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  • Art history

    Art history

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    • Centuries in art

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    • Decades in art

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    • Years in art

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    • Ancient artists

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    • Architectural history

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    • Art and cultural repatriation

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    • Art by period of creation

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    • Art history books

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    • Art history by medium

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    • Art history journals

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    • Buddhist art

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    • History of art in Canada

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    • Christian art

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    • Art collectors

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    • Conservation and restoration

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    • Conservation and restoration of paintings

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    • Design history

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    • Fake or Fortune?


    • History of art in Germany

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    • Art historians

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    • History paintings

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    • Iconography

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    • Islamic art

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    • Jewish art

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    • Lost works of art

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    • Art movements

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    • History of art in Portugal

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    • Style

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    • Visual arts theory

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    • Western art

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    • Works about art genres

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    • Art history stubs

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    • Art history

    • Art history is the study of objects of art in their historical development and stylistic contexts, i.e. genre, design, , and style. This includes the "major" arts of painting, sculpture, and architecture as well as the "minor" arts of ceramics, furniture, and other decorative objects. As a term, art history (its produ ... Read »


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    • Art periods

    • An art period is a phase in the development of the work of an artist, groups of artists or art movement. Renaissance c. 1300 - c. 1602, began in Florence Romanticism -1790 - 1880 Modern art - 1860 - 1945 Note: The countries listed are the country in which the movement or group started. Most modern art movements ... Read »


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    • History of art

    • The history of art is the history of any activity or product made by humans in a visual form for aesthetical or communicative purposes, expressing ideas, emotions or, in general, a worldview. Over time visual art has been classified in diverse ways, from the medieval distinction between liberal arts and mechanical arts ... Read »


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    • History of art criticism

    • The history of art criticism, as part of art history, is the study of objects of art in their historical development and stylistic contexts, i.e. genre, design, , and style, which include aesthetic considerations. This includes the "major" arts of painting, sculpture, and architecture as well as the "minor" arts of cer ... Read »


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    • Table of years in art

    • The table of years in art is a tabular display of all years in art, for overview and quick navigation to any year. 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 19191920 1921 1922 1923 ... Read »


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    • Timeline of art

    • This page indexes the individual year in art pages; see also Art periods. This is a list of the Visual Arts only; for Music see Timeline of musical events. 2010s – 2000s – 1990s – 1980s – 1970s – 1960s – 1950s – 1940s – 1930s – 1920s – 1910s – 1900s – 1890s ... Read »


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    • 2012 Munich artworks discovery

    • In February 2012, the District Prosecutor of Augsburg confiscated 121 framed and 1,285 unframed artworks found in an apartment in Schwabing, Munich in the course of an investigation into possible tax evasion. The apartment was rented to Cornelius Gurlitt, the son of celebrated art historian and dealer Hildebrand Gurlit ... Read »


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    • Accession Day tilt

    • The Accession Day tilts were a series of elaborate festivities held annually at the court of Elizabeth I of England to celebrate her Accession Day, 17 November, also known as Queen's Day. The tilts combined theatrical elements with jousting, in which Elizabeth's courtiers competed to outdo each other in allegorical ... Read »


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    • Achaemenid art

    • Achaemenid art

      Standard of Cyrus the Great The Achaemenid Empire (/əˈkiːmənɪd/, from Old Persian 𐏃𐎧𐎠𐎶𐎴𐎡𐏁𐎡𐎹 HaxāmaniÅ¡iya,c. 550–330 BC), also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great. Rangin ... Read »


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    • Aesthetic canon

    • A canon in the sphere of visual arts and aesthetics, or an aesthetic canon, is a rule for proportions, so as to produce a harmoniously formed figure. By extension, the norms of a certain epoch as to what is or is not considered beautiful may be called a canon of beauty. These norms have varied over time and what i ... Read »


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    • Aniconism in Buddhism

    • Since the beginning of the serious study of the history of Buddhist art in the 1890s, the earliest phase, lasting until the 1st century CE, has been described as aniconic; the Buddha was only represented through symbols such as an empty throne, Bodhi tree, a riderless horse with a parasol floating above an empty space ... Read »


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    • Animal studies

    • Animal studies is a recently recognized field in which animals are studied in a variety of cross-disciplinary ways. Scholars who engage in animal studies may be formally trained in a number of diverse fields, including art history, anthropology, biology, film studies, geography, history, psychology, literary studies, m ... Read »


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    • Animalier school

    • Animalier school or animalier movement was a roughly late 18th century to late 19th century movement and school of art, which took as its subject in various figurative forms the animal kingdom or Kingdom Animalia. The movement predominantly centered around Paris, France, and Italy, with some offshoots in England, Germa ... Read »


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    • List of anonymous masters

    • In art history, an anonymous master is an Old Master whose work is known, but whose name is lost. Only in the Renaissance did individual artists in Western Europe acquire personalities known by their peers (some listed by Vasari in his Lives of the Artists), such as those known by : The idea of a named and rec ... Read »


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    • Anserated

    • Anserated refers to a condition where extremities of a creature end in the head of an eagle, lion etc. . ... Read »


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    • Anthropology of art

    • Anthropology of art is a sub-field in social anthropology dedicated to the study of art in different cultural contexts. The anthropology of art focuses on historical, economic and aesthetic dimensions in non-Western art forms, including what is known as 'tribal art'. Franz Boas, one of the pioneers of modern anthr ... Read »


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    • AP Art History

    • Advanced Placement Art History (AP Art History, AP Art, or APAH) is an Advanced Placement Art History course and exam offered by the College Board in the United States. AP Art History is designed to allow students to examine major forms of artistic expression relevant to a variety of cultures evident in wide variety of ... Read »


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    • Art Historical Photo Archives

    • Art historical photo archives (or photoarchives) are collections of reproductions of works of art that document paintings, drawings, prints, sculpture, architecture and sometimes installation photos. They are essential resource tools for the study of art history. Image collections deepen understanding of specific objec ... Read »


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    • Art movement

    • An art movement is a tendency or style in art with a specific common philosophy or goal, followed by a group of artists during a restricted period of time, (usually a few months, years or decades) or, at least, with the heyday of the movement defined within a number of years. Art movements were especially important in ... Read »


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    • Artistic revolution

    • Throughout history, forms of art have gone through periodic abrupt changes called artistic revolutions. Movements have come to an end to be replaced by a new movement markedly different in striking ways. See also cultural movements. The role of fine art has been to simultaneously express values of the current cult ... Read »


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    • Artstor

    • Artstor is a non-profit organization that builds and distributes the Digital Library, an online resource of more than 1.9 million images in the arts, architecture, humanities, and sciences, and Shared Shelf, a Web-based cataloging and image management software service that allows institutions to catalog, edit, store, a ... Read »


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    • Association of Art Historians

    • The Association of Art Historians (AAH) promotes the professional practice and public understanding of art history. It was formed in 1974, is based in London, England, and is a registered charity (No. 1154066). Individual membership is open to anyone with a professional commitment to and interest in art history an ... Read »


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    • Banner of Peace

    • The banner of peace is a symbol of the Roerich Pact. This pact is the first international treaty dedicated to the protection of artistic and scientific institutions and historical monuments. It was signed on April 15, 1935. The banner of peace was proposed by Nicholas Roerich for an international pact for the protectio ... Read »


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    • Baroque painting

    • Baroque painting is the painting associated with the Baroque cultural movement. The movement is often identified with Absolutism, the Counter Reformation and Catholic Revival, but the existence of important Baroque art and architecture in non-absolutist and Protestant states throughout Western Europe underscores its wi ... Read »


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    • Buddhist art

    • Buddhist art is the artistic practices that are influenced by Buddhism. It includes art media which depict Buddhas, bodhisattvas, and other entities; notable Buddhist figures, both historical and mythical; narrative scenes from the lives of all of these; mandalas and other graphic aids to practice; as well as physical ... Read »


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    • Catalogue raisonné


    • Categories for the Description of Works of Art

    • Categories for the Description of Works of Art (CDWA) describes the content of art databases by articulating a conceptual framework for describing and accessing information about works of art, architecture, other material culture, groups and collections of works, and related images. The CDWA includes 532 categories and ... Read »


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    • CINOA Prize

    • The CINOA Prize is a prize awarded yearly to art historians by CINOA, the international confederation of art dealers, "in recognition of an academic publication or a remarkable contribution to furthering the cultural preservation through art works in a CINOA member country". ... Read »


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    • Classificatory disputes about art

    • Art historians and philosophers of art have long had classificatory disputes about art regarding whether a particular cultural form or piece of work should be classified as art. Disputes about what does and does not count as art continue to occur today. Defining art can be difficult. Aestheticians and art philosop ... Read »


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    • Codicology

    • Codicology (from Latin cōdex, genitive cōdicis, "notebook, book"; and Greek -λογία, -logia) is the study of codices or manuscript books written on parchment (or paper) as physical objects. It is often referred to as 'the archaeology of the book', concerning itself with the materials (parchment, som ... Read »


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    • Comité International d'Histoire de l'Art


    • Commission for Looted Art in Europe

    • The Commission for Looted Art in Europe is a non-profit organization, that researches looted art, and helps formulate restitution policy, for galleries, libraries, archives, and museums. It was organized in 1999. Anne Webber, and David Lewis are co-chairs. In 2011, they joined with the The National Archives (United K ... Read »


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    • Connoisseur

    • A connoisseur (French traditional (pre-1835) spelling of connaisseur, from Middle-French connoistre, then connaître meaning "to be acquainted with" or "to know somebody/something.") is a person who has a great deal of knowledge about the fine arts, cuisines, or an expert judge in matters of taste. In many areas the ... Read »


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    • Conservation-restoration of cultural heritage

    • The conservation-restoration of cultural heritage focuses on protection and care of tangible cultural heritage, including artworks, architecture, archaeology, and museum collections. Conservation activities include preventive conservation, examination, documentation, research, treatment, and education. This field is cl ... Read »


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    • Conservator-restorer

    • A conservator-restorer is a professional responsible for the preservation of artistic and cultural artifacts, also known as cultural heritage. Conservators possess the expertise to preserve cultural heritage in a way that retains the integrity of the object, building or site, including its historical significance, cont ... Read »


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    • Context art

    • The term Context art (German: Kontext Kunst) was introduced through the seminal exhibition and an accompanying publication Kontext Kunst. The Art of the 90s curated by Peter Weibel at the Neue Galerie im Künstlerhaus Graz (Austria) in 1993 (02.10.–07.11.1993). Both exhibition and publication aimed to establish ... Read »


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    • Contrapposto

    • Contrapposto [kontrapˈposto] is an Italian term that means counterpose. It is used in the visual arts to describe a human figure standing with most of its weight on one foot so that its shoulders and arms twist off-axis from the hips and legs. This gives the figure a more dynamic, or alternatively relaxed appearance ... Read »


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    • Counter-Maniera

    • Counter-Maniera or Counter-Mannerism (variously capitalized and part-italicized) is a term in art history for a trend identified by some art historians in 16th-century Italian painting that forms a sub-category or phase of Mannerism, the dominant movement in Italian art between about 1530 and 1590. Counter-Maniera or C ... Read »


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    • History of the concept of creativity

    • The ways in which societies have perceived the concept of creativity have changed throughout history, as has the term itself. The ancient Greek concept of art (in Greek, "techne" — the root of "technique" and "technology"), with the exception of poetry, involved not freedom of action but subjection to rules. In Ro ... Read »


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    • Art criticism

    • Art criticism is the discussion or evaluation of visual art.Art critics usually criticise art in the context of aesthetics or the theory of beauty. A goal of art criticism is the pursuit of a rational basis for art appreciation but it is questionable whether such criticism can transcend prevailing socio-political circu ... Read »


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    • List of art critics

    • This incomplete list of art critics enumerates persons who had or have a significant part of their known creative output in the form of art criticism, which consists mostly of the written discussion and aesthetic evaluation of works of art. There is no official list of art critics, the compilation of which is compound ... Read »


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    • Critique

    • Critique is a of disciplined, systematic analysis of a written or oral discourse. Although critique is commonly understood as fault finding and negative judgment, it can also involve merit recognition, and in the philosophical tradition it also means a methodical practice of doubt. The contemporary sense of critique h ... Read »


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    • Cultural depictions of the dog

    • Cultural depictions of dogs in Western art extend back thousands of years to when dogs were portrayed on the walls of caves. Representations of dogs in art became more elaborate as individual breeds evolved and the relationships between human and canine developed. Hunting scenes were popular in the Middle Ages and the ... Read »


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    • De Prospectiva Pingendi

    • De Prospectiva pingendi (On the Perspective of painting) is the earliest and only pre–1500 Renaissance treatise solely devoted to the subject of perspective. It was written by the Italian master Piero della Francesca late in his career but by c1474. Despite its Latin title, the opus is written in Italian. The ... Read »


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    • Dendrochronology

    • Dendrochronology (or tree-ring dating) is the scientific method of dating tree rings (also called growth rings) to the exact year they were formed in order to analyze atmospheric conditions during different periods in history. Dendrochronology is useful for determining the timing of events and rates of change in the en ... Read »


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    • Destruction of Mosul Museum artifacts

    • The destruction of Mosul Museum artifacts became publicly known on February 26, 2015 when the group known as ISIL released a video showing their destruction. The Mosul Museum, opened in 1952, is the second largest museum in Iraq, with the first being the National Museum of Iraq. The museum is split into four areas ... Read »


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    • Detachment of wall paintings

    • The detachment of wall paintings involves the removal of a wall painting from the structure of which it formed part. Once a common practice, with the move towards preservation in situ, detachment is now largely restricted to cases where the only alternative is total loss. According to the International Council on Monum ... Read »


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    • German Forum for Art History Paris

    • The German Forum for Art History Paris (Deutsches Forum für Kunstgeschichte (DFK; Centre Allemand d'Histoire de l'Art de Paris; German Center for the History of Art, Paris) is a German research institute specialized in French and German art and currently situated in the Hôtel de Lully in Paris, the former residen ... Read »


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    • Dictionary of Art Historians

    • The Dictionary of Art Historians (DAH) is an online encyclopedia of topics relating to art historians, art critics and their dictionaries. The mission of the project is to provide free, reliable, English-language information on published art historians. The DAH was started in 1986 as a notecard project indexing art hi ... Read »


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    • Drapery

    • Drapery is a general word referring to cloths or textiles (Old French , from Late Latin drappus). It may refer to cloth used for decorative purposes – such as around windows – or to the trade of retailing cloth, originally mostly for clothing, formerly conducted by drapers. In art history, drapery refers to ... Read »


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    • Effets de soir

    • Effets de soir (also called effets desoir or effets de soir et de matin) are the effects of light caused by the sunset, twilight, or darkness of the early evening or matins. They appear frequently in works by such painters as Vincent van Gogh,Bernard Fries,Armand Guillaumin, and Camille Corot. Literally, it means "effe ... Read »


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    • Art of Europe

    • The art of Europe encompasses the history of visual art in Europe. European prehistoric art started as mobile rock, and cave painting art, and was characteristic of the period between the Paleolithic and the Iron Age. Written histories of European art often begin with the art of the Ancient Middle East, and the Ancien ... Read »


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    • Expertization

    • Expertization is the process of authentication of an object, usually of a sort that is collected, by an individual authority or a committee of authorities. The expert committee will examine the collectible and issue a certificate typically including: Some experts will apply an experts mark, signature, or similar mark ... Read »


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    • Fake or Fortune?


    • Figura serpentinata

    • Figura serpentinata (Italian - serpentine figure) is a style in painting and sculpture, intended to make the figure seem more dynamic, that is typical of Mannerism. It is similar, but not identical, to contrapposto, and features figures often in a spiral pose. Early examples can be seen in the work of Leonardo da Vinci ... Read »


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    • Forensic astronomy

    • Forensic astronomy is the use of astronomy, the scientific study of celestial objects, to determine the appearance of the sky at specific times in the past. This has been used, if relatively rarely, in forensic science (that is, for solving problems of relevance to the legal system) and for resolving historical problem ... Read »


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    • Formalism (art)

    • In art history, formalism is the study of art by analyzing and comparing form and style—the way objects are made and their purely visual aspects. In painting, formalism emphasizes compositional elements such as color, line, shape, texture, and other perceptual aspects rather than iconography or the historical and ... Read »


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    • Greek mythology in western art and literature

    • With the rediscovery of classical antiquity in the Renaissance, the poetry of Ovid became a major influence on the imagination of poets and artists, and remained a fundamental influence on the diffusion and perception of Greek mythology through subsequent centuries. From the early years of the Renaissance, artists port ... Read »


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    • Grotto

    • A grotto (Italian grotta and French grotte) is a natural or artificial cave used by humans in both modern times, and historically or prehistorically. Naturally occurring grottoes are often small caves near water that are usually flooded or liable to flood at high tide. Sometimes, artificial grottoes are used as garden ... Read »


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    • Guild of Saint Luke

    • The Guild of Saint Luke was the most common name for a city guild for painters and other artists in early modern Europe, especially in the Low Countries. They were named in honor of the Evangelist Luke, the patron saint of artists, who was identified by John of Damascus as having painted the Virgin's portrait. One of ... Read »


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    • Hamburg School of Art History

    • The so-called Hamburg School of Art History (Hamburger Schule der Kunstgeschichte) was a school of art historians primarily teaching at the University of Hamburg, who were closely connected with the Kulturwissenschaftliche Bibliothek Warburg (KBW) at the Warburg Haus, Hamburg. Its main members were scholars such as Aby ... Read »


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    • Heritage science

    • Heritage science is cross-disciplinary scientific research of cultural heritage. It encompasses research enabling access to cultural heritage, its conservation, interpretation and management. The term has become widely used after 2006 when it became increasingly evident that the more traditional terms conservation sci ... Read »


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    • Hexagram

    • Hexagram

      A hexagram (Greek) or sexagram (Latin) is a six-pointed geometric star figure with the Schläfli symbol {6/2}, 2{3}, or {{3}}. It is the compound of two equilateral triangles. The intersection is a regular hexagon. It is used in historical, religious and cultural contexts, for example in Hanafism,Jewish identity, Hi ... Read »


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    • Hierarchy of genres

    • A hierarchy of genres is any formalization which ranks different genres in an art form in terms of their prestige and cultural value. In literature, the epic was considered the highest form, for the reason expressed by Samuel Johnson in his Life of John Milton: "By the general consent of criticks, the first praise of ... Read »


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    • Hierotopy

    • Hierotopy (from Ancient Greek: ἱερός, sacred + Ancient Greek: τόπος, place, space) is the creation of sacred spaces viewed as a special form of human creativity and also a related academic field where specific examples of such creativity are studied. The concept and the term were d ... Read »


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    • Hindu art

    • Hindu art encompasses the artistic traditions and styles culturally connected to Hinduism. Hinduism, with its 1 billion followers, it makes up about 15% of the world’s population and as such the culture that ensues it is full of different aspects of life that are effected by art. There are 64 traditional arts ... Read »


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    • History of erotic depictions

    • The history of erotic depictions includes paintings, sculpture, photographs, dramatic arts, music and writings that show scenes of a sexual nature throughout time. They have been created by nearly every civilization, ancient and modern. Early cultures often associated the sexual act with supernatural forces and thus th ... Read »


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    • History of printing in East Asia

    • Printing in East Asia evolved from ink rubbings made on paper or cloth from texts on stone tables in China during the Han dynasty (206 BC–220 CE). Mechanical woodblock printing on paper started in China during the Tang dynasty before the 8th century CE. Use of woodblock printing quickly spread to other East Asian ... Read »


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    • Hockney–Falco thesis


    • Horror vacui

    • In visual art, horror vacui (/ˈhɒrər ˈvɑːkjuːaɪ/; from Latin "fear of empty space"), also kenophobia, from Greek "fear of the empty"), is the filling of the entire surface of a space or an artwork with detail. The term is associated with the Italian art critic and scholar Mario Praz, who us ... Read »


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    • Iconography

    • Iconography, as a branch of art history, studies the identification, description, and the interpretation of the content of images: the subjects depicted, the particular compositions and details used to do so, and other elements that are distinct from artistic style. The word iconography comes from the Greek εἰ ... Read »


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    • Iconology

    • Iconology is a method of interpretation in cultural history and the history of art used by Aby Warburg, Erwin Panofsky and their followers that uncovers the cultural, social, and historical background of themes and subjects in the visual arts. It is derived from synthesis rather than scattered analysis and examines sym ... Read »


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    • Idealism (arts)

    • In the arts, Idealism affirms imagination and attempts to realize a mental conception of beauty, a standard of perfection, juxtaposed to aesthetic naturalism and realism. ... Read »


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    • Illusionism (art)

    • Illusionism in art history means either the artistic tradition in which artists create a work of art that appears to share the physical space with the viewer or more broadly the attempt to represent physical appearances precisely – also called mimesis. The term realist may be used in this sense, but that also has ... Read »


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    • Institut national d'histoire de l'art


    • Instituto de Investigaciones Estéticas


    • International Association of Research Institutes in the History of Art

    • The International Association of Research Institutes in the History of Art (RIHA) promotes education and research in art history and related disciplines. It was founded in 1998 in Paris to intensify cooperation between art historical institutes by facilitating the flow of information on scientific and administrative ac ... Read »


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    • Italian Renaissance painting

    • Italian Renaissance painting is the painting of the period beginning in the late 13th century and flourishing from the early 15th to late 16th centuries, occurring in the Italian peninsula, which was at that time divided into many political areas. The painters of Renaissance Italy, although often attached to particular ... Read »


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    • Italian Renaissance

    • The Italian Renaissance (Italian: Rinascimento [rinaʃʃiˈmento]) was the earliest manifestation of the general European Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement that began in Italy during the 14th century and lasted until the 16th century, marking the transition between Medieval and Early ... Read »


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    • Lesbian Art Project

    • Lesbian Art Project (1977 – 1979) was a participatory art movement founded by Terry Wolverton and Arlene Raven at the Woman's Building in Los Angeles. The pioneering project focused on giving a platform to lesbian and feminist perspectives of participants through performance, art making, salons, workshops and w ... Read »


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    • Libri Carolini

    • The Libri Carolini ("Charles' books"), Opus Caroli regis contra synodum ("The work of King Charles against the Synod"), also called Charlemagne's Books or simply the Carolines, are the work in four books composed on the command of Charlemagne, around 790, to refute the supposed conclusions of the Byzantine Second Counc ... Read »


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    • Line of beauty

    • Line of beauty is a term and a theory in art or aesthetics used to describe an S-shaped curved line (a serpentine line) appearing within an object, as the boundary line of an object, or as a virtual boundary line formed by the composition of several objects. This theory originated with William Hogarth (18th-century Eng ... Read »


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    • List of dates in the history of conservation and restoration

    • This page details the historic development of Art conservation in Europe and the United States. Some key dates in the history of conservation in Europe and the United States include: ... Read »


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    • Looted art

    • Looted art has been a consequence of looting during war, natural disaster and riot for centuries. Looting of art, archaeology and other cultural property may be an opportunistic criminal act or may be a more organized case of unlawful or unethical pillage by the victor of a conflict. The term "looted art" reflects bias ... Read »


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    • Marburg Picture Index

    • The Bildindex der Kunst und Architektur is an open online database of 2.2 million photographs of 1.7 million artworks and architectural objects. The owner/operator of this database is the German Documentation Center for Art History known formally as Bildarchiv Foto Marburg. In addition to its own image holdings, aroun ... Read »


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    • Mathematics and art

    • Mathematics and art are related in a variety of ways. Mathematics has itself been described as an art motivated by beauty. Mathematics can be discerned in arts such as music, dance, painting, architecture, sculpture, and textiles. This article focuses, however, on mathematics in the visual arts. Mathematics and art ha ... Read »


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    • Media art history

    • Media art history is an interdisciplinary field of research that explores the current developments as well as the history and genealogy of new media art, digital art, and electronic art. On the one hand, media art histories addresses the contemporary interplay of art, technology, and science. On the other, it aims to r ... Read »


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    • Mise en abyme

    • Mise en abyme (French pronunciation: ​[miz‿ɑ̃n‿abim]; also mise en abîme) is a French term derived from heraldry, and literally means "placed into abyss". The term has developed a number of particular senses in modern criticism since it was picked up from heraldry by the French author Andrà ... Read »


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    • Modello

    • A modello [moˈdɛllo] (plural modelli), from Italian, is a preparatory study or model, usually at a smaller scale, for a work of art or architecture, especially one produced for the approval of the commissioning patron. The term gained currency in art circles in Tuscany in the fourteenth century. Modern definition ... Read »


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    • Monumental sculpture

    • The term monumental sculpture is often used in art history and criticism, but not always consistently. It combines two concepts, one of function, and one of size, and may include an element of a third more subjective concept. It is often used for all sculptures that are large. Human figures that are perhaps half life-s ... Read »


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    • National Committee for the History of Art

    • The National Committee for the History of Art (NCHA) is the U.S. affiliate of the Comité International d'Histoire de l'Art (CIHA, i.e. the international community of art historians). It was founded in 1980 by Irving Lavin. Both committees aim to foster intellectual exchange among scholars and students interested in ... Read »


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    • Netherlands Institute for Art History

    • The Netherlands Institute for Art History or RKD (Dutch: RKD-Nederlands Instituut voor Kunstgeschiedenis) is located in The Hague and is home to the largest art history center in the world. The center specializes in documentation, archives, and books on Western art from the late Middle Ages until modern times. All of ... Read »


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    • Neuroarthistory

    • Neuroarthistory is a term coined by Professor John Onians, an art historian at the University of East Anglia in 2005. Neuroarthistory is an approach that concerns the neurological study of artists, both living and dead. In 2004 Onians taught the Postgraduate module "Art and the Brain" named after the 1999 paper by Pro ... Read »


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    • Oil sketch

    • An Oil sketch or oil study is an artwork made primarily in oil paint in preparation for a larger, finished work. Originally these were created as preparatory studies or modelli, especially so as to gain approval for the design of a larger commissioned painting. They were also used as designs for specialists in other me ... Read »


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    • Old Master

    • In art history, "Old Master" (or "old master") refers to any painter of skill who worked in Europe before about 1800, or a painting by such an artist. An "old master print" is an original print (for example an engraving or etching) made by an artist in the same period. The term "old master drawing" is used in the same ... Read »


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    • Open Form

    • Open form is a term coined by Heinrich Wölfflin in 1915 to describe a characteristic of Baroque art opposed to the "closed form" of the Renaissance (Wölfflin 1915, chapter 3). Wölfflin tentatively offered several alternative pairs of terms, in particular "a-tectonic" and "tectonic" (also free/strict and irregu ... Read »


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    • Orientalism

    • Orientalism is an academic term, used in art history, literary studies, geography, and cultural studies, which is and describes a critical approach to representations of the Orient; of the Eastern cultures of the Middle East, North Africa, South West Asia, and South East Asia, represented as “European knowledge of ... Read »


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    • 20th-century Western painting

    • 20th-century Western painting begins with the heritage of late-19th-century painters Vincent van Gogh, Paul Cézanne, Paul Gauguin, Georges Seurat and Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, and others who were essential for the development of modern art. At the beginning of the 20th century, Henri Matisse and several other young ... Read »


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    • Western painting

    • The history of Western painting represents a continuous, though disrupted, tradition from antiquity until the present time. Until the mid-19th century it was primarily concerned with representational and Classical modes of production, after which time more modern, abstract and conceptual forms gained favor. Developmen ... Read »


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    • Pentimento

    • A pentimento (plural pentimenti) is an alteration in a painting, evidenced by traces of previous work, showing that the artist has changed his or her mind as to the composition during the process of painting. The word is Italian for repentance, from the verb , meaning to repent. Pentimenti may show that a composit ... Read »


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    • Period eye

    • The period eye is a concept that was devised by Michael Baxandall and described in his innovative Painting and Experience in Fifteenth-Century Italy: A Primer in the Social History of Pictorial Style where he used it to describe the cultural conditions under which art in the Renaissance was created, viewed, and underst ... Read »


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    • Persian-Sassanid art patterns

    • Persian-Sassanide art patterns have similarities with the art of the Bulgars, Khazars, and Saka-Scythians, and have recurred in Asia. They predominantly feature motifs of fighting animals. Gold was frequently used as a base for their art creations. The characteristic patterns of Persian-Sassanide art exhibit simil ... Read »


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    • PlinkArt

    • Plinkart is a mobile phone application designed to identify works of art, created by Mark Cummins and James Philbin. They were one of three winners of the Education/Reference category of the Google ADC2 (Android Developer Challenge 2). PlinkArt was acquired by Google in April 2010. ... Read »


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    • Post-socialist art

    • Post-socialist art (or post-communist art) is a term used in analysis of art arriving from post-socialist (post-communist) countries taken as different in their nature from Western, Postmodern art. Crucial for such art is that: Socialist art started opening to Western markets already in the eighties, introducing Slov ... Read »


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    • Preservation of meaning

    • Preservation of meaning in library, archival or museum collections involves understanding spiritual, ritual, or cultural perceptions of value for specific objects, and ensuring these values are maintained and respected. Meaning is something assigned to objects of cultural or spiritual significance based on interpretati ... Read »


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    • Prime version

    • In the art world the prime version of a work of art which exists in a number of versions is the version which is known or believed to have been the first to be produced. Many artworks produced in media such as painting or carved sculpture which create unique objects are in fact repeated by their artists, often several ... Read »


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    • Proper right

    • Proper right and proper left are conceptual terms used to unambiguously convey relative direction when describing an image or other object. The "proper right" hand of a figure is the hand that would be regarded by that figure as its right hand. In a frontal representation, that appears on the left as the viewer sees it ... Read »


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    • Provenance

    • Provenance (from the French provenir, "to come from"), is the chronology of the ownership, custody or location of a historical object. The term was originally mostly used in relation to works of art, but is now used in similar senses in a wide range of fields, including archaeology, paleontology, archives, manuscripts, ... Read »


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    • Rabbits and hares in art

    • The hare and the rabbit are common motifs in the visual arts, which have variable mythological and artistic meanings in different cultures. The hare is often associated with moon deities and signifies rebirth and resurrection. It is a symbol of fertility and sensuality, and appears in depictions of hunting and spring s ... Read »


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    • Realism (art movement)

    • Realism was an artistic movement that began in France in the 1850s, after the 1848 Revolution. Realists rejected Romanticism, which had dominated French literature and art since the late 18th century. Realism revolted against the exotic subject matter and exaggerated emotionalism and drama of the Romantic movement. Ins ... Read »


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    • Realism (arts)

    • Realism in the arts is the attempt to represent subject matter truthfully, without artificiality and avoiding artistic conventions, implausible, exotic and supernatural elements. Realism has been prevalent in the arts at many periods, and is in large part a matter of technique and training, and the avoidance of styliz ... Read »


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    • Art in the Protestant Reformation and Counter-Reformation

    • The Protestant Reformation during the 16th century in Europe almost entirely rejected the existing tradition of Catholic art, and very often destroyed as much of it as it could reach. A new artistic tradition developed, producing far smaller quantities of art that followed Protestant agendas and diverged drastically fr ... Read »


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    • Register (art)

    • In art and archaeology, in sculpture as well as in painting, a register is a horizontal level in a work that consists of several levels, especially where the levels are clearly separated by lines; modern comic books typically use similar conventions. It is thus comparable to a row, or a line in modern texts. Common ex ... Read »


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    • Religious image

    • A religious image is a work of visual art that is representational and has a religious purpose, subject or connection. All major historical religions have made some use of religious images, although their use is strictly controlled and often controversial in many religions, especially Abrahamic ones. General terms asso ... Read »


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    • Rembrandt Research Project

    • The Rembrandt Research Project (RRP) is an initiative of the Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO), which is the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research. Its purpose is to organize and categorize research on Rembrandt, with the aim of discovering new facts about this Dutch Golden Age pa ... Read »


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    • Restoration (cultural heritage)

    • Restoration is a process that attempts to return cultural heritage to some previous state that the restorer imagines was the "original". This was commonly done in the past. However, in the late 20th century a separate concept of conservation-restoration was developed that is more concerned with preserving the work of a ... Read »


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    • Restoration of the Sistine Chapel frescoes

    • The conservation-restoration of the frescoes of the Sistine Chapel was one of the most significant conservation-restorations of the 20th century. The Sistine Chapel was built by Pope Sixtus IV within the Vatican immediately to the north of St. Peter's Basilica and completed in about 1481. Its walls were decorated by a ... Read »


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    • Royal Entry

    • The Royal Entry, also known by various names, including Triumphal Entry, Joyous Entry, consisted of the ceremonies and festivities accompanying a formal entry by a ruler or his representative into a city in the Middle Ages and Early Modern Period in Europe. The entry centred on a procession carrying the entering prince ... Read »


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    • S Curve (art)

    • The S Curve is a traditional art concept in Ancient Greek sculpture and Roman sculpture where the figure's body and posture is depicted like a sinuous or serpentine "S". It is related to and is an extension of the art term of contrapposto which is when a figure is depicted slouching or placing one's weight and thus cen ... Read »


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    • Scottish Renaissance painted ceilings

    • Scottish Renaissance painted ceilings are decorated ceilings in Scottish houses and castles built between 1540 and 1640. This is a distinctive national style, though there is common ground with similar work elsewhere, especially in France, Spain and Scandinavia. An example in England, at Wickham, Hampshire, was recorde ... Read »


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    • Sheela na gig

    • Sheela na gigs are figurative carvings of naked women displaying an exaggerated vulva. They are architectural grotesques found on churches, castles, and other buildings, particularly in Ireland and Great Britain, sometimes together with male figures. One of the best examples may be found in the Round Tower at Rattoo, i ... Read »


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    • Shell grotto

    • A shell grotto is a type of folly, a grotto decorated with sea shells. ... Read »


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    • Signature artwork

    • In art, signature artwork refers to works by popular and well-established artists that are easily recognized as theirs because of unique characteristics in style, medium, or subject matter. A parallel to the recognition of a person's signature on a work is drawn indicating that the work itself may serve the same purpos ... Read »


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    • Slide library

    • A slide library is a library that houses a collection of photographic slides, either as a part of a larger library or standing alone within a larger organization, such as an academic department of a college or university, a museum, or a corporation. Typically, a "slide library" contains slides depicting artwork, archit ... Read »


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    • Smarthistory

    • Smarthistory

      Smarthistory is a free resource for the study of art history created by art historians Beth Harris and Steven Zucker. Smarthistory is an independent not-for-profit organization and the official partner to Khan Academy for art history. Smarthistory started in 2005 as an audio guide series for use at the Metropolitan Mu ... Read »


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    • Sociology of art

    • The sociology of art is a subfield of sociology concerned with the social worlds of art and aesthetics. Studying the sociology of art throughout history is the study of the social history of art, how various societies contributed to the appearance of certain artists. In her 1970 book Meaning and Expression: Toward a ... Read »


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    • Soviet art

    • Soviet art is the visual art that was produced in the Soviet Union. During the Russian Revolution a movement was initiated to put all arts to service of the dictatorship of the proletariat. The instrument for this was created just days before the October Revolution, known as Proletkult, an abbreviation for "Prolet ... Read »


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    • Spatial icon

    • The concept of the spatial icon, introduced by Alexei Lidov, plays a central role in hierotopy and is used to describe the perception of sacred spaces. Spatial icons are image-visions, that are evoked, for example, in the space of a temple or sanctuary. The spatial icon encompasses a broad range of components involved ... Read »


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    • The Spoils of War (symposium)

    • The Spoils of War (symposium) "The Spoils of War—World War II and Its Aftermath: The Loss, Reappearance, and Recovery of Cultural Property" was a ground-breaking international symposium held in New York City in 1995 to discuss the artworks, cultural property, and historic sites damaged, lost, and plundered as a r ... Read »


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    • Style (visual arts)

    • In the visual arts, style is a "...distinctive manner which permits the grouping of works into related categories." or "...any distinctive, and therefore recognizable, way in which an act is performed or an artifact made or ought to be performed and made." It refers to the visual appearance of a work of art that relate ... Read »


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    • Terribilità


    • Timeline for invention in the arts

    • Timelines of inventions display the development and progression of art, design, architecture, music and literature. dates may be approximations Music has been expanded by invention over the course of thousands of years. Timeline - dates may be approximations Literature has been reinvented throughout history as ... Read »


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    • Tondo (art)

    • A tondo (plural "tondi" or "tondos") is a Renaissance term for a circular work of art, either a painting or a sculpture. The word derives from the Italian rotondo, "round." The term is usually not used in English for small round paintings, but only those over about 60 cm (two feet) in diameter, thus excluding many r ... Read »


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    • Vienna School of Art History

    • The Vienna School of Art History (German: Wiener Schule der Kunstgeschichte) was the development of fundamental art-historical methods at the University of Vienna. This school was not actually a dogmatically unified group, but rather an intellectual evolution extending over a number of generations, in which a series of ... Read »


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    • History of Western typography

    • Contemporary typographers view typography as craft with a very long history tracing its origins back to the first punches and dies used to make seals and currency in ancient times. The basic elements of typography are at least as old as civilization and the earliest writing systems—a series of key developments tha ... Read »


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    • Wildenstein Index Number

    • A Wildenstein Index Number refers to an item in a numerical system published in catalogues by Daniel Wildenstein, a scholar of Impressionism, who published catalogues raisonnés of artists such as Claude Monet, Édouard Manet and Paul Gauguin through his family business, Wildenstein & Company. In these catalogues, ... Read »


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    • Wildenstein Institute

    • The Wildenstein Institute is a French art institute that publishes catalogues raisonnés and scholarly inventories. The Institute was founded in 1970 by Daniel Wildenstein as the Fondation Wildenstein and was renamed the Wildenstein Institute in 1990. It is an offshoot of the art dealing company owned by the Wil ... Read »


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    • Women artists

    • While female artists have been involved in making art throughout history, their work often has not been as well acknowledged as that of men. Often certain media are associated with women artists, such as textile arts. Women's roles in relation to art, of course, vary in different cultures and communities. Many art form ... Read »


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    • Women Surrealists

    • Women Surrealists are women artists, photographers, filmmakers and authors connected with the Surrealist Movement, which began in the early 1920s. ... Read »


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    • World art studies

    • World art studies is an expression used to define studies in the discipline of art history, which focus on the history of visual arts worldwide, its methodology, concepts and approach. The expression is also used within the academic curricula as title for specific art history courses and schools. There are several ... Read »


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  • What Else?

    • Art history

Extras