locomotives. Its job is to provide 'compensated' springing, i.e. to ensure an even and statically determinate di ... Read »


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    • Exhaust heat recovery system

    • In transportation, an exhaust heat recovery system turns thermal losses in the exhaust pipe into energy. This technology seems to be more and more of interest by car and heavy-duty vehicle manufacturers as an efficient way to save fuel and reduce vehicles’ CO2 emissions. This technology can be used either on a hyb ... Read »


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    • Fast fuel system

    • A Fast fuel system allows speedy refuelling of vehicles. Most large earthmoving and mining vehicles with diesel fuel tanks over 150 US gallons (570 L) are equipped with fast refueling systems. Fast refueling systems utilize an automatic shut off fuel nozzle, receiver and level control device. Fast refuel systems ope ... Read »


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    • Floating Power

    • Floating Power was a technology developed in the 1920s by the United States automobile firm of Chrysler, credited mostly to the engineering of Owen Ray Skelton. It was a new means of attaching an engine to its chassis, with the intention of reducing vibration. Four-cylinder engines of the day started and rode rather ro ... Read »


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    • Four-wheel drive

    • Four-wheel drive, 4×4 ("four by four"), and 4WD, is a form of drivetrain capable of providing power to all wheel ends of a two-axled vehicle simultaneously. It may be full-time, or on-demand, and is typically linked via a transfer case which provides an additional output drive-shaft, along with additional gear range ... Read »


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    • Freightliner Inspiration


    • Front-wheel drive

    • Front-wheel drive (FWD) is a form of engine and transmission layout used in motor vehicles, where the engine drives the front wheels only. Most modern front-wheel-drive vehicles feature a transverse engine, rather than the conventional longitudinal engine arrangement generally found in rear-wheel-drive and four-wheel d ... Read »


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    • Handsfree

    • Hands-free is an adjective describing equipment that can be used without the use of hands (for example via voice commands) or, in a wider sense, equipment which needs only limited use of hands, or for which the controls are positioned so that the hands are able to occupy themselves with another task (such as driving) w ... Read »


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    • Hardtop

    • A hardtop is a rigid form of automobile roof. They may be detachable for separate storing, retractable within the vehicle itself, or permanently attached to an auto lacking a center side-support known as a B-pillar. The term is also used to describe such vehicles, principally the last. Hardtops may be either two-door ... Read »


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    • Head-up display

    • A head-up display or heads-up display, also known as a HUD, is any transparent display that presents data without requiring users to look away from their usual viewpoints. The origin of the name stems from a pilot being able to view information with the head positioned "up" and looking forward, instead of angled down l ... Read »


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    • Heater core

    • A heater core is a radiator-like device used in heating the cabin of a vehicle. Hot coolant from the vehicle's engine is passed through a winding tube of the core, a heat exchanger between coolant and cabin air. Fins attached to the core tubes serve to increase surface for heat transfer to air that is forced past them, ... Read »


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    • HEVT

    • The Hybrid Electric Vehicle Team of Virginia Tech, better known as HEVT, is a nationally recognized undergraduate student design team in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Virginia Tech. HEVT was formed in 1994 to compete in the 1995 Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) Challenge, one of the many competitions organiz ... Read »


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    • History of plug-in hybrids

    • The history of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) spans a little more than a century, but most of the significant commercial developments have taken place after 2002. The revival of interest in this automotive technology together with all-electric cars is due to advances in battery and power management technologi ... Read »


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    • Hood scoop

    • A bonnet/hood scoop, sometimes called bonnet airdam/air dam, is an upraised component on the hood of an motor vehicle that either allows a flow of air to directly enter the engine compartment, or appears to do so. It has only one opening and is closed on all other sides. Its main function is to allow a direct flow of a ... Read »


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    • Houdina Radio Control

    • Houdina Radio Control Co. was a radio equipment firm that was founded by Francis P Houdina, an electrical engineer in the U.S. Army. Francis P Houdina developed a radio-operated automobile. He equipped a 1926 Chandler with a transmitting antenna on the tonneau and operated from a second car that followed it with a ... Read »


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    • HUDWAY

    • HUDWAY is a California-based company that provides comprehensive head-up display (HUD) solutions for drivers all over the world. HUDWAY was founded in 2013 by cousins Ivan Klabukov and Alex Ostanin, their flagship navigation app HUDWAY has been downloaded over one million times since its launch. HUDWAY App: HUDW ... Read »


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    • Hydraulic hybrid vehicle

    • Hydraulic hybrid vehicles, or HHVs use a pressurized fluid power source, along with a conventional internal combustion engine (ICE), to achieve better fuel economy and reductions in harmful emissions. They capture and reuse 70%-80% of the vehicle's braking/decelerating energy compared to 25% for electric hybrids. For t ... Read »


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    • Hydrogen vehicle

    • A hydrogen vehicle is a vehicle that uses hydrogen as its onboard fuel for motive power. Hydrogen vehicles include hydrogen fueled space rockets, as well as automobiles and other transportation vehicles. The power plants of such vehicles convert the chemical energy of hydrogen to mechanical energy either by burning hyd ... Read »


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    • Kinetic energy recovery system

    • A kinetic energy recovery system (often known simply as KERS, or kers) is an automotive system for recovering a moving vehicle's kinetic energy under braking. The recovered energy is stored in a reservoir (for example a flywheel or high voltage batteries) for later use under acceleration. Examples include complex high ... Read »


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    • Knock-down kit

    • A knock-down kit is a kit containing the parts needed to assemble a product. The parts are typically manufactured in one country or region, then exported to another country or region for final assembly. Variant names include knockdown kit, knocked-down kit, or simply knockdown, and the abbreviated KD or CKD. A common ... Read »


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    • Launch control (automotive)

    • Launch control is an electronic aid to assist drivers of both racing and street cars to accelerate from a standing start. Popular automobiles with launch control include the BMW M series, certain marques of the Volkswagen Group with Direct-Shift Gearbox (most notably the Bugatti Veyron), Porsche 911 (sport++ mode), Pa ... Read »


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    • Automotive lighting

    • The lighting system of a motor vehicle consists of lighting and signalling devices mounted or integrated to the front, rear, sides, and in some cases the top of a motor vehicle. This lights the roadway for the driver and increases the of the vehicle, allowing other drivers and pedestrians to see a vehicle's presence, ... Read »


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    • Lightweighting

    • Lightweighting is a concept in the auto industry about building cars and trucks that are less heavy as a way to achieve better fuel efficiency and handling. Carmakers make parts from carbon fiber, windshields from plastic, and bumpers out of aluminum foam, as ways to lessen vehicle load. Replacing car parts with lighte ... Read »


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    • Longitudinal engine

    • In automotive engineering, a longitudinal engine is an internal combustion engine in which the crankshaft is oriented along the long axis of the vehicle, front to back. ... Read »


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    • Merrill Wheel-Balancing System

    • The Merrill Wheel-Balancing System was the world's first electronic dynamic wheel-balancing system. It was invented in 1945 by Marcellus Merrill at the Merrill Engineering Laboratories, 2390 South Tejon Street, Englewood, Colorado, and is now recorded on the list of IEEE Milestones in electronic engineering and as an A ... Read »


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    • MESA Certification

    • MESA Certification is the Mobile Electronics Schools Association, an organization initiated by privately owned mobile electronics schools. The association develops educational standards for all approved mobile electronics training facilities, and prepare graduates for careers in car audio. The MESA exams provide bench ... Read »


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    • Modular vehicle

    • A modular vehicle is one in which substantial components of the vehicle are interchangeable. This modularity is intended to make repairs and maintenance easier, or to allow the vehicle to be reconfigured to suit different functions. Another application of modular vehicle design is to enable the exchange of batteries i ... Read »


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    • Nira Dynamics AB

    • NIRA Dynamics AB

      NIRA Dynamics AB is a Swedish company focusing on research and development of signal processing and control systems for the automotive industry. It supplies automotive original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and suppliers in Europe, North America, Latin America, and Asia with its products and systems. In 2015, the numb ... Read »


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    • Oil Catch Tank

    • An oil catch tank (oil catch can) is a device that is fitted into the cam/crank case ventilation system on a car. Installing an oil catch tank (can) aims to reduce the amount of oil vapors re-circulated into the intake of the engine. During normal operation of a car engine, some vapors from the cylinder pass by th ... Read »


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    • Omniview technology

    • Omniview technology (also known as "surround view" or "bird view technology") is a vehicle parking assistant technology that became available in vehicle electronic products since around 2005. It is designed to help drivers in parking a vehicle in small space. Early vehicle parking assistant products use radar or a sin ... Read »


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    • OBD-II PIDs

    • OBD-II PIDs (On-board diagnostics Parameter IDs) are codes used to request data from a vehicle, used as a diagnostic tool. SAE standard J/1979 defines many PIDs, but manufacturers also define many more PIDs specific to their vehicles. All light duty vehicles (i.e. less than 8,500 pounds) sold in North America since 19 ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • On-board diagnostics

    • On-board diagnostics (OBD) is an automotive term referring to a vehicle's self-diagnostic and reporting capability. OBD systems give the vehicle owner or repair technician access to the status of the various vehicle subsystems. The amount of diagnostic information available via OBD has varied widely since its introduct ... Read »


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    • Open Dots

    • Open Dots is a specification for conductive wireless power technology for charging devices. It is overseen by the Open Dots Alliance, a 501(c)(6) non-profit organization formed by JVIS USA, LLC, based in Shelby, Michigan. In May 2015, the alliance stated that the Open Dots standard was used in 12 vehicle models acros ... Read »


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    • OSEK

    • OSEK (Offene Systeme und deren Schnittstellen für die Elektronik in Kraftfahrzeugen; English: "Open Systems and their Interfaces for the Electronics in Motor Vehicles") is a standards body that has produced specifications for an embedded operating system, a communications stack, and a network management protocol for ... Read »


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    • Paint protection film

    • Paint Protection Film (PPF, also called clear bra, clear film or clear paint film) is a thermoplastic urethane film applied to painted surfaces of a new or used car in order to protect the paint from stone chips, bug splatters, and minor abrasions. This film is also used on airplanes, RVs, cell phones, electronics, scr ... Read »


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    • Personal Car Communicator

    • A Personal Car Communicator (PCC) is a system of protection in a key fob developed by Volvo. The Personal Car Communicator was first introduced by the company in the new S80 sedan for model year 2007. The personal car communicator uses a two-way radio communicator, allowing the vehicle owner to check such security ite ... Read »


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    • Platoon (automobile)

    • Grouping vehicles into platoons is a method of increasing the capacity of roads. An automated highway system is a proposed technology for doing this. Platoons decrease the distances between cars or trucks using electronic, and possibly mechanical, coupling. This capability would allow many cars or trucks to accelerate ... Read »


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    • Plug-in hybrid

    • A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) is a hybrid electric vehicle that uses rechargeable batteries, or another energy storage device, that can be recharged by plugging it in to an external source of electric power. A PHEV shares the characteristics both of a conventional hybrid electric vehicle, having an electric ... Read »


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    • Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Research Center

    • The Plug-In Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Research Center at the University of California, Davis, United States, provides technology and policy guidance to the state, helps solve research questions and addresses commercialization issues for PHEVs. It was launched in 2007 with funding from the California Air Resources Bo ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Plug-in hybrids in California

    • California has been a leader in the promotion of plug-in hybrids (PHEVs), and plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in general, including all-electric vehicles (BEVs) and other zero-emission vehicles. California is the largest U.S. car market and also the leading plug-in electric vehicle market in the country with over 200, ... Read »


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    • Plug-in hybrids in New York

    • The state of New York is in the process of adding plug-in hybrid vehicles to its state fleet, through the purchase of new units and the conversion of its current fleet to electric power. The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, NYSERDA, is a public benefit corporation created in 1975 under Art ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Power antenna

    • A power antenna is an electrically motorized automotive radio antenna that raises and lowers either manually with a dash-mounted switch or automatically by turning the radio on or off. The automatic kind will also lower when the ignition switch is turned off. Unlike most car antennas adjusted directly by hand, power an ... Read »


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    • Power door locks

    • Power door locks (also known as electric door locks or central locking) allow the driver or front passenger to simultaneously lock or unlock all the doors of an automobile or truck, by pressing a button or flipping a switch. Power door locks were introduced on the luxury Scripps-Booth in 1914, but were not common on l ... Read »


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    • Powertrain

    • In a motor vehicle, the term powertrain or powerplant describes the main components that generate power and deliver it to the road surface, water, or air. This includes the engine, transmission, drive shafts, differentials, and the final drive (drive wheels, continuous track as in military tanks or caterpillar tractors ... Read »


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    • Pre-production car

    • Pre-production cars are vehicles that allow the automaker to find problems before a new model goes on sale to the public. Pre-production cars come after prototypes, or development mules which themselves are preceded by concept cars. Pre-production vehicles are followed by production vehicles in the mass production of t ... Read »


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    • Quill drive

    • A quill drive is a mechanism that allows a drive shaft to shift its position (either axially, , or both) relative to its driving shaft. It consists of a hollow driving shaft (the quill) with a driven shaft inside it. The two are connected in some fashion which permits the required motion. One example of a quill dr ... Read »


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    • Ram-air intake

    • A ram-air intake is any intake design which uses the dynamic air pressure created by vehicle motion to increase the static air pressure inside of the intake manifold on an internal combustion engine, thus allowing a greater massflow through the engine and hence increasing engine power. The ram-air intake works by ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Remote keyless system

    • A keyless entry system is an electronic lock that controls access to a building or vehicle without using a traditional mechanical key. The term keyless entry system originally meant a lock controlled by a keypad located at or near the driver's door, that required pressing a predetermined (or self-programmed) numeric co ... Read »


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    • Retractable hardtop

    • A retractable hardtop, also known as coupé convertible or coupé cabriolet, employs an automatically operated, multi-part, self-storing hardtop in lieu of a folding textile-based roof. Documentation indicates that an American engineer Ben P. Ellerbeck explored the idea of a retractable hardtop as early as 1919 â ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Road-powered electric vehicle

    • Road powered electric vehicles (RPEV) (sometimes called roadway powered electric vehicles) collect any form of potential energy from the road surface to supply electricity to locomotive motors and ancillary equipment within the vehicle. A Road Powered electric vehicle may be defined as a transport capsule with the ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Rolling code

    • A rolling code (or sometimes called a hopping code) is used in keyless entry systems to prevent replay attacks, where an eavesdropper records the transmission and replays it at a later time to cause the receiver to 'unlock'. Such systems are typical in garage door openers and keyless car entry systems. A rolling c ... Read »


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    • Roof flap

    • A roof flap is an aerodynamic feature on race cars, mainly , which functions as an emergency spoiler to prevent the vehicle from lifting off the ground. The flaps are stowed during normal vehicle operation; however, in certain situations, e.g., if the vehicle goes into a spin, particularly if it is facing backwards, th ... Read »


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    • Roof module

    • A roof module is a complete top for a convertible. Such tops can be a softtop or a retractable hardtop which is produced by specialized convertible top suppliers and supplied to the OEMs. The OEMs finally are completing their cars in their own production lines with these tops to a convertible. Depending on the OEM it ... Read »


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    • SAE J1587

    • J1587 is an automotive diagnostic protocol standard developed by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) for heavy-duty and most medium-duty vehicles built after 1985. The J1587 protocol uses different diagnostic connectors. Up to 1995, individual OEMs used their own connectors. From 1996 to 2001, the 6-pin Deutsch-c ... Read »


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    • Safe Road Trains for the Environment

    • Safe Road Trains for the Environment (SARTRE) is a European Commission-funded project to investigate and trial technologies and strategies for the safe platooning of road vehicles, a transportation concept in which several vehicles are electronically linked together in a "road train", with only the lead driver in activ ... Read »


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    • Shift by wire

    • Shift by wire is the system by which the transmission modes are engaged/changed in an automobile through electronic controls without any mechanical linkage between the gear shifting lever and the transmission. The transmission shifting was traditionally accomplished by mechanical links to put the vehicle in Park, Rever ... Read »


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    • Solar bus

    • A solar bus or solar-charged bus is a bus which is powered exclusively or mainly by solar energy. A solar-powered bus service is referred to as a solar bus service. The use of the term "solar bus" normally implies that solar energy is used not only for powering electric equipment on the bus, but also for the propulsion ... Read »


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    • Soundaktor

    • Soundaktor (German for "sound actuator") is a vehicle audio system used to simulate engine noise in the cabin of some Volkswagen automobiles. It consists of a speaker mounted on the firewall between the engine and the cabin, which adds noise to the cabin in order to replicate the driving experience of older vehicles th ... Read »


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    • Spaceframe chassis

    • In architecture and structural engineering, a space frame or space structure is a truss-like, lightweight rigid structure constructed from interlocking struts in a geometric pattern. Space frames can be used to span large areas with few interior supports. Like the truss, a space frame is strong because of the inherent ... Read »


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    • Spoiler (car)

    • A spoiler is an automotive aerodynamic device whose intended design function is to 'spoil' unfavorable air movement across a body of a vehicle in motion, usually described as turbulence or drag. Spoilers on the front of a vehicle are often called air dams. Spoilers are often fitted to race and high-performance sports c ... Read »


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    • Start-stop system

    • In automobiles, a start-stop system or stop-start system automatically shuts down and restarts the internal combustion engine to reduce the amount of time the engine spends idling, thereby reducing fuel consumption and emissions. This is most advantageous for vehicles which spend significant amounts of time waiting at ... Read »


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    • State of health

    • State of health (SOH) is a figure of merit of the condition of a battery (or a cell, or a battery pack), compared to its ideal conditions. The units of SOH are percent points (100% = the battery's conditions match the battery's specifications). Typically, a battery's SOH will be 100% at the time of manufacture and wil ... Read »


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    • Stressed skin

    • In mechanical engineering, stressed skin is a type of rigid construction, intermediate between monocoque and a rigid frame with a non-loaded covering. A stressed skin structure has its compression-taking elements localized and its tension-taking elements distributed. Typically, the main frame has rectangular structure ... Read »


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    • Symmetrical All Wheel Drive

    • Symmetrical All Wheel Drive (also known as Symmetrical AWD or SAWD) is a full-time four wheel drive system developed by Japanese automobile manufacturer Subaru. The SAWD system consists of a longitudinally mounted boxer engine coupled to a symmetrical drivetrain with equal length half-axles. The combination of the symm ... Read »


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    • Tachograph

    • A tachograph is a device fitted to a vehicle that automatically records its speed and distance, together with the driver's activity selected from a choice of modes. The drive mode is activated automatically when the vehicle is in motion, and modern tachograph heads usually default to the other work mode upon coming to ... Read »


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    • Tachometer

    • A tachometer (revolution-counter, tach, rev-counter, RPM gauge) is an instrument measuring the rotation speed of a shaft or disk, as in a motor or other machine. The device usually displays the revolutions per minute (RPM) on a calibrated analogue dial, but digital displays are increasingly common. The word comes from ... Read »


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    • Taximeter

    • A taximeter is a mechanical or electronic device installed in taxicabs and auto rickshaws that calculates passenger fares based on a combination of distance travelled and waiting time. Its shortened form, "taxi", is also a metonym for the hired cars that use them. The modern taximeter was invented by German Friedr ... Read »


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    • Ten-wheel drive

    • Ten-wheel drive, 10WD or 10×10 is a drivetrain configuration of ten wheels, all of which are driven simultaneously by the engine. Unlike four-wheel drive drivetrains, this configuration is only used in extreme off-road and military uses, in particular heavy duty uses, such a heavy haulage and missile carriers. It is ... Read »


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    • Tesla Autopilot

    • Tesla Autopilot is a driver assist feature offered by Tesla. The company's stated intent is to offer fully autonomous driving at a future time, acknowledging that legal, regulatory and technical hurdles must be overcome to achieve this goal. In the middle of 2017, Teslas plans were to demonstrate full self-driving by t ... Read »


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    • Tesla station

    • Tesla Superchargers are a network of 480-volt fast-charging stations built by Tesla Inc. to allow longer journeys for their all-electric manufactured vehicles (Model S, 3 and X), through quick charging of the vehicle's battery packs. Tesla began building the network in 2012. As of 18 December 2016[update], there were ... Read »


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    • Tire mousse

    • Tire mousse is a component in certain types of off-road run flat tires, designed to allow them to maintain functionality despite a puncture. It is a ring of flexible foam that is placed inside a tire before it is fitted on the rim. The original run-flat mousse, called Bib-Mousse, was developed in 1984 by Michelin, for ... Read »


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    • Tire-pressure monitoring system

    • A tire-pressure monitoring system (TPMS) is an electronic system designed to monitor the air pressure inside the pneumatic tires on various types of vehicles. TPMS report real-time tire-pressure information to the driver of the vehicle, either via a gauge, a pictogram display, or a simple low-pressure warning light. TP ... Read »


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    • Toyota Connected

    • Toyota Connected is a collaboration between Microsoft and Toyota, which was announced on April 4, 2016. The company will serve as the car maker's data science hub as it seeks to connect cars to people’s daily lives. Microsoft's Azure will be the cloud computing platform, providing a hybrid solution for everything ... Read »


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    • Trailer connectors in Australia

    • Symbol guide

      A number of standards prevail in Australia for trailer connectors, the electrical connectors between vehicles and the trailers they tow that provide a means of control for the trailers. The Australian market uses its own version of especially the European contacts, but also completely own contacts. The only connector ... Read »


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    • Trailer connectors in military organizations

    • A number of standards specific to military organizations exist for trailer connectors, the electrical connectors between vehicles and the trailers they tow that provide a means of control for the trailers. These can be found on surplus equipment sold for civilian use. NATO uses a 12-pin connector according to STAN ... Read »


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    • Trailer connectors in North America

    • A number of standards prevail in North America, or parts of it, for trailer connectors, the electrical connectors between vehicles and the trailers they tow that provide a means of control for the trailers. In the North American market it is very common for brake lights and turn signals to be combined. On cars an ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Trailer connectors in Europe

    • A number of standards prevail in Europe for trailer connectors, the electrical connectors between vehicles and the trailers they tow that provide a means of control for the trailers. Multicon Feder and Multicon WeSt (Welt Standard) connectors are precursors to ISO 11446 in a design that is intended to be compatibl ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Trailer skirt

    • A trailer skirt or side skirt is a device affixed to the underside of a semi-trailer, for the purpose of reducing aerodynamic drag caused by air turbulence. Trailer skirts have been recognized by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's SmartWay Transport Partnership as a verified aerodynamic technology, eligible for ... Read »


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    • Trailer tail

    • A trailer tail, boat tail, or rear fairing is an aerodynamic device intended to improve the fuel economy of semi-trailer trucks. It comprises a set of panels, usually collapsible, which fold out from the rear of the trailer, creating a tapered shape that reduces drag from the low-pressure wake created behind the traile ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Transponder car key

    • A transponder chip disarms a vehicle immobiliser when the car key is used to start the engine. The majority of keys to cars built after 1995 contain transponder chips. When the car key is turned in the ignition, the engine control unit (ECU) on the car sends an electronic message to the key, and it will allow the car ... Read »


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    • Transverse engine

    • A transverse engine is an engine mounted in a vehicle so that the engine's crankshaft axis is perpendicular to the long axis of the vehicle. Many modern front wheel drive vehicles use this engine mounting configuration. (Most rear wheel drive vehicles use a longitudinal engine configuration, where the engine's cranksha ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Trip computer

    • A trip computer is a computer fitted to some cars; most modern trip computers record, calculate, and display the distance travelled, the average speed, the average fuel consumption, and real-time fuel consumption. The first, mechanical trip computers, such as the Halda Speedpilot, produced by a Swedish taximeter manuf ... Read »


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    • Triple-hybrid

    • Triple-hybrid is a registered trademark (German Trademark DE 307 68 078, European Community trademark application CTM 010704237) of the German company Proton Motor Fuel Cell GmbH which is used to designate a special drive system that has been developed and patented by Proton Motor Fuel Cell GmbH (European Patent EP 1 8 ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Twelve wheel drive

    • Twelve-wheel drive, 12WD or 12x12 is a drivetrain configuration of twelve wheels, all of which are driven simultaneously by the engine. Unlike four-wheel drive drivetrains, this configuration is only used in extreme off-road and military uses, in particular heavy duty uses, such a heavy haulage and missile carriers. I ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Ultrasuede

    • Ultrasuede is the trade name for a synthetic microfiber fabric invented in 1970 by Dr. Miyoshi Okamoto, a scientist working for Toray Industries. In Japan it is sold under the brand name Ecsaine. It's an ultra-microfiber. It is often described as an artificial substitute for suede leather. The fabric is multifunctional ... Read »


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    • Underseal

    • Underseal (often called undercoating in the U.S.) is a thick resilient coating applied to the underbody or chassis of an automobile to protect against impact damage from small stones, which would rapidly chip ordinary paint, allowing rusting to begin. Historically a bitumen-based compound was used, but after approxima ... Read »


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    • Unified Diagnostic Services

    • Unified Diagnostic Services (UDS) is a diagnostic communication protocol in the electronic control unit (ECU) environment within the automotive electronics, which is specified in the ISO 14229-1. It is derived from ISO 14230-3 (KWP2000) and ISO 15765-3 (Diagnostic Communication over Controller Area Network (DoCAN)). Un ... Read »


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    • Universal Electric Vehicle

    • Universal Electric Vehicle Corporation (U.E.V.) is a manufacturer of electric cars and alternative fuel vehicles founded in 1998 by Greg Lane and headquartered in Thousand Oaks, California, United States. U.E.V. currently manufactures a series under proprietary technology called the Electrum which consists of two vehi ... Read »


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    • UW Hybrid Vehicle Team

    • The Wisconsin Hybrid Vehicle Team consists mainly of undergraduate students from the University of Wisconsin–Madison who work together to build a hybrid electric vehicle. Many of the members have little to no previous automotive experience. New team members are taught alongside veteran student members. This p ... Read »


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    • Vacuum delay valve

    • A vacuum delay valve is a valve with a small orifice, which delays a vacuum signal. These are commonly used in automobiles to alter the behavior of vacuum switches, vacuum motors, and other vacuum devices. The engine in a common automobile produces almost 20 inches of mercury (68 kPa) of vacuum, and this pressure d ... Read »


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    • Variable reluctance sensor

    • A variable reluctance sensor (commonly called a VR sensor) is a transducer that, when combined with very basic electronic circuitry, detects the change in presence or proximity of ferrous objects. With more complex circuitry and the addition of software and specific mechanical hardware, a VR sensor can also provide me ... Read »


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    • Vehicle audio

    • Vehicle audio is equipment installed in a car or other vehicle to provide in-car entertainment and information for the vehicle occupants. Until the 1950s it consisted of a simple AM radio. Additions since then have included FM radio (1952), CD players (1984), navigation systems, Bluetooth telephone integration, and sma ... Read »


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    • Vehicle dynamics

    • Vehicle dynamics refers to the dynamics of vehicles, here assumed to be ground vehicles. Vehicle dynamics is a part of engineering primarily based on classical mechanics. This article applies primarily to automobiles. For single-track vehicles, specifically the two-wheeled variety, see bicycle and motorcycle dynamics. ... Read »


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    • Vehicle frame

    • A vehicle frame is the main supporting structure of a motor vehicle to which all other components are attached, comparable to the skeleton of an organism. Until the 1930s, virtually every car had a structural frame, separate from its body. This construction design is known as body-on-frame. Over time, nearly all passe ... Read »


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    • Vehicle identification number

    • A vehicle identification number (VIN), also called a chassis number, is a unique code, including a serial number, used by the automotive industry to identify individual motor vehicles, towed vehicles, motorcycles, scooters and mopeds, as defined in ISO 3833. VINs were first used in 1954. From 1954 to 1981, there was n ... Read »


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    • Vehicle infrastructure integration

    • Vehicle Infrastructure Integration (VII) is an initiative fostering research and applications development for a series of technologies directly linking road vehicles to their physical surroundings, first and foremost in order to improve road safety. The technology draws on several disciplines, including transport engin ... Read »


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    • Vehicle-to-grid

    • Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) describes a system in which plug-in electric vehicles, such as electric cars (BEV) and plug-in hybrids (PHEV), communicate with the power grid to sell demand response services by either returning electricity to the grid or by throttling their charging rate. Vehicle-to-grid can be used with gridab ... Read »


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    • VIN cloning

    • VIN cloning or car cloning, is a practice of using a vehicle identification number (VIN) from a legally registered car to hide the identity of a stolen or salvaged vehicle. The procedure involves replacing the serial plate of a stolen or salvage repaired vehicle with a plate containing the number of a validly registere ... Read »


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    • VisLab

    • Artificial Vision and Intelligent Systems Lab

      Coordinates: 44°45′54″N 10°18′30″E / 44.764894°N 10.308455°E / 44.764894; 10.308455 VisLab is an Italian company working on computer vision and environmental perception for vehicular applications. VisLab (i.e. the Artificial Vision and Intelligent Systems Laboratory) ... Read »


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    • VisLab Intercontinental Autonomous Challenge

    • VIAC, the VisLab Intercontinental Autonomous Challenge, is the challenge conceived by VisLab as an extreme test of autonomous vehicles. It ran from July 20, 2010 to October 28, 2010, involving four driverless vehicles driving with virtually no human intervention on an almost 16,000 kilometres (9,900 mi) trip from Pa ... Read »


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    • Weather Eye

    • The Weather Eye was a trade name for a Nash Motors-designed fresh-air system for automobile passenger compartment heating, cooling, and ventilating. The Nash "All-Weather Eye" was the first automobile air conditioning system for the mass market. The use of the Weather Eye name for automobile passenger heating and air c ... Read »


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    • Weymann Fabric Bodies

    • Weymann Fabric Bodies is a patented design system for fuselages for aircraft and superlight coachwork for motor vehicles. The system used a patent-jointed wood frame covered in fabric. It was popular on cars from the 1920s until the early 1930s as it reduced the usual squeaks and rattles of coachbuilt bodies by its use ... Read »


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    • Wheel sizing

    • The wheel size for a motor vehicle or similar wheel has a number of parameters. The bolt pattern determines the number and position of the mounting holes to allow the wheel to be bolted to the hub. As the bolts are evenly spaced, the number of bolts determines the pattern. For example: smaller cars have three (Cit ... Read »


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    • Window deflector

    • A window deflector is mounted above the doors of some automobiles, to protect the inside of the car from rain or other precipitation in case of slightly opened windows. Additionally, it may help to prevent precipitation entering the interior in case of an opened door, e.g. dropping from the roof or directly from the ai ... Read »


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    • World car

    • The phrase world car is an engineering strategy used to describe an automobile designed to suit the needs of global automotive markets with minimal changes in each market it is sold in. The goal of a world car program is to save costs and increase quality by standardizing parts and design for a single vehicle in a cert ... Read »


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    • World Motorcycle Test Cycle

    • The World Motorcycle Test Cycle (WMTC) is a system of driving cycles used to measure fuel consumption and emissions in motorcycles. The methods are stipulated as part of the Global Technical Regulation established under the United Nations’ World Forum for Harmonisation of Vehicle Regulations, also known as WP.29. ... Read »


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