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    Atmospheric science stubs

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    • Atmospheric scientist stubs

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    • Weather event stubs

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    • 1566 celestial phenomenon over Basel

    • The 1566 celestial phenomenon over Basel was a series of mass sightings of celestial phenomena above Basel, Switzerland. The Basel pamphlet of 1566 describes unusual sunrises and sunsets. Celestial phenomena were said to have "fought" together in the form of numerous red and black balls in the sky before the rising sun ... Read »


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    • 1982–83 El Niño event


    • 2002 North American drought

    • The 2002 North American Drought was an exceptional and damaging drought which impacted the Western United States, Midwestern United States and the Mountain States. The Drought of 2002 began around spring and spread over numerous states, including Nebraska, Iowa, Colorado, Wyoming and Utah.Denver was forced to impose w ... Read »


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    • 2016 Cross Hurricane Season


    • Ab-polar current

    • Ab-polar current, an obsolete term sometimes found in 19th century meteorological literature, refers to any air current moving away from either the North Pole or the South Pole. In the Northern Hemisphere, this term indicates a northerly wind. The Latin prefix ab- means "from" or "away from". ... Read »


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    • Abrolhos squall

    • An Abrolhos squall (or Abroholos squall or simply abroholos) typically occurs from May through August (austral winter) near the Abrolhos Islands off the coast of eastern Brazil near 18°S latitude, located between Cabo de São Tomé and Cabo Frio. The southeast trade winds of the tropical South Atlantic Ocean ac ... Read »


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    • Accessory cloud

    • An accessory cloud is a cloud which is dependent on a larger cloud system for its development and continuance. It is often an appendage but also can be adjacent to the parent cloud system. The arcus and roll clouds, shelf cloud, wall cloud, and scud are examples of low level or vertical accessory clouds whilst the anv ... Read »


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    • Accretion (atmosphere)

    • Accretion is an atmospheric science term for when an ice crystal or snowflake hits a supercooled liquid droplet, which then freeze together. This increases the size of the water particle. A common example of this that is visible to people is graupel. ... Read »


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    • Accretion (meteorology)

    • Accretion is defined as the gradual collection of something over time. In meteorology it is the process of accumulation of frozen water as precipitation over time as it descends through the atmosphere. The collection of these particles eventually forms snow or hail in clouds and depending on lower atmosphere temperatur ... Read »


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    • Aerography (meteorology)

    • Aerography is the production of weather charts. The information is supplied by radiosonde observations, principally. Constant-pressure charts are routinely constructed at standard air pressures. Standard air pressures are 850, 700, 500, 400, 300, 250, and 200 millibars (hectopascals) (hPa) (SI). Weather charts are some ... Read »


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    • Aerostatics

    • A subfield of fluid statics, aerostatics is the study of gases that are not in motion with respect to the coordinate system in which they are considered. The corresponding study of gases in motion is called aerodynamics. Aerostatics studies density allocation, especially in air. One of the applications of this is the ... Read »


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    • Aethrioscope

    • An aethrioscope (or æthrioscope) is a meteorological device invented by Sir John Leslie in 1818 for measuring the chilling effect of a clear sky. The name is from the Greek word for clear - αίθριος. It consists of a metallic cup standing upon a tall hollow pedestal, with a differential thermome ... Read »


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    • Afterglow

    • An afterglow is a broad high arch of whitish or rosy light appearing in the sky due to very fine particles of dust suspended in the high regions of the atmosphere. An afterglow may appear above the highest clouds in the hour of deepening twilight, or reflected from the high snowfields in mountain regions long after sun ... Read »


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    • Ageostrophy

    • Ageostrophy is the real condition that works against geostrophic wind or geostrophic currents in the ocean, and works against an exact balance between the Coriolis force and the pressure gradient force. While geostrophic currents or winds come from an equilibrium of a particular system, ageostrophy is more often observ ... Read »


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    • Air current

    • Air currents are concentrated areas of winds. They are mainly due to differences in pressure and/or temperature. They are divided into horizontal and vertical currents: both are present at mesoscale while horizontal ones dominate at synoptic scale. Air currents are not only found in the troposphere, but extend to the s ... Read »


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    • Air pollution episode

    • An air pollution episode is an unusual combination of emissions and meteorology that gives rise to high levels of air pollution over a large area. Examples of air pollution episodes include: Smog, Haze, Ozone, PM2.5, Air Pollution, Inversion ... Read »


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    • Air stagnation

    • Air stagnation is a phenomenon which occurs when an air mass remains over an area for an extended period. Due to light winds and lack of precipitation, pollutants cannot be cleared from the air, either gaseous (like ozone) or particulate (like soot or dust). Subsidence produced directly under the subtropical ridge can ... Read »


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    • Airborne fraction

    • The airborne fraction is a scaling factor defined as the ratio of the annual increase in atmospheric CO 2 to the CO 2 emissions from anthropogenic sources. It represents the proportion of human emitted CO2 that remains in the atmosphere. The fraction averages about 45%, meaning that approximately half the human-emitted ... Read »


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    • Aircraft Meteorological Data Relay

    • Aircraft Meteorological Data Relay (AMDAR) is a program initiated by the World Meteorological Organization. AMDAR is used to collect meteorological data worldwide by using commercial aircraft. Data is collected by the aircraft navigation systems and the onboard standard temperature and static pressure probes. The data ... Read »


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    • Airshed

    • An airshed is a part of the atmosphere that behaves in a coherent way with respect to the dispersion of emissions. It typically forms an analytical or management unit. Also: a geographic boundary for air-quality standards. Alternatively - an airshed is a geographical area where local topography and meteorology limit t ... Read »


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    • Alberta Hail Project

    • The Alberta Hail Project was a research project sponsored by the Alberta Research Council and Environment Canada to study hailstorm physics and dynamics in order to design and test means for suppressing hail. It ran from 1956 until 1985. The main instrument in this research was an S-band circularly polarized weather ra ... Read »


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    • Mackerel sky

    • Mackerel sky

      A mackerel sky is a common term for a sky with rows of cirrocumulus or clouds displaying an undulating, rippling pattern similar in appearance to fish scales; this is caused by high altitude atmospheric waves. Cirrocumulus appears almost exclusively with cirrus some way ahead of a warm front and is a reliable forecas ... Read »


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    • Anabatic wind

    • An anabatic wind, from the Greek , verbal of anabainein meaning moving upward, is a warm wind which blows up a steep slope or mountain side, driven by heating of the slope through insolation. It is also known as an upslope flow. These winds typically occur during the daytime in calm sunny weather. A hill or mountain to ... Read »


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    • Anemoscope

    • An anemoscope is a device invented to show the direction of the wind, or to foretell a change of wind direction or weather. Hygroscopic devices, in particular those utilizing catgut, were considered as very good anemoscopes, seldom failing to foretell the shifting of the wind. The ancient anemoscope seems, by Vitruviu ... Read »


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    • Annual cycle

    • An annual cycle refers to a set of changes or events that uniformly, or consistently, take place at the same time of year. In biology, the annual cycle for plants and animals details behavioral and chemical changes that take place as the seasons advance. In religion, the annual cycle refers to the various celebration ... Read »


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    • Antarctic Circumpolar Wave

    • The Antarctic Circumpolar Wave (ACW) is a coupled ocean/atmosphere wave that circles the Southern Ocean in approximately eight years at 6–8 cm/s (2.4–3.1 in/s). Since it is a wave-2 phenomenon (there are two ridges and two troughs in a latitude circle) at each fixed point in space a signal with a period ... Read »


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    • Antarctic oscillation

    • The Antarctic oscillation (AAO, to distinguish it from the Arctic oscillation or AO) is a low-frequency mode of atmospheric variability of the southern hemisphere. It is also known as the Southern Annular Mode (SAM). It is defined as a belt of westerly winds or low pressure surrounding Antarctica which moves north or s ... Read »


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    • Anthelion

    • An anthelion (plural anthelia, from late Greek ανθηλιος, "opposite the sun") is a rare optical phenomenon appearing on the parhelic circle opposite to the sun as a faint white halo, not unlike a sundog. How anthelions are formed is disputed. Walter Tape, among others, has argued they are not se ... Read »


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    • Anticyclonic rotation

    • Anticyclonic rotation or circulation is movement in the direction opposite to the Earth's rotation. In the attached video an example of an anticyclonic couplet to a supercell is documented. Note that while the supercell itself is rotating in a cyclonic direction, the couplet is forced into an anticyclonic rotation due ... Read »


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    • Anticyclonic storm

    • An anticyclonic storm is a weather storm where winds around the storm flow in the direction opposite to that of the flow about a region of low pressure. In the Northern Hemisphere, anticyclonic storms involve clockwise wind flow; in the Southern Hemisphere, they involve counterclockwise wind flow. Anticyclonic storms ... Read »


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    • April shower

    • In the United Kingdom and Ireland, an April shower is rain during the month of April. One of the major causes of the often heavy downpours is the position of the jet stream. In early spring, the jet stream starts to move northwards, allowing large depressions to bring strong winds and rain in from the Atlantic. In one ... Read »


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    • Arctic front

    • The Arctic front is the semipermanent, semi-continuous weather front between the cold arctic air mass and the warmer air of the polar cell. It can also be defined as the southern boundary of the Arctic air mass. Mesoscale cyclones known as polar lows can form along the arctic front in the wake of extratropical cyclones ... Read »


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    • Atmospheric focusing

    • Atmospheric focusing is a phenomenon occurring when a large shock wave is produced in the atmosphere, as in a nuclear explosion or large extraterrestrial object impact. The shock wave is refracted horizontally by density variations in the atmosphere so that it can have impacts in localized areas much further away than ... Read »


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    • Atmospheric Research

    • Abbreviated title (ISO 4)
      Atmos. Res. Discipline Atmospheric sciences Language English Publication details Publisher
      Elsevier (Netherlands)
      Publication history
      1986–present No 3.377 Indexing ISSN
    • Atmospheric Research  

      Atmospheric Research is a scientific journal dealing with the part of the atmosphere where meteorological events occur; intended for atmospheric scientists (such as meteorologists and climatologists), aerosol scientists, and hydrologists. It is a highly international journal with attention given to all processes extend ... Read »


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    • Atmospheric temperature

    • Atmospheric temperature is a measure of temperature at different levels of the Earth's atmosphere. It is governed by many factors, including incoming solar radiation, humidity and altitude. When discussing surface temperature, the annual atmospheric temperature range at any geographical location depends largely upon th ... Read »


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    • Australian Integrated Forecast System

    • Australian Integrated Forecast System

      The Australian Integrated Forecast System (AIFS) is a UNIX and Linux -based processing, display, analysis and communications system for meteorological data. It incorporates facilities for the ingest and storage of meteorological and hydrological observations, which can be displayed, analysed and manipulated on scree ... Read »


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    • Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society

    • The Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society (AMOS) is an independent learned society that supports and fosters interest in Meteorology, Oceanography and other related sciences. AMOS was founded in April 1987 as a successor to the Australian Branch of the Royal Meteorological Society which at the time had ex ... Read »


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    • Automated Meteorological Data Acquisition System

    • AMeDAS (Automated Meteorological Data Acquisition System), commonly known in Japanese as "アメダス" (amedasu), is a high-resolution surface observation network developed by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) used for gathering regional weather data and verifying forecast performance. The system began ... Read »


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    • Bali Declaration by Climate Scientists

    • The 2007 Bali Declaration by Climate Scientists was a statement signed by over 200 climate scientists advocating specific targets for greenhouse gas emissions for the 21st century. The statement was based on the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Article 2 that committed signatories to the "...stabil ... Read »


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    • Baron Tornado Index


    • Basic precipitation

    • Basic precipitation or Alkaline precipitation occurs when calcium oxide or sodium hydroxide are emitted into the atmosphere, and are absorbed by water droplets in clouds, which then fall as rain, snow, or sleet. This can increase the pH of soil or bodies of water, which can lead to increased fungal growth. The princip ... Read »


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    • Bayamo (wind)

    • A bayamo is a violent wind blowing from the land on the south coast of Cuba, especially near the Bight of Bayamo. It is also the namesake for Giddings and Webster's most popular tuba mouthpiece. ... Read »


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    • BBC Climate Change Experiment

    • The BBC Climate Change Experiment was a BOINC project led by Oxford University with several partners including the UK Met Office, the BBC, the Open University and Reading University. It is the Transient coupled model of the Climateprediction.net project. Many participants joined the project with over 120,000 people si ... Read »


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    • Beard and Chuang model

    • The Beard and Chuang model is a well known and leading theoretical force balance model used to derive the rotational cross-sections of raindrops in their equilibrium state by employing Chebyshev polynomials in series. The radius-vector of the raindrop's surface r(θ){\displaystyle r(\theta )} in vertical angular dir ... Read »


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    • Belgrade Meteorological Station

    • Meteorology was first practiced in Serbia when meteorological data was gathered, monitored and recorded on a daily basis, in 1848, in Belgrade. Daily, meteorological forecasts started in 1892. The first meteorologist was Vladimir JakÅ¡ić. While the first meteorological observation post was in a nearby private hou ... Read »


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    • Bergen School of Meteorology

    • The "Bergen School of Meteorology" is a school of thought which is the basis for much of modern weather forecasting. Founded by the meteorologist Prof. Vilhelm Bjerknes and his younger colleagues in 1917, the Bergen School attempts to define the motion of the atmosphere by means of the mathematics of interactions betw ... Read »


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    • Bermuda Weather Service

    • The Bermuda Weather Service is Bermuda's national meteorological service. It provides public, marine, tropical and aviation weather forecasts as well as warnings and climatolological services. The service began operations under contract from the Department of Airport Operations, Ministry of Transport and Tourism, in 19 ... Read »


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    • Bise

    • In France, the bise is a northern wind, cold and generally dry. It may also refer to a traditional French greeting among close friends and family members. It consists of two, three, or four kisses on the cheek. The number depends on the region where the person lives. In Switzerland, the Bise is a cold, dry wind fr ... Read »


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    • Blowing snow

    • Blowing snow is snow lifted from the surface by the wind, at a height of 8 feet (2 metres) or more, that will reduce visibility. Blowing snow can come from falling snow or snow that already accumulated on the ground but is picked up and blown about by strong winds. It is one of the classic requirements for a blizzard. ... Read »


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    • Brewer-Dobson circulation

    • Brewer-Dobson circulation is a model of atmospheric circulation, proposed by Alan Brewer in 1949 and Gordon Dobson in 1956, which attempts to explain why tropical air has less ozone than polar air, even though the tropical stratosphere is where most atmospheric ozone is produced. It is a simple circulation model that p ... Read »


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    • Brickfielder

    • The Brickfielder is a hot and dry wind in the desert of Southern Australia that occurs in the summer season. It blows in the coastal regions of the south from the outback, where the sandy wastes, bare of vegetation in summer, are intensely heated by the sun. This hot wind blows strongly, often for several days at a tim ... Read »


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    • Brisote

    • Brisote (also brisole) is a term used to describe the northeast trade wind when it is blowing more strongly than usual over Cuba. The typical strength of this wind is 9 m s−1; anything blowing at a stronger rate may be described as a brisote. A brisote may be associated with tropical cyclones passing north-east of ... Read »


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    • Bulk Richardson number

    • The Bulk Richardson Number (BRN) is an approximation of the Gradient Richardson number. The BRN is a dimensionless ratio in meteorology related to the consumption of turbulence divided by the shear production (the generation of turbulence kinetic energy caused by wind shear) of turbulence. It is used to show dynamic st ... Read »


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    • Buran (wind)

    • The buran (Turkish: boran) is a wind which blows across eastern Asia, specifically Xinjiang, Siberia, and Kazakhstan. Over the tundra, it is also known as purga. The buran takes two forms: in summer, it is a hot, dry wind, whipping up sandstorms; in winter, it is bitterly cold and often accompanied by blizzards. Winte ... Read »


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    • C4MIP

    • C4MIP (more fully, Coupled Climate Carbon Cycle Model Intercomparison Project) is a joint project between the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP)and the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP). It is a model intercomparison project along the lines of the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project, but for ... Read »


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    • Camanchaca

    • Camanchacas are cloud banks that form on the Chilean coast, by the Earth's driest desert, the Atacama Desert, and move inland. On the side of the mountains where these cloud banks form, the camanchaca is a dense fog that does not produce rain. The moisture that makes up the cloud measure between 1 and 40 microns across ... Read »


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    • Canadian Land Surface Scheme

    • The Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS) is a land surface parametrization scheme for use in large scale climate models. It is a state-of-the-art model, using physically based equations to simulate the energy and water balances of vegetation, snow and soil. CLASS is being developed in a research project led by D. Verse ... Read »


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    • Canopy interception

    • Canopy interception is the rainfall that is intercepted by the canopy of a tree and successively evaporates from the leaves. Precipitation that is not intercepted will fall as throughfall or stemflow on the forest floor. Many methods exist to measure canopy interception. The most often used method is by measuring rain ... Read »


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    • Canwarn

    • CANWARN, acronym for CANadian Weather Amateur Radio Network, is an organized severe weather spotting and reporting program organized and run by the Meteorological Services Division of Environment Canada. What CANWARN members do is called ground truthing, they confirm and add information to the remote sensing observatio ... Read »


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    • Cape Doctor

    • "Cape Doctor" is the local name for the strong, often persistent and dry south-easterly wind that blows on the South African coast from spring to late summer (September to March in the southern hemisphere). It is known as the Cape Doctor because of a local belief that it clears Cape Town of pollution and 'pestilence'. ... Read »


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    • Capping inversion

    • A capping inversion is an elevated inversion layer that caps a convective boundary layer. The boundary layer is the part of the atmosphere which is closest to the ground. Normally, the sun heats the ground, which in turn heats the air just above it. Thermals form when this warm air rises into the cold air (warm air is ... Read »


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    • Carbon Neutral Cities Alliance

    • Carbon Neutral Cities Alliance

      The Carbon Neutral Cities Alliance (CNCA or “Alliance”) is a collaboration of leading global cities working to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 80% or more by 2050 or sooner (“80x50”) — the most aggressive greenhouse gas reduction targets undertaken by any cities across the globe. The Alliance a ... Read »


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    • Cers (wind)

    • The Cers, also called the Narbonnais by those who live southeast of Narbonne, is a very dry wind that is colder during the winter and warmer during the summer. Originating from moist Atlantic air-masses flowing across the Toulouse area, the Cers is intensified through the Lauragais gap. Cers winds are frequent across t ... Read »


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    • CHAMP (satellite)

    • Challenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) was a German satellite launched July 15, 2000 from Plesetsk, Russia and was used for atmospheric and ionospheric research, as well as other geoscientific applications, such as GPS radio occultation. CHAMP was managed by Potsdam (GFZ). The spacecraft is the first application ... Read »


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    • Chemical equator

    • The chemical equator concept was coined in 2008 when researchers from University of York discovered a distinct divide between the polluted air over Indonesia from the largely uncontaminated atmosphere over Australia. The divide of the atmosphere of the northern hemisphere from the atmosphere of the southern hemisphere ... Read »


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    • Chivela Pass

    • The Chivela Pass is a narrow mountain pass in the Sierra Madre Mountains that funnels cooler drier air from the North American continent, through southern Mexico, into the Pacific. These northeasterly winds, specifically the Tehuano wind, which periodically blows across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in southern Mexico, ha ... Read »


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    • Chubasco

    • A chubasco is a violent squall with thunder and lightning, encountered during the rainy season along the Pacific coast of Mexico, Central America, and South America. It is also widely used when rain is accompanied by strong winds in other Spanish-speaking countries. The word chubasco has its origins in the Portuguese ... Read »


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    • Circumscribed halo

    • A circumscribed halo is a type of halo, an optical phenomenon typically in the form of a more or less oval ring that circumscribes the circular 22° halo centred on the sun or moon. As the sun rises above 70° it essentially covers the 22° halo. Like many other halos, it is slightly reddish on the inner edge, fa ... Read »


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    • Cirrocumulus castellanus

    • Cirrocumulus castellanus

      Cirrocumulus castellanus is a type of cirrocumulus cloud. The name cirrocumulus castellanus is derived from Latin, meaning "of a castle". These clouds appear as round turrets that are rising from either a lowered line or sheet of clouds. Cirrocumulus castellanus is an indicator of atmospheric instability at the level o ... Read »


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    • Cirrocumulus floccus

    • Cirrocumulus floccus

      Cirrocumulus floccus is a type of cirrocumulus cloud. The name cirrocumulus floccus is derived from Latin, meaning "a lock of wool". Cirrocumulus floccus appears as small tufts of cloud with rounded heads, but ragged bottoms. The cloud can produce virga, precipitation that evaporates before reaching the ground. Like ci ... Read »


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    • Cirrocumulus lacunosus

    • Cirrocumulus lacunosus

      Cirrocumulus lacunosus is a type of cirrocumulus cloud. The name cirrocumulus lacunosus is derived from Latin, meaning "full of hollows". Cirrocumulus lacunosus is a relatively rare cloud form that occurs as a layer of cloud with circular holes in it. These holes normally have frayed edges, and they are often arranged ... Read »


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    • Cirrocumulus lenticularis

    • Cirrocumulus lenticularis

      Cirrocumulus lenticularis is a type of cirrocumulus cloud. The name cirrocumulus lenticularis is derived from Latin, meaning "like a lentil". Cirrocumulus lenticularis are smooth clouds that have the appearance of a lens or an almond. They usually form at the crests of atmospheric waves, which would otherwise be invisi ... Read »


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    • Cirrocumulus stratiformis

    • Cirrocumulus stratiformis

      Cirrocumulus stratiformis is a type of cirrocumulus cloud. The name cirrocumulus stratiformis is derived from Latin, meaning "stretched out". Cirrocumulus stratiformis occurs as very small cirrocumulus clouds that cover a large part of the sky. This type of cloud always occurs in thin layers. There can be spaces or rif ... Read »


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    • Cirrocumulus undulatus

    • Cirrocumulus undulatus

      Cirrocumulus undulatus is a variety of cirrocumulus cloud. The name cirrocumulus undulatus is derived from Latin, meaning "diversified as with waves". They have a rippled appearance due to wind shear and usually cover only a small portion of the sky. They appear in bands as small patches or layers. Occasionally, they c ... Read »


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    • Cirrostratus fibratus

    • Cirrostratus fibratus

      Cirrostratus fibratus is a type of cirrostratus cloud. The name cirrostratus fibratus is derived from Latin, meaning "fibrous". Cirrostratus fibratus is one of the two most common forms that cirrostratus often takes, with the other being cirrostratus nebulosus. They are formed from strong, continuous winds blowing at h ... Read »


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    • Cirrostratus nebulosus

    • Cirrostratus nebulosus

      Cirrostratus nebulosus is a type of cirrostratus cloud. The name cirrostratus nebulosus is derived from Latin, meaning "full of vapor, foggy, cloudy, dark". Cirrostratus nebulosus is one of the two most common forms that cirrostratus often takes, with the other being cirrostratus fibratus. The nebulosus species is feat ... Read »


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    • Cirrus castellanus cloud

    • Cirrus castellanus cloud

      Cirrus castellanus is a species of cirrus cloud. Its name comes from the word castellanus, which means of a fort, of a castle in Latin. Like all cirrus, this species occurs at high altitudes. It appears as separate turrets rising from a lower-level cloud base. Often these cloud turrets form in lines, and they can be ta ... Read »


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    • Cirrus duplicatus

    • Cirrus duplicatus

      Cirrus duplicatus is a variety of cirrus cloud. The name cirrus duplicatus is derived from Latin, meaning "double". The duplicatus variety of cirrus clouds occurs when there are at least two layers of cirrus clouds. Most of the time, occurrences of cirrus fibratus and cirrus uncinus are in the duplicatus form. Like str ... Read »


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    • Cirrus fibratus

    • Cirrus fibratus

      Cirrus fibratus is a type of cirrus cloud. The name cirrus fibratus is derived from Latin, meaning "fibrous". These clouds are similar to cirrus uncinus, commonly known as "mares' tails"; however, fibratus clouds do not have tufts or hooks at the end. The filaments are usually separate from one another. Like other cir ... Read »


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    • Cirrus floccus

    • Cirrus floccus

      Cirrus floccus is a type of cirrus cloud. The name cirrus floccus is derived from Latin, meaning "a lock of wool". Cirrus floccus occurs as small tufts of cloud, usually with a ragged base. The cloud can have virga falling from it, but the precipitation does not reach the ground. The individual tufts are usually isolat ... Read »


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    • Cirrus intortus cloud

    • Cirrus intortus cloud

      Cirrus intortus is a variety of cirrus cloud. The name cirrus intortus is derived from Latin, meaning "twisted, wound". The variety of intortus clouds is specific to cirrus clouds, and they appear as interwound strands of cirrus clouds with a purely random pattern. The filaments are often curved in a very irregular pat ... Read »


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    • Cirrus radiatus

    • Cirrus radiatus

      Cirrus radiatus is a variety of cirrus cloud. The name cirrus radiatus is derived from Latin, meaning "rayed, striped". This variety of cirrus clouds occurs in parallel bands that often cover the entire sky and appear to converge at a single point or two opposite points on the horizon. Cirrus radiatus is often partly m ... Read »


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    • Cirrus uncinus cloud

    • Cirrus uncinus cloud

      Cirrus uncinus is a type of cirrus cloud. The name cirrus uncinus is derived from Latin, meaning "curly hooks". Also known as mares' tails, these clouds are generally sparse in the sky and very thin. The clouds occur at very high altitudes, at a temperature of about −50 to −40 °C (−58 to −40 ... Read »


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    • Cirrus vertebratus

    • Cirrus vertebratus

      Cirrus vertebratus is a type of cirrus cloud. The name cirrus vertebratus is derived from Latin, meaning "jointed, articulated, vertebrated". Like cirrus intortus, the vertebratus species is exclusive to the cirrus genus. Cirrus vertebratus gives the impression of vertebrae in a spinal column, ribs, or a fish skeleton. ... Read »


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    • Climate Change Research Centre

    • The Climate Change Research Centre (abbreviated CCRC) is a research initiative established in 2007 at the University of New South Wales. The foundation Directors of the CCRC were the Australian Research Council (ARC) Federation Fellow Professor Matthew England, who established the Climate and Environmental Dynamics Lab ... Read »


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    • Climate graph

    • A climate graph is a chart that shows average weather for a certain period of time, for a certain location. The precipitation is usually shown using a bar graph and the temperature is usually shown as a line graph. ... Read »


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    • Climate of East Anglia

    • The climate of East Anglia is generally dry and mild. The region is among the driest in the United Kingdom with many areas receiving less than 700mm of rainfall a yearand locations such as Lowestoft less than 600 mm on average. Rainfall is fairly evenly distributed throughout the year. Maximum temperatures range fr ... Read »


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    • Climate of Ecuador

    • The climate of Ecuador varies by region, due to differences in elevation and, to a degree, in proximity to the equator. The coastal lowlands in the western part of Ecuador are typically warm with temperatures in the region of 25 °C (77 °F). Coastal areas are affected by ocean currents and between January a ... Read »


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    • Climate of Saudi Arabia

    • The climate of Saudi Arabia is marked by high temperatures during the day and low temperatures at night. Most of the country follows the pattern of the desert climate, with the exception of the southwest, which features a semi-arid climate. ... Read »


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    • Climate pattern

    • A climate pattern is any recurring characteristic of the climate. Climate patterns can last tens of thousands of years, like the glacial and interglacial periods within ice ages, or repeat each year, like monsoons. A climate pattern may come in the form of a regular cycle, like the diurnal cycle or the seasonal cycle; ... Read »


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    • Climatological normal

    • Climatological normal is a 30-year average of a weather variable. Climatological normals are used as an average or baseline to evaluate climate events and provide context for year-to-year variability. Normals can be calculated for a variety of weather variables including temperature and precipitation and rely on data f ... Read »


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    • Climograph

    • A climograph is a graphical representation of basic climatic parameters, that is monthly average temperature and precipitation, at a certain location. It is used for a quick-view of the climate of a location. One form of representation uses an overlapped combination of a bar and line chart used to show the climate of ... Read »


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    • CLIVAR

    • CLIVAR (climate variability and predictability) is a component of the World Climate Research Programme. Its purpose is to describe and understand climate variability and predictability on seasonal to centennial time-scales, identify the physical processes responsible for climate change and develop modeling and predicti ... Read »


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    • Cloud albedo

    • Cloud albedo is a measure of the albedo of a cloud. Higher values indicate that a cloud reflects a large amount of solar radiation or transmits a small amount of radiation. Cloud albedo varies from less than 10% to more than 90% and depends on drop sizes, liquid water or ice content, thickness of the cloud, and the su ... Read »


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    • Cloud Appreciation Society

    • The Cloud Appreciation Society is a society founded by Gavin Pretor-Pinney from the United Kingdom in January 2005. The society aims to foster understanding and appreciation of clouds, and has over 42,000 members worldwide from 115 different countries, as of January 2017. Yahoo named the society's website as "the most ... Read »


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    • Cloud drop effective radius

    • The cloud drop effective radius (alternatively cloud effective radius or effective radius) is a weighted mean of the size distribution of cloud droplets. The term was defined in 1974 by James E. Hansen and Larry Travis as the ratio of the third to the second moment of a droplet size distribution to aid in the inversion ... Read »


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    • Cloud formation and climate change

    • Nephology (/nɪˈfɒlədʒi/; from the Greek word nephos for 'cloud') is the study of clouds and cloud formation. British meteorologist Luke Howard was a major researcher within this field, establishing a cloud classification system. While this branch of meteorology still exists today, the term nephology, or ... Read »


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    • Cloud fraction

    • Cloud fraction is the percentage of each pixel in satellite imagery or each gridbox in a weather or climate model that is covered with clouds. A cloud fraction of one means the pixel is completely covered with clouds, while a cloud fraction of zero represents a totally cloud free pixel. Cloud fraction is important for ... Read »


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    • Cloud height

    • The cloud height, more commonly known as cloud thickness or depth, is the distance between the cloud base and the cloud top. It is traditionally expressed either in metres or as a pressure difference in hectopascal (hPa, equivalent to millibar). Sometimes, the expression cloud height is used instead of cloud base, in w ... Read »


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    • Cloud iridescence

    • Cloud iridescence is the occurrence of colors in a cloud similar to those seen in oil films on puddles, located in the general vicinity of the sun or moon. It is a fairly common phenomenon, most often observed in ,cirrocumulus, lenticular clouds and cirrus clouds. The colors are usually pastel, but can be very vivid. W ... Read »


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    • Co-benefits of climate change mitigation

    • Co-benefits of climate change mitigation as defined in the 4th Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change are the positive benefits related to the reduction of greenhouse gases. Examples of such climate mitigation policies include improved energy efficiency of plants, renewable energy uptake and ... Read »


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    • Coalescence (physics)

    • Coalescence is the process by which two or more droplets, bubbles or particles merge during contact to form a single daughter droplet, bubble or particle. It can take place in many processes, ranging from meteorology to astrophysics. For example, it is seen in the formation of raindrops as well as planetary and star fo ... Read »


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    • Coastal warning display tower

    • A coastal warning display tower, sometimes known as a storm warning tower, was a type of signal station in the form of skeletal towers designed to provide hurricane warnings. The towers were developed in 1898 on the orders of President William McKinley. A single red pennant was shown from the top of the tower as a sma ... Read »


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    • Coastal-Marine Automated Network


    • Coefficient of haze

    • The coefficient of haze (also known as smoke shade) is a measurement of visibility interference in the atmosphere. One way to measure this is to draw about 1000 cubic feet of air sample through an air filter and obtain the radiation intensity through the filter. The coefficient is then calculated based on the absorban ... Read »


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    • Cold drop

    • The cold drop (Spanish: gota fría) is a weather phenomenon often occurring in the Spanish autumn. It is experienced particularly along the western Mediterranean and as such, most frequently affects the east coast of Spain. It is a closed upper-level low which has become completely displaced (cut off) from basic west ... Read »


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    • Colorado low

    • A Colorado low is a low pressure that forms in southeastern Colorado or northeastern New Mexico, typically in the winter. After forming, the system moves across the Great Plains. Colorado lows produce heavy wintry precipitation, and have a general east to northeast movement, impacting regions as far north as Winnipeg a ... Read »


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    • Community Earth System Model

    • The Community Earth System Model (CESM) is a fully coupled numerical simulation of the Earth system consisting of atmospheric, ocean, ice, land surface, carbon cycle, and other components. CESM includes a climate model providing state-of-art simulations of the Earth's past, present, and future. It is the successor of t ... Read »


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    • Composite reflectivity


    • Coniology

    • Coniology or koniology (from Greek , konis or , koniā, "dust"; and , ) is the study of atmospheric dust and its effects. Samples of dust are often collected by a device called coniometer. ... Read »


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    • Continuous marine broadcast

    • A continuous marine broadcast, or CMB, is a marine weather broadcasting service operated by the Canadian Coast Guard. CMBs are programmed from the various Marine Communications and Traffic Services centres on the Atlantic, Pacific and Arctic coasts of Canada, as well as on the coasts of the Great Lakes. Programming is ... Read »


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    • Convective condensation level

    • The convective condensation level (CCL) represents the height (or pressure) where an air parcel becomes saturated when heated from below and lifted adiabatically due to buoyancy. In the atmosphere, assuming a constant water vapor mixing ratio, the dew point temperature (the temperature where the relative humidity is 1 ... Read »


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    • Convective momentum transport

    • Convective momentum transport is an atmospheric event that involves an exchange of momentum, usually due to vertical motion (convection) associated with clouds. The essential processes responsible for cloud convective momentum transport in the tropics are: ... Read »


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    • Convective temperature

    • The convective temperature (CT or Tc) is the approximate temperature that air near the surface must reach for cloud formation without mechanical lift. In such case, cloud base begins at the convective condensation level (CCL), whilst with mechanical lifting, condensation begins at the lifted condensation level (LCL). C ... Read »


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    • Convergence zone

    • A convergence zone in meteorology is a region in the atmosphere where two prevailing flows meet and interact, usually resulting in distinctive weather conditions. This causes a mass accumulation that eventually leads to a vertical movement and to the formation of clouds and precipitation. Large-scale convergence, calle ... Read »


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    • Cooperative Institute for Arctic Research

    • The Cooperative Institute for Arctic Research is designed to be a focal point for interactions between the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)/Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR) and the Arctic research community through the University of Alaska for research related to the Western Arctic ... Read »


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    • Cooperative Institute for Atmospheric Sciences and Terrestrial Applications

    • The Cooperative Institute for Atmospheric Sciences and Terrestrial Applications(CIASTA) formalizes a major collaborative relationship between the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR) and the Desert Research Institute (DRI). CIASTA serves as a focal poin ... Read »


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    • Cooperative Institute for Climate and Ocean Research

    • The Cooperative Institute for Climate and Ocean Research (CICOR) formalizes a major collaborative relationship between the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR) and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI). CICOR provides a framework at WHOI for ... Read »


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    • Cooperative Institute for Climate Applications and Research

    • The Cooperative Institute for Climate Applications and Research (CICAR) formalizes a major collaborative relationship between the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR) and Columbia University. The CICAR research themes are: Coordinates: 41°00′1 ... Read »


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    • Cooperative Institute for Climate Science

    • The Cooperative Institute for Climate Science (CICS) fosters research collaborations between the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)/Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR) Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) and the Princeton University. It is one of 16 NOAA Cooperative Institutes ... Read »


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    • Cooperative Institute for Limnology and Ecosystems Research

    • The Cooperative Institute for Limnology and Ecosystems Research (CILER) fosters research collaborations between the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR) Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL), Michigan State University (MSU), and the Univ ... Read »


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    • Cooperative Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Studies

    • The Cooperative Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Studies (CIMAS) is a research institute of the University of Miami located in the Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science (RSMAS). CIMAS serves as a mechanism to bring together the research resources of the Partner Universities (including UM/RSMAS) with t ... Read »


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    • Coriolis frequency

    • The Coriolis frequency ƒ, also called the Coriolis parameter or Coriolis coefficient, is equal to twice the rotation rate Ω of the Earth multiplied by the sine of the latitude φ. The rotation rate of the Earth (Ω = 7.2921 × 10−5 rad/s) can be calculated as 2π / T radians per ... Read »


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    • Coromuel

    • The Coromuel wind is a weather phenomenon unique to the La Paz area of the Baja California peninsula and adjoining Gulf of California. Occurring primarily in the late spring and summer, it is a south to south-west wind that typically starts late in the afternoon or early evening and blows throughout the night into the ... Read »


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    • Corona (optical phenomenon)

    • In meteorology, a corona (plural coronae) is an optical phenomenon produced by the diffraction of light from the Sun or the Moon (or, occasionally, bright stars or planets) by individual small water droplets and sometimes tiny ice crystals of a cloud or on a foggy glass surface. In its full form, a corona consists of s ... Read »


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    • Coupled model intercomparison project

    • In climatology, the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) is a framework and the analog of the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) for global coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation models (GCMs). CMIP began in 1995 under the auspices of the Working Group on Coupled Modeling (WGCM), which is in ... Read »


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    • Crometeo

    • Crometeo is a non-profit association of Croatian amateur meteorologists. It was founded in November 2005 and its headquarters are in Zagreb, Croatia. Crometeo monitors and forecasts weather, perusing a network of automatic weather stations in Croatia. The data from the stations is made available on-line. Crometeo also ... Read »


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    • Crow instability

    • In aerodynamics, the Crow Instability or V.C.I vortex crow instability is an inviscid line-vortex instability, named after its discoverer S. C. Crow. The Crow instability is most commonly observed in the skies behind large aircraft such as the Boeing 747. It occurs when the wingtip vortices interact with contrails from ... Read »


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    • Cumulonimbus calvus

    • Cumulonimbus calvus

      Cumulonimbus calvus is a moderately tall cumulonimbus cloud which is capable of precipitation, but has not yet reached the tropopause, which is the height of stratospheric stability where it forms into a cumulonimbus capillatus (fibrous-top) or cumulonimbus incus (anvil-top). Cumulonimbus calvus clouds develop from cum ... Read »


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    • Cumulonimbus incus

    • Cumulonimbus incus

      A cumulonimbus incus (Latin incus, "anvil") also known as an anvil cloud is a cumulonimbus cloud which has reached the level of stratospheric stability and has formed the characteristic flat, anvil-top shape. A cumulonimbus incus means that the thunderstorm is in its mature stage, succeeding the preceding cumulonimbus ... Read »


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    • Cumulonimbus velum

    • Cumulonimbus velum (Cb vel) (from the Latin cumulonimbus, "column-rain" + velum, "veil") is a cumulonimbus cloud with a small layer of altostratus cloud wrapped around its mid area, representing an area of humid stable air created as a result of the growth of the parent cumulonimbus. The altostratus velum cloud appears ... Read »


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    • Cumulus mediocris cloud

    • Cumulus mediocris cloud

      Cumulus mediocris is a low to middle level cloud with some vertical extent (Family D1) of the genus cumulus, larger in vertical development than cumulus humilis. It also may exhibit small protuberances from the top. It may or may not show the cauliflower form characteristic of cumulus clouds. These clouds don't general ... Read »


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    • Cyclonic rotation

    • Cyclonic rotation or circulation is movement in the same direction as the Earth's rotation, as opposed to anticyclonic rotation. The Coriolis effect causes cyclonic rotation to be in a counterclockwise direction in the northern hemisphere, and clockwise in the southern hemisphere. A closed area of winds rotating cyclon ... Read »


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    • Dalton Minimum

    • The Dalton Minimum was a period of low sunspot count, representing low solar activity, named after the English meteorologist John Dalton, lasting from about 1790 to 1830 or 1796 to 1820, corresponding to the period solar cycle 4 to solar cycle 7. Like the Maunder Minimum and Spörer Minimum, the Dalton Minimum c ... Read »


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    • DBZ (meteorology)

    • dBZ stands for decibel relative to Z. It is a logarithmic dimensionless technical unit used in radar, mostly in weather radar, to compare the equivalent reflectivity factor (Z) of a radar signal reflected off a remote object (in mm6 per m3) to the return of a droplet of rain with a diameter of 1 mm (1 mm6 per m3) ... Read »


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    • Decoupling (meteorology)


    • Defense Weather Satellite System

    • The Defense Weather Satellite System (DWSS) was a United States Department of Defense weather satellite system to have been built by Northrop Grumman Corporation projected for launch in 2018. In January 2012, the US Air Force cancelled the program. DWSS was a follow-on for the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program ... Read »


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    • Depth hoar

    • Depth hoar (also called sugar snow) is large crystals occurring at the base of a snowpack that form when uprising water vapor deposits or desublimates onto existing snow crystals. Depth hoar crystals are large, sparkly grains with facets that can be cup-shaped and that are up to 10 mm in diameter. Depth hoar crystals b ... Read »


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    • Dew point depression

    • Dew point depression

      The dew point depression (T-Td) is the difference between the temperature and dew point temperature at a certain height in the atmosphere. For a constant temperature, the smaller the difference, the more moisture there is, and the higher the relative humidity. In the lower troposphere, more moisture (small dew point ... Read »


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    • Dewcell

    • Dewcells,dewcels or dew cell are instruments used for determining the dew point. They consist of a small heating element surrounded by a solution of lithium chloride. As the LiCl absorbs moisture from the air, conduction across the heating element increases, current in it increases, and heat increases, evaporating mois ... Read »


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    • Diathermancy

    • Diathermancy (from "dia" through and "thermē" heat) is the property of some fluids that allows rays of light through them without itself being heated. A diathermanous fluid is thus "permeable" by heat.). Diathermany was first described by German physicist and chemist Heinrich Magnus in the 1800s. Atmospheric air is ... Read »


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    • Dine's compensation


    • Dirty thunderstorm

    • Dirty thunderstorm

      A dirty thunderstorm (also volcanic lightning, thunder volcano) is a weather phenomenon that is related to the production of lightning in a volcanic plume. A famous image of the phenomenon was photographed by Carlos Gutierrez and occurred in Chile above the Chaiten Volcano. It circulated widely on the internet. Othe ... Read »


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    • Disdrometer

    • A disdrometer is an instrument used to measure the drop size distribution and velocity of falling hydrometeors. Some disdrometers can distinguish between rain, graupel, and hail. The uses for disdrometers are numerous. They can be used for traffic control, scientific examination, airport observation systems, and hydro ... Read »


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    • Diurnal cycle

    • A diurnal cycle is any pattern that recurs every 24 hours as a result of one full rotation of the Earth with respect to the Sun. In climatology, the diurnal cycle is one of the most basic forms of climate patterns. The most familiar such pattern is the diurnal temperature variation. Such a cycle may be approximately s ... Read »


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    • Moon dog

    • A moon dog, moondog, or mock moon, (scientific name paraselene, plural paraselenae, meaning "beside the moon") is a relatively rare bright circular spot on a lunar halo caused by the refraction of moonlight by hexagonal-plate-shaped ice crystals in cirrus or cirrostratus clouds. Moon dogs appear as part of the 22° ... Read »


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    • Drawdown (climate)

    • Climate drawdown is the point at which greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere begin to decline on a year-to-year basis. Drawdown is a goal for reversing climate change, and eventually reducing global average temperatures. Project Drawdown is a climate change mitigation project initiated by Paul Hawken and cl ... Read »


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    • Dry punch

    • A dry punch is meteorological slang for a synoptic scale or mesoscale process. A dry punch at the surface results in a dry line bulge. A dry punch aloft above an area of warm, moist (buoyant) air at low levels often increases the potential for severe thunderstorms. ... Read »


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    • Dry thunderstorm

    • A dry thunderstorm is a thunderstorm that produces thunder and lightning, but most or all of its precipitation evaporates before reaching the ground, and dry lightning is the term which is used to refer to lightning strikes occurring in this situation. Both are so common in the American West that they are sometimes use ... Read »


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    • Dry-bulb temperature

    • Dry-bulb temperature

      The dry-bulb temperature (DBT) is the temperature of air measured by a thermometer freely exposed to the air but shielded from radiation and moisture. DBT is the temperature that is usually thought of as air temperature, and it is the true thermodynamic temperature. It indicates the amount of heat in the air and is dir ... Read »


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    • Earth Observing System

    • The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a program of NASA comprising a series of artificial satellite missions and scientific instruments in Earth orbit designed for long-term global observations of the land surface, biosphere, atmosphere, and oceans of the Earth. The satellite component of the program was launched in 1997 ... Read »


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    • ECHAM

    • ECHAM is a general circulation model (GCM) developed by the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, one of the research organisations of the Max Planck Society. It was created by modifying global forecast models developed by ECMWF to be used for climate research. The model was given its name as a combination of its origi ... Read »


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    • ECMWF re-analysis

    • The ECMWF re-analysis project is a meteorological reanalysis project. The first reanalysis product, ERA-15, generated re-analyses for approximately 15 years, from December 1978 to February 1994. The second product, ERA-40 (originally intended as a 40-year reanalysis) begins in 1957 (the International Geophysical Year) ... Read »


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    • Elephanta (wind)

    • The Elephanta is a strong southerly or southeasterly wind which blows on the Malabar coast of India during the months of September and October and marks the end of the southwest monsoon. ... Read »


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    • Emagram

    • An emagram is one of four thermodynamic diagrams used to display temperature lapse rate and moisture content profiles in the atmosphere. The emagram has axes of temperature (T) and pressure (p). In the emagram, the dry adiabats make an angle of about 45 degrees with the isobars, isotherms are vertical and isopleths of ... Read »


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    • Emission Reduction Unit

    • The emission reduction unit (ERU) is an emissions unit issued under a Joint Implementation project in terms of the . An ERU represents a reduction of greenhouse gases under the Joint Implementation mechanism, where it represents one tonne of CO2 equivalent reduced. To allow comparison between the different effects of ... Read »


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    • Engineering Research Center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere

    • The Engineering Research Center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA) is a National Science Foundation Engineering Center. The Center brings together a multidisciplinary group of engineers, computer scientists, meteorologists, sociologists, graduate and undergraduate students, as well as industry ... Read »


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    • Equilibrium level

    • In meteorology, the equilibrium level (EL), or level of neutral buoyancy (LNB), or limit of convection (LOC), is the height at which a rising parcel of air is at the same temperature as its environment. This means that unstable air is now stable when it reaches the equilibrium level and convection stops. This level is ... Read »


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    • Equivalent temperature

    • In atmospheric science, equivalent temperature is the temperature of an air parcel from which all the water vapor has been extracted by an adiabatic process. Air contains water vapor that has been evaporated into it from liquid sources (lakes, sea, etc...). The energy needed to do that has been taken from the air. Tak ... Read »


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    • ERA-40

    • ERA-40 is an ECMWF re-analysis of the global atmosphere and surface conditions for 45-years, over the period from September 1957 through August 2002 by ECMWF. Many sources of the meteorological observations were used, including radiosondes, balloons, aircraft, buoyes, satellites, scatterometers. This data was run throu ... Read »


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    • ERICA

    • ERICA

      Over 800 species, including:Erica arboreaErica azoricaErica caffraErica caberneteaErica caniculataErica carneaErica cerinthoidesErica ciliarisErica cinereaErica cruentaErica erigenaErica lusitanicaErica mackaianaErica mammosaErica manipulifloraErica plukenetiiErica reunionensisErica scopariaErica terminalisErica tetral ... Read »


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    • Euroclydon

    • Euroclydon (or in Latin: Euroaquilo) is a cyclonic tempestuous northeast wind which blows in the Mediterranean, mostly in autumn and winter. It is the modern Gregalia (Gregale) or Levanter. From the Greek word eurokludōn [εὐροκλύδων], from Euros (Eurus, meaning east wind) + and the Gr ... Read »


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    • European Storm Forecast Experiment

    • The European Storm Forecast Experiment, known as ESTOFEX, is an initiative of a team of European meteorologists, and students in meteorology founded in 2002. It serves as a platform for exchange of knowledge about forecasting severe convective storms in Europe and elsewhere. It is a voluntary organisation and is curren ... Read »


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    • Exner function

    • The Exner function is an important parameter in atmospheric modeling. The Exner function can be viewed as non-dimensionalized pressure and can be defined as: where p0{\displaystyle p_{0}} is a standard reference surface pressure, usually taken as 1000 hPa; Rd{\displaystyle R_{d}} is the gas constant for dry air; cp{\d ... Read »


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    • Fallstreak hole

    • A fallstreak hole (also known as a hole punch cloud, punch hole cloud, skypunch, cloud canal or cloud hole) is a large gap, usually circular or elliptical, that can appear in cirrocumulus or clouds. Such holes are formed when the water temperature in the clouds is below freezing but the water, in a supercooled state, ... Read »


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    • February 13, 1979 windstorm

    • The February 13, 1979 windstorm is a natural phenomenon that took place on February 13, 1979 in Pacific Canada and the United States. During the early morning of February 13, 1979, an intense wave cyclone moved across southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia. South of the low center, a strong atmospheric pressure gr ... Read »


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    • Ferret Data Visualization and Analysis

    • Ferret is an interactive computer visualization and analysis environment designed to meet the needs of oceanographers and meteorologists analyzing large and complex gridded data sets. Ferret offers a Mathematica-like approach to analysis; new variables may be defined interactively as mathematical expressions involving ... Read »


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    • Field mill

    • Field Mill

      Field Mill, currently known as One Call Stadium for sponsorship reasons, is a football ground in Mansfield, Nottinghamshire, England, and the home of Mansfield Town Football Club. It is the oldest ground in the Football League, hosting football since 1861, although some reports date it back as far as 1850. The stadium ... Read »


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    • Flood forecasting

    • Flood forecasting is the use of forecasted precipitation and streamflow data in rainfall-runoff and streamflow routing models to forecast flow rates and water levels for periods ranging from a few hours to days ahead, depending on the size of the watershed or river basin. Flood forecasting can also make use of forecast ... Read »


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    • Flow-following, finite-volume Icosahedral Model

    • The Flow-following, finite-volume Icosahedral Model (FIM) is a numerical weather prediction model that has been under development at the Earth System Research Laboratory in the United States since 2008. The FIM is being developed as a candidate to eventually supplant the Global Forecast System, the United States's cur ... Read »


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    • Fog season

    • The fog season is a season of fog that occurs in some places, because of special meteorological and topographical characteristics, after a rainy period. The fog season is usually based in the cooler months (late autumn, winter and early spring). An example is found in the San Joaquin Valley and Sacramento Valley areas ... Read »


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    • Föhn cloud


    • Forecast verification

    • Forecast verification is a subfield of the climate, atmospheric and ocean sciences dealing with validating, verifying and determining the predictive power of prognostic model forecasts. Because of the complexity of these models, forecast verification goes a good deal beyond simple measures of statistical association or ... Read »


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    • Forest floor interception

    • Forest floor interception is the part of the (net) precipitation or throughfall that is temporarily stored in the top layer of the forest floor and successively evaporated within a few hours or days during and after the rainfall event. The forest floor can consist of bare soil, short vegetation (like grasses, mosses, c ... Read »


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    • Free convective layer

    • In atmospheric sciences, the free convective layer (FCL) is the layer of conditional or potential instability in the troposphere. It is a layer of positive buoyancy (PBE) and is the layer where deep, moist convection (DMC) can occur. On an atmospheric sounding, it is the layer between the level of free convection (LFC) ... Read »


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    • Freezing drizzle

    • Freezing drizzle is drizzle that freezes on contact with the ground or an object at or near the surface. Its METAR code is FZDZ. Freezing drizzle is formed in low level stratus type clouds when vertical motion is weak. It consists of relatively small drops, light in nature. Freezing drizzle generally occurs when d ... Read »


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    • Freshet

    • The term freshet is most commonly used to describe a spring thaw resulting from snow and ice melt in rivers located in the northern latitudes of North America. A spring freshet can sometimes last several weeks on large river systems, resulting in significant inundation of flood plains as the snowpack melts in the river ... Read »


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    • Garua

    • Garua is the dry winds that hit the lower western slopes of the Andes creating a low-level of cloud. Within the Andes Mountains the garua blocks out the sun for the cooler six months of the year, and there is almost no rainfall during this period. Many native Indians and Mestizo ethnic groups live on the highlands beca ... Read »


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    • Geocorona

    • The geocorona is the luminous part of the outermost region of the Earth's atmosphere, the exosphere. It is seen primarily via far-ultraviolet light (Lyman-alpha) from the Sun that is scattered from neutral hydrogen. It extends to at least 15.5 Earth radii. The geocorona has been studied from outer space by the Astrid s ... Read »


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    • Gilavar

    • Gilavar is a name of the warm southern wind which blows across eastern Azerbaijan throughout the year, particularly in Baku and Shamakhi. Gilavar is one of the two main winds that dominates Baku, along with Khazri, the cold northern wind. ... Read »


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    • Global Atmospheric Research Program

    • The Global Atmospheric Research Program was a fifteen-year international research programme led by the World Meteorological Organization and the International Council of Scientific Unions. It began in 1967 and organised several important field experiments including GARP Atlantic Tropical Experiment in 1974 and the Alpi ... Read »


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    • Global Emissions InitiAtive

    • Global Emissions InitiAtive (GEIA) is a community effort dedicated to atmospheric emissions information exchange and competence building. GEIA was created in 1990 under the (IGBP) and is a joint IGAC / iLEAPS / AIMES activity. GEIA is governed by an international steering committee and hosts biennial conferences. ... Read »


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    • Global Forecast System

    • The Global Forecast System (GFS) is a global numerical weather prediction system containing a global computer model and variational analysis run by the United States' National Weather Service (NWS). The mathematical model is run four times a day, and produces forecasts for up to 16 days in advance, but with decreased ... Read »


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    • Global Historical Climatology Network

    • The Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) is a database of temperature, precipitation and pressure records managed by the National Climatic Data Center, Arizona State University and the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center. The aggregate data are collected from many continuously reporting fixed stations a ... Read »


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    • Global Sea Level Observing System

    • The Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS) is an Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission program whose purpose is to measure sea level globally for long-term climate change studies. The program's purpose has changed since the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and the program now collects realtime measurements of sea l ... Read »


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    • GME of Deutscher Wetterdienst


    • GrADS

    • The Grid Analysis and Display System (GrADS) is an interactive desktop tool that is used for easy access, manipulation, and visualization of earth science data. The format of the data may be either binary, GRIB, NetCDF, or HDF-SDS (Scientific Data Sets). GrADS has been implemented worldwide on a variety of commonly use ... Read »


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    • Grasshopper (robot weather station)

    • The Grasshopper was a project by the United States Air Force and US Navy to develop portable robot weather station deployed by parachute from long range aircraft in the early 1950s. The Grasshopper was designed to be deployed by parachute into enemy territory and radio back basic weather information for air strikes. W ... Read »


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    • Great Arctic Cyclone of 2012

    • The Great Arctic Cyclone, or "Great Arctic Cyclone of 2012," was an extratropical cyclone which centered on the Arctic Ocean in early August, 2012. Such storms are rare in the Arctic summer, although common in the winter. The Great Arctic Cyclone was the strongest summer storm and the 13th strongest storm observed at a ... Read »


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    • Greenhouse gas monitoring

    • Greenhouse gas monitoring is the direct measurement of greenhouse gas emissions and levels. Methods include satellite monitoring such as the Orbiting Carbon Observatory and networks of ground stations such as the Integrated Carbon Observation System. The individual units of ground stations often use an infrared detecto ... Read »


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    • Greenland ice core project

    • The Greenland Ice Core Project (GRIP) was a multinational European research project, organized through the European Science Foundation. Funding came from 8 nations (Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Iceland, Italy, Switzerland, and United Kingdom), and from the European Union. The project ran from 1989 to 1995, with ... Read »


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    • Gregale

    • The Gregale (Catalan: Gregal, Italian: Grecale, Maltese: Grigal, Greek: Γραίγος) is a Mediterranean wind that can occur during times when a low-pressure area moves through the area to the south of Malta and causes a strong, cool, northeasterly wind to affect the island. It also affects other island ... Read »


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    • Haar (fog)

    • In meteorology, haar or sea fret is a cold sea fog. It usually occurs on the east coast of England or Scotland between April and September, when warm air passes over the cold North Sea. Haar is typically formed over the sea and is brought to land by wind advection. This commonly occurs when warmer moist air moves over ... Read »


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    • HadGEM1

    • HadGEM1 (abbreviation for Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model, version 1) is a coupled climate model developed at the Met Office’s Hadley Centre in 2006 and used in IPCC Fourth Assessment Report on climate change. It represents a significant scientific advance on its predecessor, HadCM3. HadGEM1 also provides ... Read »


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    • Haines Index

    • Haines Index (also known as Lower Atmosphere Severity Index) is a weather index developed by meteorologist Donald Haines in 1988 that measures the potential for dry, unstable air to contribute to the development of large or erratic wildland fires. The index is derived from the stability (temperature difference between ... Read »


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    • Heavy snow warning

    • A Heavy snow warning was a weather warning issued by the National Weather Service of the United States during times when a high rate of snowfall was occurring or was forecast. Generally, the warning was issued for snowfall rates of 4 inches (10 cm) or more in 12 hours, or 6 inches (15 cm) or more in 24 hour ... Read »


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    • Hector (cloud)

    • Hector is the name given to a cumulonimbus, or thundercloud, that forms regularly nearly every afternoon on the Tiwi Islands, Northern Territory, Australia, from approximately September to March each year. Hector, or sometimes "Hector the Convector", is known as one of the world's most consistently large thunderstorms, ... Read »


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    • Held-Hou Model

    • The Held-Hou Model is a model for the Hadley circulation of the atmosphere that would exist in the absence of atmospheric turbulence. The model was developed by Isaac Held and Arthur Hou in 1980. The essence of the model is that air rising from the surface at the equator conserves its angular momentum as it moves pole ... Read »


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