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  • Architectural elements

    Architectural elements

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    • Category:Buildings and structures

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    • List of building types

    • A list of structural structure types and forms of architecture. For individual buildings, see List of buildings and structures. For other types of structures see nonbuilding structure. ... Read »


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    • Category:Rooms

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    • Category:Architectural styles

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    • Category:Building materials

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    • church

    • A church building, often simply called a church, is a building used for Christian religious activities, particularly worship services. The term in its architectural sense is most often used by Christians to refer to their religious buildings, but it is sometimes used (by analogy) for buildings of other religions. In tr ... church


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    • mansion

    • A mansion is a large dwelling house. The word itself derives through Old French from the Latin word mansio "dwelling", an abstract noun derived from the verb manere "to dwell". The English word "manse" originally defined a property large enough for the parish priest to maintain himself, but a mansion is no longer self ... mansion


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    • kitchen

    • A kitchen is a room or part of a room used for cooking and food preparation in a dwelling or in a commercial establishment. In the West, a modern residential kitchen is typically equipped with a stove, a sink with hot and cold running water, a refrigerator, counters and kitchen cabinets arranged according to a modular ... kitchen


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    • nave

    • The nave /ˈneɪv/ is the central aisle of a basilica church, or the main body of a church (whether aisled or not) between its western wall and its chancel. It is the zone of a church accessible by the laity. The nave extends from the entry — which may have a separate vestibule (the narthex) — to the cha ... nave


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    • gothic

    • Gothic architecture is a style of architecture that flourished in Europe during the high and late medieval period. It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture. Originating in 12th-century France and lasting into the 16th century, Gothic architecture was known during the period ... gothic


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    • Bauhaus

    • Staatliches Bauhaus (German: [ˈʃtaːtlɪçəs ˈbaʊˌhaʊs]), commonly known simply as Bauhaus, was a German art school operational from 1919 to 1933 that combined crafts and the fine arts, and was famous for the approach to design that it publicised and taught. The Bauhaus was founded by Walter ... Read »


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    • thatch

    • Thatching is the craft of building a roof with dry vegetation such as straw, water reed, sedge (Cladium mariscus), rushes, or heather, layering the vegetation so as to shed water away from the inner roof. It is a very old roofing method and has been used in both tropical and temperate climates. Thatch is still employed ... thatch


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    • Architectural sculpture

    • Architectural sculpture is the term for the use of sculpture by an architect and/or sculptor in the design of a building, bridge, mausoleum or other such project. The sculpture is usually integrated with the structure, but freestanding works that are part of the original design are also considered to be architectural s ... Read »


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    • Glossary of architecture

    • This page is a glossary of architecture. ... Read »


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    • Arcades (architecture)

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    • Arches and vaults

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    • Baroque architectural features

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    • Ceilings

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    • Colonnades

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    • Columns and entablature

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    • Courtyards

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    • Doors

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    • Fireplaces

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    • Floors

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    • Fortification (architectural elements)

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    • Foundations (buildings and structures)

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    • Fountains

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    • Furniture

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    • Gates


    • Islamic architectural elements

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    • Japanese architectural features

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    • Light fixtures

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    • Lighting

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    • Masonry

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    • Ornaments (architecture)

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    • Puebloan architectural elements

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    • Ancient Roman architectural elements

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    • Roofs

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Roofs


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    • Rooms

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    • Rotundas (architecture)


    • Architectural sculpture

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    • Shading (Architecture)


    • Stairways

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    • Trusses

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    • Turrets

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    • Types of wall

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    • Walls

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    • Windows

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    • Architectural element stubs

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Architectural element stubs


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    • Abacus (architecture)

    • In architecture, an abacus (from the Greek abax, slab; or French abaque, tailloir; plural abacuses or abaci) is a flat slab forming the uppermost member or division of the capital of a column, above the bell. Its chief function is to provide a large supporting surface, tending to be wider than the capital, to receive t ... Read »


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    • Abat-son

    • An abat-son (usually plural abat-sons) is an architectural device constructed to reflect sound in a particular direction. Typically it takes the form of large louvers which direct the sound of church bells from a bell tower toward the ground. In general use, any louvers in a bell tower are commonly called abat-sons, w ... Read »


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    • Aedicula

    • In ancient Roman religion, an aedicula (plural aediculae) is a small shrine. The word aedicula is the diminutive of the Latin aedes, a temple building. Many aediculae were household shrines that held small altars or statues of the Lares and Penates. The Lares were Roman deities protecting the house and the family hous ... Read »


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    • Aisle

    • An aisle is, in general (common), a space for walking with rows of seats on both sides or with rows of seats on one side and a wall on the other. Aisles can be seen in airplanes, certain types of buildings, such as churches, cathedrals, synagogues, meeting halls, parliaments and legislatures, courtrooms, theatres, and ... Read »


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    • Alcove

    • Alcove (/ælˈkoʊv/ or /ˈælkoʊv/; through Spanish: alcoba [alˈkoβa], from Arabic: القبة‎‎, meaning al-qubbah, "the vault") is an architectural term for a recess in a room, usually screened off by pillars, balustrades or drapery. In geography and geology, alcove is used fo ... Read »


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    • Alure

    • An alure (O. Fr., from aller, "to walk") or allure is an architectural term for an alley, passage, the water-way or flat gutter behind a parapet, the galleries of a clerestory, or sometimes even the aisle itself of a church. The term is occasionally written valure or valoring. It may also be used to refer to a wall-wal ... Read »


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    • Amalaka

    • An Amalaka, is a stone disk, usually with ridges on the rim, that sits atop a temple's main tower (Shikhara). According to one interpretation, the amalaka represents a lotus, and thus the symbolic seat for the deity below. Another interpretation is that it symbolizes the sun, and is thus the gateway to the heavenly wor ... Read »


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    • Ambulacrum

    • An ambulacrum is an architectural term for the atrium, courtyard, or parvise in front of a basilica that is surrounded by arcades or colonnades, often containing a fountain, and is surrounded by trees. It can also refer to any walking path specifically created with trees. ... Read »


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    • Anathyrosis

    • Anathyrosis is the technical term for how the ancients frequently dressed the joints of stone blocks. Since the blocks were set directly against each other without the use of mortar, the joint had to be exact. In order to reduce the amount of time required to form such a joint, the joining face of the stone was finishe ... Read »


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    • Anchor plate

    • An anchor plate or wall washer is a large plate or washer connected to a tie rod or bolt. Anchor plates are used on exterior walls of masonry buildings, for structural reinforcement. Being visible, many anchor plates are made in a style that is decorative. One popular style is the star anchor — an anchor plate ca ... Read »


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    • Annualized geo solar

    • Annualized geo-solar enables passive solar heating in even cold, foggy north temperate areas. It uses the ground under or around a building as thermal mass to heat and cool the building. After a designed, conductive thermal lag of 6 months the heat is returned to, or removed from, the inhabited spaces of the building. ... Read »


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    • Anta (architecture)

    • An anta (pl. antæ) (Latin, possibly from ante, 'before' or 'in front of'), or sometimes parastade is an architectural term describing the posts or pillars on either side of a doorway or entrance of a Greek temple - the slightly projecting piers which terminate the walls of the naos. It differs from the pilaster, whi ... Read »


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    • Anta capital

    • An Anta capital is the crowning portion of an anta, the front edge of a supporting wall in Greek temple architecture. The anta is generally crowned by a stone block designed to spread the load from superstructure (entablature) it supports, called an "anta capitals" when it is structural, or sometimes "pilaster capital" ... Read »


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    • Antae temple

    • An Antae Temple, also a Distyle in antis Temple, is a special name given to a type of ancient Greek or Roman temple that has side walls that extend to form a porch at the front or rear (or both) and terminated in structural pillars that were called the antae. If columns were placed in advance of the walls or antae, the ... Read »


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    • Ante-choir

    • Ante-choir, the term given to the space enclosed in a church between the outer gate or railing of the rood screen and the door of the screen; sometimes there is only one rail, gate or door, but in Westminster Abbey it is equal in depth to one bay of the nave. The ante-choir is also called the "fore choir." ... Read »


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    • Antefix

    • An antefix (from Latin antefigere, to fasten before) is a vertical block which terminates the covering tiles of the roof of a tiled roof. In grand buildings the face of each stone ante-fix was richly carved, often with the anthemion ornament. In less grand buildings moulded ceramic ante-fixae, usually terracotta, might ... Read »


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    • Apron (architecture)

    • An apron is a raised section of ornamental stonework below a window ledge, stone tablet, or monument. ... Read »


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    • Araeosystyle

    • Araeosystyle (Gr. αραιος, "widely spaced", and συστυλος, "with columns set close together"), an architectural term applied to a colonnade, in which the intercolumniation is alternately wide and narrow, as in the case of the western porch of St Paul's Cathedral and the east fron ... Read »


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    • Arcade (architecture)

    • An arcade is a succession of arches, each counter-thrusting the next, supported by columns, piers, or a covered walkway enclosed by a line of such arches on one or both sides. In warmer or wet climates, exterior arcades provide shelter for pedestrians. The walkway may be lined with stores. A blind arcade superimposes a ... Read »


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    • Architectural glass

    • Architectural glass is glass that is used as a building material. It is most typically used as transparent glazing material in the building envelope, including windows in the external walls. Glass is also used for internal partitions and as an architectural feature. When used in buildings, glass is often of a safety ty ... Read »


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    • Architectural ironmongery

    • Architectural ironmongery is the manufacture and wholesale distribution of items made from iron, steel, aluminium, brass, or other metals, as well as plastics, for use in all types of buildings. Such items, sometimes also described as architectural hardware, include door handles, locks, closers and hinges ("door furnit ... Read »


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    • Architectural light shelf

    • A light shelf is a horizontal surface that reflects daylight deep into a building. Light shelves are placed above eye-level and have high-reflectance upper surfaces, which reflect daylight onto the ceiling and deeper into the space. Light shelves are typically used in high-rise and low-rise office buildings, as well a ... Read »


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    • Architectural lighting design

    • Architectural lighting design is a field within architecture, interior design and electrical engineering that is concerned with the design of lighting systems, including natural light, electric light, or both, to serve human needs. The design process takes account of: It is important to appreciate that the ultimate c ... Read »


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    • Architrave

    • An architrave (/ˈɑːrkáµ»treɪv/; from Italian: architrave "chief beam", also called an epistyle; from Greek ἐπίστυλον epistylon "door frame") is the lintel or beam that rests on the capitals of the columns. It is an architectural element in Classical architecture. The term ca ... Read »


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    • Archivolt

    • An archivolt (or voussure) is an ornamental molding or band following the curve on the underside of an arch. It is composed of bands of ornamental moldings (or other architectural elements) surrounding an arched opening, corresponding to the architrave in the case of a rectangular opening. The word is sometimes used to ... Read »


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    • Arris

    • In architecture, an arris is the sharp edge formed by the intersection of two surfaces, such as the corner of a masonry unit; the edge of a timber in timber framing; the junction between two planes of plaster or any intersection of divergent architectural details. Also the raised edges which separate the flutings in a ... Read »


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    • Articulation (architecture)

    • Articulation, in art and architecture, is a method of styling the joints in the formal elements of architectural design. Through degrees of articulation, each part is united with the whole work by means of a joint in such a way that the joined parts are put together in styles ranging from exceptionally distinct jointin ... Read »


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    • Ashlar

    • Ashlar is finely dressed (cut, worked) masonry, either an individual stone that has been worked until squared or the masonry built of such stone. It is the finest stone masonry unit, generally cuboid, mentioned by Vitruvius as opus isodomum, or less frequently trapezoidal. Precisely cut “on all faces adjacent to t ... Read »


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    • Astragal

    • An astragal is a moulding profile composed of a half-round surface surrounded by two flat planes (fillets). An astragal is sometimes referred to as a miniature torus. It can be an architectural element used at the top or base of a column, but is also employed as a framing device on furniture and woodwork. The word "as ... Read »


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    • Atlas (architecture)

    • In classical European architecture, an atlas (also known as an atlant, or atlante or atlantid; plural atlantes) is a support sculpted in the form of a man, which may take the place of a column, a pier or a pilaster. The Roman term for such a sculptural support is telamon (plural telamones or telamons). The term atlant ... Read »


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    • Atrium (architecture)

    • In architecture, an atrium (plural atria or atriums in both British and American English) is a large open air or skylight covered space surrounded by a building. Atria were a common feature in Ancient Roman dwellings, providing light and ventilation to the interior. Modern atria, as developed in the late 19th and 20th ... Read »


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    • Attic ladder

    • An attic ladder (US) or loft ladder (UK) is a retractable ladder that is installed into the floor of an attic and ceiling of the floor below the attic. They are used as an inexpensive and compact alternative to having a stairway that ascends to the attic of a building. Also, fire departments carry attic ladders on fire ... Read »


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    • Attic style

    • In classical architecture, the term attic refers to a story or low wall above the cornice of a classical façade. This usage originated in the 17th century from the use of Attica style pilasters as adornments on the top story's façade. The decoration of the topmost part of a building was particularly important in ... Read »


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    • Awning

    • An awning or overhang is a secondary covering attached to the exterior wall of a building. It is typically composed of canvas woven of acrylic, cotton or polyester yarn, or vinyl laminated to polyester fabric that is stretched tightly over a light structure of aluminium, iron or steel, possibly coot or transparent mate ... Read »


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    • Balconet

    • A balconet or balconette is an architectural term to describe a false balcony, or railing at the outer plane of a window-opening reaching to the floor, and having, when the window is open, the appearance of a balcony. They are common in France, Portugal, Spain, and Italy. They are often referred to as Juliet balconies ... Read »


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    • Balcony

    • A balcony (from Italian: balcone, scaffold; cf. Old High German balcho, beam, balk; probably cognate with Persian term بالكانه bālkāneh or its older variant پالكانه pālkāneh;) is a platform projecting from the wall of a building, supported by columns or console brac ... Read »


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    • Baldachin

    • A baldachin, or baldaquin (from Italian: baldacchino), is a canopy of state typically placed over an altar or throne. It had its beginnings as a cloth canopy, but in other cases it is a sturdy, permanent architectural feature, particularly over high altars in cathedrals, where such a structure is more correctly called ... Read »


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    • Baluster

    • A baluster— also called spindle or stair stick—is a moulded shaft, square or of lathe-turned form, a form cut from a rectangular or square plank, one of various forms of spindle in woodwork, made of stone or wood and sometimes of metal, standing on a unifying footing, and supporting the coping of a parapet or ... Read »


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    • Barnstar

    • A barnstar (or barn star, primitive star, or Pennsylvania star) is a decorative painted object or image, often in the shape of a five-pointed star but occasionally in a circular "wagon wheel" style, used to adorn a barn in some parts of the United States, and many rural homes in Canada. They have no structural purpose, ... Read »


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    • Baseboard

    • In architecture, a baseboard (also called skirting board, skirting, mopboard, floor molding, or base molding) is a usually wooden board covering the lowest part of an interior wall. Its purpose is to cover the joint between the wall surface and the floor. It covers the uneven edge of flooring next to the wall; protect ... Read »


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    • Bathtub Madonna

    • A bathtub Madonna (also known as a lawn shrine, Mary on the half shell, bathtub Mary, bathtub Virgin, and bathtub shrine) is an artificial grotto typically framing a Roman Catholic religious figure. These shrines most often house a statue of the Blessed Virgin Mary but sometimes hold the image of another Catholic ... Read »


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    • Batter (walls)

    • Batter in construction is a receding slope of a wall, structure, or earthwork. A wall sloping in the opposite direction is said to overhang. The term is used with buildings and non-building structures to identify when a wall is intentionally built with an inward slope. A battered corner is an architectural feature usin ... Read »


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    • Battered corner

    • Battered corners are an architectural detail in some buildings. Old Dutch Church (Kingston, New York) and Upper Sandy Guard Station Cabin are two U.S. National Register-listed places that have them. ... Read »


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    • Bay (architecture)

    • In architecture, a bay is the space between architectural elements, or a recess or compartment. Bay comes from "Old French baee," meaning an opening or hole. ... Read »


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    • Bay window

    • A bay window is a window space projecting outward from the main walls of a building and forming a bay in a room. Bay window is a generic term for all protruding window constructions, regardless of height. The most common inside angles are 90, 135 and 150 degrees, though triangular bays formed of two windows set at ... Read »


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    • Bed-mould

    • Bed-mould, in architecture, is a kind of moulding found under the cornice, of which it is a part. Similar to crown moulding, a bed mould is used to cover the joint between the ceiling and wall. Bed moulds can be either sprung or plain, or flush to the wall as an extension of a cornice mould. ... Read »


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    • Belfry (architecture)

    • The belfry is a structure enclosing bells for ringing as part of a building, usually as part of a bell tower or steeple. It can also refer to the entire tower or building, particularly in continental Europe for such a tower attached to a city hall or other civic building. A belfry encloses the bell chamber, the room i ... Read »


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    • Bell-gable

    • The bell gable (Spanish: espadaña, Catalan: espadanya, French: clocher-mur, Italian: campanile a vela) is an architectural element crowning at the upper end of the wall of church buildings, usually in lieu of a church tower. It consists of a gable end in stone, with small hollow semi-circular arches where the church ... Read »


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    • Belvedere (structure)

    • A belvedere /ˈbɛlváµ»dɪər/ or belvidere (from Italian for "fair view") is an architectural structure sited to take advantage of a fine or scenic view. While a belvedere may be built in the upper part of a building the actual structure can be of any form, whether a turret, a cupola, or an open gallery. Or ... Read »


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    • Bent (structural)

    • A bent in American English is a two-dimensional transverse rigid frame (or similar structures such three-hinged arches). Historically, bents were a common way of making a timber frame; they are still often used for such, and are also seen in small steel-frame buildings, where the term portal frame is more commonly used ... Read »


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    • Bird bath

    • A bird bath is an artificial puddle or small shallow pond, created with a water-filled basin, in which birds may drink, bathe, and cool themselves. A bird bath can be a garden ornament, small reflecting pool, outdoor sculpture, and part of creating a vital wildlife garden. A bird bath is an attraction for many differe ... Read »


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    • Bolection

    • A bolection, sometimes called balection, bilection or similar, is a moulding which projects beyond the face of a panel or frame, usually found in panelling, doors and fireplaces, especially when the meeting surfaces are at different levels. Bolection was used to great effect by Christopher Wren. The term was first use ... Read »


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    • Bond beam

    • A bond beam is a horizontal structural element, usually found as an embedded part of a masonry wall assembly. The bond beam serves to impart horizontal strength to a wall where it may not otherwise be braced by floor or roof structure. Bond beams encase steel reinforcing in grout or concrete, binding the structure toge ... Read »


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    • Bossage

    • Bossage is uncut stone that is laid in place in a building, projecting outward from the building, to later be carved into decorative moldings, capitals, arms, etc. Bossages are also rustic work, consisting of stones which seem to advance beyond the surface of the building, by reason of indentures, or channels left in t ... Read »


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    • Box gutter

    • A box gutter, parallel gutter, or trough gutter is a rain gutter on a roof usually rectangular in shape; it may be lined with EPDM rubber, metal, asphalt, or roofing felt, and may be concealed behind a parapet or the eaves, or in a roof valley. Box gutters are essentially placed between parallel surfaces, as in a vall ... Read »


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    • Bracket (architecture)

    • A bracket is an architectural element: a structural or decorative member. It can be made of wood, stone, plaster, metal, or other mediums. It projects from a wall, usually to carry weight and sometimes to "...strengthen an angle". A corbel and console are types of brackets. In mechanical engineering a bracket is any i ... Read »


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    • Brahmasthan

    • A brahmasthan is a principle of Vedic architecture and community planning that designates the center point of a building or geographical area. Vedic architecture is based on Vastu Shastra. The brahmasthan is a special central zone in a building. It is free from any obstructions in the form of a wall, pillar or beam, f ... Read »


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    • Brattishing

    • In architecture, brattishing or brandishing is a decorative cresting which is found at the top of a cornice or screen, panel or parapet. The design often includes leaves or flowers, and the term is particularly associated with Tudor architecture. ... Read »


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    • Bressummer

    • A bressummer, breastsummer, summer beam (somier, sommier, sommer, somer, cross-somer, summer, summier, summer-tree, or dorman, dormant tree) are load bearing beams in a timber framed building. The word summer derived from sumpter or French sommier, “a pack horse“, meaning “bearing great burden or weight ... Read »


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    • Bridge bearing

    • A bridge bearing is a component of a bridge which typically provides a resting surface between bridge piers and the bridge deck. The purpose of a bearing is to allow controlled movement and thereby reduce the stresses involved. Movement could be thermal expansion or contraction, or movement from other sources such as s ... Read »


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    • Brise soleil

    • Brise soleil, sometimes brise-soleil (French pronunciation: ​[bʁiːz sɔlɛj], plural, "brise-soleil" (invariable), or "bris-ole", from French, "sun breaker"), is an architectural feature of a building that reduces heat gain within that building by deflecting sunlight. Brise-soleils can comprise a ... Read »


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    • Broach spire

    • A broach spire is a type of spire (a spire is a tall pyramidal or conical structure, usually on the top of a tower or turret) that starts on a square base and is carried up to a tapering octagonal spire by means of triangular faces. Cathedral Church of Saint Martin, Leicester Saint Andrew's Church, Broughton, Northam ... Read »


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    • Building envelope

    • A building envelope is the physical separator between the conditioned and unconditioned environment of a building including the resistance to air, water, heat, light, and noise transfer. The building envelope is all of the elements of the outer shell that maintain a dry, heated, or cooled indoor environment and fa ... Read »


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    • Buttress

    • A buttress is an architectural structure built against or projecting from a wall which serves to support or reinforce the wall. Buttresses are fairly common on more ancient buildings, as a means of providing support to act against the lateral (sideways) forces arising out of the roof structures that lack adequate braci ... Read »


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    • Cable railings

    • Cable railings or wire rope railings are safety rails that use horizontal or vertical cables in place of spindles, glass, mesh etc. for infill. Cable Railings are often desired in place of traditional pickets to achieve nearly unobstructed views as the cable is much thinner than traditional pickets. It is also a m ... Read »


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    • Camarín


    • Camber beam

    • In building, a camber beam is a piece of timber cut archwise, and steel bent or rolled, with an obtuse angle in the middle, commonly used in platforms, as church leads, and other occasions where long and strong beams are required. A camber beam is much stronger than another of the same size, since being laid with the ... Read »


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    • Cant (architecture)

    • Cant or canted in architecture is an angled (oblique) line or surface particularly which cuts off a corner. Canted facades are a typical of, but not exclusive to, Baroque architecture. The angle breaking the facade is less than a right angle thus enabling a canted facade to be viewed as, and remain, one composition. B ... Read »


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    • Cantilever

    • A cantilever is a rigid structural element, such as a beam or a plate, anchored at only one end to a (usually vertical) support from which it is protruding. Cantilevers can also be constructed with trusses or slabs. When subjected to a structural load, the cantilever carries the load to the support where it is forced a ... Read »


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    • Capital (architecture)

    • In architecture the capital (from the Latin caput, or "head") or chapiter forms the topmost member of a column (or a pilaster). It mediates between the column and the load thrusting down upon it, broadening the area of the column's supporting surface. The capital, projecting on each side as it rises to support the abac ... Read »


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    • Carport

    • A carport is a covered structure used to offer limited protection to vehicles, primarily cars, from the elements. The structure can either be free standing or attached to a wall. Unlike most structures a carport does not have four walls, and usually has one or two. Carports offer less protection than garages but allow ... Read »


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    • Cartouche (design)

    • A cartouche (also cartouch) is an oval or oblong design with a slightly surface, typically edged with ornamental scrollwork. It is used to hold a painted or low relief design. In Early Modern design, since the early 16th century, the cartouche is a scrolling frame device, derived originally from Italian cartoccia. Su ... Read »


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    • Caryatid

    • A caryatid (/kæriˈætɪd/; Greek: Καρυάτις, plural: Καρυάτιδες) is a sculpted female figure serving as an architectural support taking the place of a column or a pillar supporting an entablature on her head. The Greek term karyatides literally means "maide ... Read »


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    • Casement stay

    • A casement stay is a metal bar used to hold a casement window in a specific open or closed position. Metal windows will normally have the stay included at the time of manufacture, while wooden windows will have them added after fitting. Different kinds of casement stay include peg type, telescopic and friction The pe ... Read »


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    • Cathedral arch

    • A cathedral arch is an arch used in bridge architecture. It consists of an arched structural system, wherein vertical load bearing occurs only at the crown, or peak of the arch. As applied to bridge design, cathedral arch bridges feature no intermediary spandrel column elements between the foundation abutments and the ... Read »


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    • Catio

    • A is an outdoor enclosure for cats. Catios are commercially available. Catios are popular in suburbs. ... Read »


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    • Catshead

    • A catshead (alternatively cat's head or cats head) is an architectural feature commonly found on multi-storied mills, agricultural buildings, and factories, composed of a small extension protruding from the gable end of a larger roof. A grist mill with a single main roof and catsheads at each end vaguely resembles a c ... Read »


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    • Cella

    • A cella (from Latin for small chamber) or naos (from the Greek ναός, "temple") is the inner chamber of a temple in classical architecture, or a shop facing the street in domestic Roman architecture, such as a domus. Its enclosure within walls has given rise to extended meanings, of a hermit's or monk's cell ... Read »


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    • Chabutro

    • Chabutro or Chabutaro or Chabutra is a structure mostly found in villages of Gujarat State of India. It is a tower-like structure with octagonal or pentagonal shaped enclosures at the top. In the upper enclosure are several holes, wherein birds can make their nests. In Gujarat these are constructed at the entrances vil ... Read »


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    • Channel letters

    • Channel letters are custom-made metal or plastic letters commonly used in exterior signage on public and commercial buildings, and often internally illuminated. Unlit three dimensional letters that are applied to sign panels or monuments are usually referred to as dimensional letters. A standard channel letter is ... Read »


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    • Charter bole

    • Charter boles are indentations found in the boundary walls of Scottish buildings constructed between the 15th and 17th centuries; they were used to denote ownership and responsibility for repair. They are similar to bee boles but smaller in size. "in Scotland a single charter bole, one foot square or less, was often b ... Read »


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    • Chevron (insignia)

    • A chevron (also spelled cheveron, especially in older documents) is an inverted V-shaped pattern. The word is usually used in reference to a kind of fret in architecture, or to a badge or insignia used in military or police uniforms to indicate rank or length of service, or in heraldry and the designs of flags (see fla ... Read »


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    • Chhajja

    • A chhajja is the projecting or overhanging eaves or cover of a roof, usually supported on large carved brackets. It forms part of the architecture of Rajasthan, Gujarat, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh. In Rajasthan they are particularly large. ... Read »


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    • Chhatri

    • Chhatris are elevated, dome-shaped pavilions used as an element in Indian architecture. The word Chhatri means "canopy" or "umbrella." In the context of architecture, the word is used to refer to two different things. The usual and more widely understood meaning is of a memorial, usually very ornate, built over the sit ... Read »


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    • Chimney

    • A chimney is a structure that provides ventilation for hot flue gases or smoke from a boiler, stove, furnace or fireplace to the outside atmosphere. Chimneys are typically vertical, or as near as possible to vertical, to ensure that the gases flow smoothly, drawing air into the combustion in what is known as the stack, ... Read »


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    • Chimney breast

    • A chimney breast is a portion of a chimney which projects forward from a wall to accommodate a fireplace. Typically on the ground floor of a structure, the masonry extends upwards, containing a flue which carries smoke out of the building through a chimney stack. Chimney jambs similarly project from the wall, but they ... Read »


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    • Chinese Chippendale (architecture)

    • In architecture, Chinese Chippendale refers to a specific kind of railing or balustrade that was inspired by the "Chinese Chippendale" designs of cabinetmaker Thomas Chippendale. The infill between the top and bottom rails and the vertical supports is a series of interlocking diagonals, although rectilinear designs exi ... Read »


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    • Clerestory

    • In architecture, a clerestory (/ˈklɪərstɔːri/, KLEER-staw-ree; lit. clear storey, also clearstory, clearstorey, or overstorey) is a high section of wall that contains windows above eye level. The purpose is to admit light, fresh air, or both. Historically, clerestory denoted an upper level of a Roman ba ... Read »


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    • Clock gable

    • The clock gable (Dutch: klokgevel), also known as Dutch clock gable, is a gable or facade with decorative shape characteristic of traditional Dutch architecture. The top of the gable is shaped like a church bell. It was mostly used in houses that were rather narrow, with a width of the space taken by two or three windo ... Read »


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    • Coade stone

    • Coade stone or Lithodipyra (Ancient Greek (λίθος/δίς/πυρά), "stone fired twice") was stoneware that was often described as an artificial stone in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. It was used for moulding Neoclassical statues, architectural decorations and garden ornaments that ... Read »


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    • Coffer

    • A coffer (or coffering) in architecture is a series of sunken panels in the shape of a square, rectangle, or octagon in a ceiling, soffit or vault. A series of these sunken panels were used as decoration for a ceiling or a vault, also called caissons ('boxes"), or lacunaria ("spaces, openings"), so that a coffered ceil ... Read »


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    • Colonnade

    • In classical architecture, a colonnade denotes a long sequence of columns joined by their entablature, often free-standing, or part of a building. Paired or multiple pairs of columns are normally employed in a colonnade which can be straight or curved. The space enclosed may be covered or open. In St. Peter's Square in ... Read »


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    • Column

    • A column or pillar in architecture and structural engineering is a structural element that transmits, through compression, the weight of the structure above to other structural elements below. In other words, a column is a compression member. The term column applies especially to a large round support (the shaft of the ... Read »


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    • Combination stair

    • A combination stair is an architectural element found in traditional houses in North America where two sets of stairs merge into one at a landing. Large, traditional houses were frequently designed with two stairs: a formal front stairway for use by the family and guests and a utilitarian back stair for use by househo ... Read »


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    • Compound pier

    • Compound pier or Cluster pier is the architectural term given to a clustered column or pier which consists of a centre mass or newel, to which engaged or semi-detached shafts have been attached, in order to perform (or to suggest the performance of) certain definite structural objects, such as to carry arches of additi ... Read »


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    • Conversation pit

    • A conversation pit is an architectural feature that incorporates built-in seating into a depressed section of flooring within a larger room. This area often has a table in the center as well. The seats typically face each other in a centrally focused fashion, bringing the occupants closer together than free-standing ta ... Read »


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    • Copper in architecture

    • Copper has earned a respected place in the related fields of architecture, building construction, and interior design. From cathedrals to castles and from homes to offices, copper is used for a variety of architectural elements, including roofs, flashings, gutters, downspouts, domes, spires, vaults, wall cladding, and ... Read »


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    • Corbel

    • In architecture a corbel is a structural piece of stone, wood or metal jutting from a wall to carry a weight, a type of bracket. A corbel is a solid piece of material in the wall, whereas a console is a piece applied to the structure. A piece of timber projecting in the same way was called a "tassel" or a "bragger" in ... Read »


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    • Corbel arch

    • A corbel arch (or corbeled / corbelled arch) is an arch-like construction method that uses the architectural technique of corbeling to span a space or void in a structure, such as an entranceway in a wall or as the span of a bridge. A corbel vault uses this technique to support the superstructure of a building's roof. ... Read »


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    • Core (architecture)

    • In architecture, a core is a vertical space used for circulation and services. It may also be referred to as a circulation core or service core. A core may include staircases, elevators, electrical cables, water pipes and risers. A core allows people to move between the floors of a building, and distributes services e ... Read »


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    • Cornerstone

    • The cornerstone (or foundation stone) concept is derived from the first stone set in the construction of a masonry foundation, important since all other stones will be set in reference to this stone, thus determining the position of the entire structure. Over time a cornerstone became a ceremonial masonry stone, or re ... Read »


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    • Cornice

    • A cornice (from the Italian cornice meaning "ledge") is generally any horizontal decorative molding that crowns a building or furniture element – the cornice over a door or window, for instance, or the cornice around the top edge of a pedestal or along the top of an interior wall. A simple cornice may be formed ju ... Read »


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    • Corps de logis

    • Corps de logis (French pronunciation: ​[kɔʁ də lɔʒi]) is an architectural term referring to the principal block of a large, usually classical, mansion or palace. It contains the principal rooms, state apartments and an entry. The grandest and finest rooms are often on the first floor above the gr ... Read »


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    • Cottage window

    • A cottage window is a double-hung window — i.e., a window with two sashes sliding up and down, hung with one atop the other in the same frame — in which the upper sash is smaller (shorter) than the lower one. The upper sash often contains smaller lights divided by muntins (often known as a "divided light patt ... Read »


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    • Courtyard

    • A courtyard or court is an enclosed area, often surrounded by a building or complex, that is open to the sky. Such spaces in inns and public buildings were often the primary meeting places for some purposes, leading to the other meanings of . Both of the words court and yard derive from the same root, meaning an enclos ... Read »


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    • Crepidoma

    • Crepidoma is an architectural term for part of the structure of ancient Greek buildings. The crepidoma is the multilevel platform on which the superstructure of the building is erected. The crepidoma usually has three levels. Each level typically decreases in size incrementally going upwards, forming a series of steps ... Read »


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    • Crown steeple

    • A crown steeple, or crown spire, is a traditional form of church steeple in which curved stone flying buttresses form the open shape of a rounded crown. It appeared in medieval church architecture in England and Scotland, and reappeared in the 19th century as part of the Gothic Revival. The crown steeple on Newcas ... Read »


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    • Cupola

    • In architecture, a cupola /ˈkjuːpələ/ is a small, most often dome-like, structure on top of a building. Often used to provide a lookout or to admit light and air, it usually crowns a larger roof or dome. The word derives, via Italian, from the lower Latin cupula (classical Latin cupella from the Greek κ ... Read »


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    • Curtain wall (architecture)

    • A curtain wall system is an outer covering of a building in which the outer walls are non-structural, but merely keep the weather out and the occupants in. As the curtain wall is non-structural it can be made of a lightweight material, reducing construction costs. When glass is used as the curtain wall, a great advanta ... Read »


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    • Deconstruction (building)

    • In the context of physical construction, deconstruction is the selective dismantlement of building components, specifically for re-use, repurposing, recycling, and waste management. It differs from demolition where a site is cleared of its building by the most expedient means. Deconstruction has also been defined as â ... Read »


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    • Decorative arts

    • The decorative arts are arts or crafts concerned with the design and manufacture of beautiful objects that are also functional. It includes interior design, but not usually architecture. The decorative arts are often categorized in opposition to the "fine arts", namely, painting, drawing, photography, and large-scale s ... Read »


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    • Deep Jyoti Stambh

    • Deep Jyoti Stambh or Deep Stambha is a unique piece of Hindu architectural structure, usually found in many Hindu Temples. As the name indicates Deep means Diya and Jyoti means Light and Stambh means a column. Such Stambha are erected outside the temple compound to be illuminated with Diyas, on special occasions. Some ... Read »


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    • Dentil

    • In classical architecture a dentil (from Lat. dens, a tooth) is a small block used as a repeating ornament in the bedmould of a cornice. Dentils are found in classical Greek and Roman architecture and also in later styles, such as Beaux Arts Classicism, Classical Revival, Federal, Georgian Revival, Greek Revival, Neocl ... Read »


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    • Desay Madu Jhya

    • Desay Madu Jhyā (Devanagari: देसय मदु झ्या:) is a traditional wooden window in Kathmandu which is celebrated for its uniqueness. The name means "window without equal in the country" in Nepal Bhasa. The window is set into the facade of a residential house in cent ... Read »


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    • Deula

    • A deula is a shrine in an Odishan temple in India. The word "deula" in Oriya language means a building structure built with a particular style that is seen in most of the temples from Odisha. Some times the whole temple is called Deula. There are three types of Deulas: Rekha in Oriya means a straight line. It is ... Read »


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    • Dikka

    • Dikka is a term in Muslim architecture for a tribune raised upon columns from which the Koran is recited and prayers are intoned by the Imam of a mosque. ... Read »


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    • Dog-leg (stairs)

    • A dog-leg is a configuration of stairs between two floors of a building, often a domestic building, in which a flight of stairs ascends to a half-landing before turning at a right angle and continuing upwards. The flights do not have to be equal, and frequently are not. Structurally, the flights of a dog-leg stair are ... Read »


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    • Dome

    • A dome (from Latin: domus) is an architectural element that resembles the hollow upper half of a sphere. The precise definition has been a matter of controversy. There are also a wide variety of forms and specialized terms to describe them. A dome can rest upon a rotunda or drum, and can be supported by columns or pier ... Read »


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    • Door furniture

    • Door furniture (British and Australian English) or door hardware (North American English) refers to any of the items that are attached to a door or a drawer to enhance its functionality or appearance. Design of door furniture is an issue to disabled persons who might have difficulty opening or using some kinds of door ... Read »


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    • Jamb

    • A jamb (from Fr. jambe, leg), in architecture, is the side-post or lining of a doorway or other aperture. The jambs of a window outside the frame are called “reveals.” Small shafts to doors and windows with caps and bases are known as “jamb-shafts”; when in the inside arris of the jamb of a window t ... Read »


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    • Dormer

    • A dormer is a roofed structure, often containing a window, that projects vertically beyond the plane of a pitched roof. Dormers are commonly used to increase the usable space in a loft and to create window openings in a roof plane. The term "dormer" is commonly used to refer to a "dormer window" although a dormer doe ... Read »


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    • Double-skin facade

    • The double-skin facade is a system of building consisting of two skins, or facades, placed in such a way that air flows in the intermediate cavity. The ventilation of the cavity can be natural, fan supported or mechanical. Apart from the type of the ventilation inside the cavity, the origin and destination of the air c ... Read »


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    • Dougong

    • Dougong (Chinese: 斗拱; pinyin: dǒugǒng; literally: "cap [and] block") is a unique structural element of interlocking wooden brackets, one of the most important elements in traditional Chinese architecture. The use of dougong first appeared in buildings of the late centuries BC and evolved into a structu ... Read »


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    • Driveway

    • A driveway (also called drive in UK English) is a type of private road for local access to one or a small group of structures, and is owned and maintained by an individual or group. Driveways rarely have traffic lights, but some that bear heavy traffic, especially those leading to commercial businesses and parks, do. ... Read »


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    • Drum tower (Europe)

    • Drum towers, in European terminology, refer to the shape of the round towers who have a longer diameter length then height,resembling the shape of the musical instrument. Sometimes the term is used erroneously used to describe typical round Norman defense towers or circular towers in general. ... Read »


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    • Dry stone

    • Dry stone (also called drystack) is a building method by which structures are constructed from stones without any mortar to bind them together. Dry stone structures are stable because of their unique construction method, which is characterized by the presence of a load-bearing façade of carefully selected interlocki ... Read »


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    • Dutch gable

    • A Dutch gable or Flemish gable is a gable whose sides have a shape made up of one or more curves and has a pediment at the top. The gable may be an entirely decorative projection above a flat section of roof line, or may be the termination of a roof, like a normal gable (the picture of Montacute House, right, shows bot ... Read »


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    • Dvarapala

    • A dvarapala (Sanskrit pronunciation: [d̪ʋaʈapala]; IAST: Dvarapala; Sanskrit: द्वारपाला :"door guard") is a door or gate guardian often portrayed as a warrior or fearsome giant, usually armed with a weapon - the most common being the gadha mace. The dvarapala ... Read »


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    • Dwarf gallery

    • A dwarf gallery is an architectural ornament in Romanesque architecture. It is a natural development of the blind arcade and consists of an arcaded gallery, usually just below the roof, recessed into the thickness of the walls. Usually dwarf galleries can be found at church towers or apses but they frequently appear a ... Read »


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    • Eaves

    • The eaves are the edges of the roof which overhang the face of a wall and, normally, project beyond the side of a building. The eaves form an overhang to throw water clear of the walls and may be highly decorated as part of an architectural style; such as the Chinese dougong bracket systems. Eaves is derived from ... Read »


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    • Emergency exit

    • An emergency exit in a structure is a special exit for emergencies such as a fire: the combined use of regular and special exits allows for faster evacuation, while it also provides an alternative if the route to the regular exit is blocked by fire, etc. It is usually a strategically located (e.g. in a stairwell, hall ... Read »


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    • Entablature

    • An entablature (/ɛnˈtæblətʃər/; nativization of Italian intavolatura, from in "in" and tavola "table") refers to the superstructure of moldings and bands which lie horizontally above columns, resting on their capitals. Entablatures are major elements of classical architecture, and are commonly divided ... Read »


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    • Escape chute

    • An escape chute is a special kind of emergency exit, used where conventional fire escape stairways are impractical. The chute is a fabric (or occasionally metal) tube installed near a special exit on an upper floor or roof of a building, or a tall structure. During use, the chute is deployed, and may be secured at the ... Read »


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    • Euthynteria

    • Euthynteria is the ancient Greek term for the uppermost course of a building's foundations, partly emerging from groundline. The superstructure of the building (stereobate and stylobate, columns, walls, and entablature) were set on the euthynteria. Archaeologists and architects use the term in discussion of Classical a ... Read »


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    • Exedra

    • In architecture, an exedra is a semicircular recess or plinth, often crowned by a semi-dome, which is sometimes set into a building's façade or is free-standing. The original Greek sense (ἐξέδρα, a seat out of doors) was applied to a room that opened onto a stoa, ringed with curved high-backed st ... Read »


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    • Facade

    • A façade (/fəˈsɑːd/) is generally one exterior side of a building, usually, but not always, the front. It is a foreign loan word from the French façade, which means "frontage" or "face". In architecture, the façade of a building is often the most important aspect from a design standpoint, as it se ... Read »


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    • False door

    • A false door is an artistic representation of a door which does not function like a real door. They can be carved in a wall or painted on it. They are a common architectural element in the tombs of Ancient Egypt and Pre-Nuragic Sardinia. Later they also occur in Etruscan tombs and in the time of Ancient Rome they were ... Read »


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    • Fascia (architecture)

    • Fascia (/ˈfeɪʃə/) is an architectural term for a vertical frieze or band under a roof edge, or which forms the outer surface of a cornice, visible to an observer. Typically consisting of a wooden board, uPVC or non-corrosive sheet metal, many of the non-domestic fascias made of stone form an ornately carv ... Read »


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    • Fender pier

    • A fender pier is a structure built to protect another structure from damage, such as by ship collision. ... Read »


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    • Ferro (architecture)


    • Festoon

    • A festoon (from French feston, Italian festone, from a Late Latin festo, originally a festal garland, Latin festum, feast) is a wreath or garland hanging from two points, and in architecture typically a carved ornament depicting conventional arrangement of flowers, foliage or fruit bound together and suspended by ribbo ... Read »


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    • Five foot way

    • Five foot ways (Malay/Indonesian: Kaki lima) are paved pedestrian walkways, 5 feet (1.524 metres) in width, projecting from the ground floor of a building into the road. This feature can be found in many shophouses (and buildings of similar structural design) all over the world, and also in some office buildings. The ... Read »


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    • Flat roof

    • A flat roof is a roof which is almost level in contrast to the many types of sloped roofs. The slope of a roof is properly known as its pitch and flat roofs have up to approximately 10°. Flat roofs are an ancient form mostly used in arid climates and allow the roof space to be used as a living space or a living roof ... Read »


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    • Flèche


    • Fleur-de-lis

    • The fleur-de-lis (plural: fleurs-de-lis) or flower-de-luce is a stylized lily (in French, fleur means "flower", and lis means "lily") that is used as a decorative design or symbol. Many of the saints are often depicted with a lily, most prominently St. Joseph. Since France is a historically Catholic nation, the Fleur d ... Read »


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    • Fleuron (architecture)

    • A fleuron is a flower shaped ornament, and in architecture may have a number of meanings. (1) It is a collective noun for the ornamental termination at the ridge of a roof such as a crop, finial or épi. (2) It is also a form of stylised late gothic decoration in the form of a four-leafed square, often seen on crocke ... Read »


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    • Flood opening

    • A flood opening or flood vent (also styled floodvent) is an orifice in an enclosed structure intended to allow the free passage of water between the interior and exterior. In the United States, flood openings are used to provide for the automatic equalization of hydrostatic pressure on either side of a wall. Build ... Read »


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    • Floor medallions

    • Floor medallions are generally a centerpiece of flooring design that can be made with various flooring materials, including natural stone, wood, metal, tile, glass or a variety of other materials suitable for flooring. The pattern can be created using various methods such as mosaic, intarsia, and marquetry. With a mos ... Read »


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    • Fluting (architecture)

    • Fluting in architecture is the shallow grooves running vertically along a surface. The term typically refers to the grooves running on a column shaft or a pilaster, but need not necessarily be restricted to those two applications. If the hollowing out of material meets in a point, the point is called an arris. If the ... Read »


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    • Flying buttress

    • The flying buttress (arc-boutant, arch buttress) is a specific form of buttress composed of an arched structure that extends from the upper portion of a wall to a pier of great mass, in order to convey to the ground the lateral forces that push a wall outwards, which are forces that arise from vaulted ceilings of stone ... Read »


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    • Foundation (engineering)

    • A foundation (or, more commonly, foundations) is the element of an architectural structure which connects it to the ground, and transfers loads from the structure to the ground. Foundations are generally considered either shallow or deep. Foundation engineering is the application of soil mechanics and rock mechanics (G ... Read »


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    • Fountain

    • A fountain (from the Latin "fons" (genitive "fontis"), a source or spring) is a piece of architecture which pours water into a basin or jets it into the air to supply drinking water and/or for a decorative or dramatic effect. Fountains were originally purely functional, connected to springs or aqueducts and used to pr ... Read »


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    • Gabion

    • A gabion (from Italian gabbione meaning "big cage"; from Italian gabbia and Latin cavea meaning "cage") is a cage, cylinder, or box filled with rocks, concrete, or sometimes sand and soil for use in civil engineering, road building, military applications and landscaping. For erosion control, caged riprap is used. For ... Read »


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    • Gable

    • A gable is the generally triangular portion of a wall between the edges of intersecting roof pitches. The shape of the gable and how it is detailed depends on the structural system used, which reflects climate, material availability, and aesthetic concerns. A gable wall or gable end more commonly refers to the entire w ... Read »


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    • Gable stone

    • Gable stones (Dutch gevelstenen) are carved and often colourfully painted stone tablets, which are set into the walls of buildings, usually at about 4 metres from the ground. They serve both to identify and embellish the building. They are also called "stone tablets" by the Rijksmuseum, which sometimes appends "from a ... Read »


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    • Galleting

    • Galleting, sometimes known as garretting or garnetting, is an architectural technique in which small pieces of stone are pushed into wet mortar during the construction of a building. It is mostly used for stone building when freestone is not available, since it helps to fill the uneven gaps and reinforces the mortar. A ... Read »


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    • Gaper

    • A gaper (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈɣaːpər]) is a stone or wooden head, often depicting a Moor, on the front of a building in the Netherlands. It was used to indicate that the building is a pharmacy. The literal translation of "gaper" would be yawner; the figure is always displayed with an open mouth, sometime ... Read »


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    • Geison

    • Geison (Ancient Greek: γεῖσον – often interchangeable with somewhat broader term cornice) is an architectural term of relevance particularly to ancient Greek and Roman buildings, as well as archaeological publications of the same. The geison is the part of the entablature that projects outwa ... Read »


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    • Glazed architectural terra-cotta

    • Glazed architectural terra-cotta is a ceramic masonry building material used as a decorative skin. It has been popular in the United States from the late 19th century until the 1930s, and still one of the most common building materials found in U.S. urban environments. It is the glazed version of architectural terra-co ... Read »


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    • Glossary of architecture

    • This page is a glossary of architecture. ... Read »


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    • Gopuram

    • Gopuram is a monumental tower, usually ornate, at the entrance of any temple, especially in Tamizhagam Southern India. This forms a prominent feature of Koils, Hindu temples of the Dravidian style. They are topped by the kalasam, a bulbous stone finial. They function as gateways through the walls that surround the temp ... Read »


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    • Grade beam

    • A grade beam or grade beam footing is a component of a building's foundation. It consists of a reinforced concrete beam that transmits the load from a bearing wall into spaced foundations such as pile caps or caissons. It is used in conditions where the surface soil’s load-bearing capacity is less than the anticip ... Read »


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    • Gravel stop

    • A gravel stop is a sheet metal fabrication used at the perimeter of built up roofing. Traditional built up roofing (informally called "tar-and-gravel" roofing) consists of multiple layers of roofing felt mopped with layers of hot liquid bitumen, and surfaced with gravel. At the edges of the roof, some means is require ... Read »


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    • Grille

    • A grille or grill (French word from Latin craticula, small grill) is an opening of several slits side by side in a wall or metal sheet or other barrier, usually to let air or water enter and/or leave but keep larger objects including animals in or out. ... Read »


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    • Grillwork

    • Grillwork is decorative grating of metal, wood, stone, or other material used as a screen, divider, barrier, or as a purely decorative element. It may function as a window, either with or without glazing. Grillwork may also refer to grilles, decorative front ends of motor vehicles. Grillwork is sometimes referred to as ... Read »


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    • Grotto

    • A grotto (Italian grotta and French grotte) is a natural or artificial cave used by humans in both modern times, and historically or prehistorically. Naturally occurring grottoes are often small caves near water that are usually flooded or liable to flood at high tide. Sometimes, artificial grottoes are used as garden ... Read »


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    • Guard stone

    • A guard stone, or chasse-roue (French lit. "wheel chaser"), is a projecting metal, concrete, or stone exterior architectural element located at the corner and/or foot of gates, portes-cochères, garage entries, and walls to prevent damage from vehicle tires and wheels. Guard stones were developed as an item of s ... Read »


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    • Gutta

    • A gutta (Latin pl. guttae, "drops") is a small water-repelling, cone-shaped projection used in the architrave of the Doric order in classical architecture. At the top of the architrave blocks, a row of six guttae below the narrow projection of the taenia (fillet) and cymatium formed an element called a regula. A regula ... Read »


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    • Hagioscope

    • A hagioscope (from Gr. άγιος, holy, and σκοπεῖν, to see) or squint, in architecture, is an opening through the wall of a church in an oblique direction, to enable the worshippers in the transepts or other parts of the church, from which the altar was not visible, to see the elevati ... Read »


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    • Handrail

    • A handrail is a rail that is designed to be grasped by the hand so as to provide stability or support. Handrails are commonly used while ascending or descending stairways and escalators in order to prevent injurious falls. Handrails are typically supported by posts or mounted directly to walls. Similar items not cover ... Read »


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    • Hardstand

    • A hardstand is a paved area for parking heavy vehicles. Hardstand are found at airports, military facilities, freight terminals, and other facilities where heavy vehicles need to be parked for significant periods of time. Heavy vehicles can sometimes be parked on areas of unpaved compacted earth for short periods ... Read »


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    • Herma

    • A herma (Ancient Greek: ἑρμῆς, pl. ἑρμαῖ hermai), commonly in English herm, is a sculpture with a head, and perhaps a torso, above a plain, usually squared lower section, on which male genitals may also be carved at the appropriate height. The form originated in Ancient Greece, ... Read »


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    • Hexagonal window

    • Hexagonal window (also Melnikov's or honeycomb window) is a hexagon-shaped window, resembling a bee cell or crystal lattice of graphite. The window can be vertically or horizontally oriented, openable or fixed. It can also be regular or elongately-shaped and can have a separator (mullion). Typically, the cellular windo ... Read »


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    • History of early and simple domes

    • Cultures from pre-history to modern times constructed domed dwellings using local materials. Although it is not known when or where the first dome was created, sporadic examples of early domed structures have been discovered. Brick domes from the ancient Near East and corbelled stone domes have been found from the Midd ... Read »


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    • History of early modern period domes

    • The construction of domes in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries relied primarily on empirical techniques and oral traditions rather than the architectural treatises of the times, which avoided practical details. This was adequate for domes up to medium size, with diameters in the range of 12 to 20 meters. Mate ... Read »


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    • History of Italian Renaissance domes

    • After years of considering options, Filippo Brunelleschi and Lorenzo Ghiberti were made joint leaders of the project to build the dome for Florence Cathedral in 1420. Brunelleschi's plan to use suspended scaffolding for the workers won out over alternatives such as building a provisional stone support column in the ... Read »


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    • History of modern period domes

    • New production techniques allowed for cast iron and wrought iron to be produced both in larger quantities and at relatively low prices during the Industrial Revolution. Iron was used in place of wood where fire resistance was a priority. In Russia, which had large supplies of iron, some of the earliest examples of ... Read »


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    • History of South Asian domes

    • Islamic rule over northern and central India brought with it the use of domes constructed with stone, brick and mortar, and iron dowels and cramps. Centering was made from timber and bamboo. The use of iron cramps to join together adjacent stones was known in pre-Islamic India, and was used at the base of domes for hoo ... Read »


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    • Hood mould

    • In architecture, a hood mould, label mould (from Latin labia, lip), drip mould or dripstone, is an external moulded projection from a wall over an opening to throw off rainwater. This moulding can be terminated at the side by ornamentation called a label stop. The hood mould was introduced into architecture in the Rom ... Read »


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    • Hyphen (architecture)

    • In architecture, a hyphen is a connecting link between two larger building elements. It is typically found in Palladian architecture, where the hyphens form connections between a large corps de logis and terminating pavilions. ... Read »


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    • Hypostyle

    • In architecture, a hypostyle (/ˈhaɪpəˌstaɪlˌ ˈhɪpə-/) hall has a roof which is supported by columns. The word hypostyle comes from the Ancient Greek ὑπόστυλος hypóstȳlos meaning "under columns" (where ὑπό hypó means below or underneath and ... Read »


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    • Ichnography

    • Ichnography (Gr. τὸ , íchnos, "track, trace" and γράφειν, gráphein, "to write"), pronounced ik-nog-rəfi, in architecture, is a term defined by Vitruvius (i.2) as the ground plan of the work, i.e. the geometrical projection or horizontal section representing the plan of any building ... Read »


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    • Icon corner

    • The icon corner, or red corner, (Greek: εικονοστάσι and Russian: Кра́сный у́гол - Krásnyj úgol - meaning red, bright-shining, or beautiful corner) is a small worship space prepared in the homes of Eastern Orthodox and Greek-Catholic Christian ... Read »


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    • Iconostasis

    • In Eastern Christianity an iconostasis (plural: iconostases) is a wall of icons and religious paintings, separating the nave from the sanctuary in a church. Iconostasis also refers to a portable icon stand that can be placed anywhere within a church. The iconostasis evolved from the Byzantine templon, a process complet ... Read »


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    • Illusionistic ceiling painting

    • Illusionistic ceiling painting, which includes the techniques of perspective di sotto in sù and quadratura, is the tradition in Renaissance, Baroque and Rococo art in which trompe l'oeil, perspective tools such as foreshortening, and other spatial effects are used to create the illusion of three-dimensional space on ... Read »


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    • Imperial staircase

    • An Imperial staircase (sometimes erroneously known as a "double staircase") is the name given to a staircase with divided flights. Usually the first flight rises to a half-landing and then divides into two symmetrical flights both rising with an equal number of steps and turns to the next floor. The feature is reputed ... Read »


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    • Impost (architecture)

    • In architecture, an impost or impost block is a projecting block resting on top of a column or embedded in a wall, serving as the base for the springer or lowest voussoir of an arch. ... Read »


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    • Inglenook

    • An inglenook (Modern Scots ingleneuk), or chimney corner, is a small recess that adjoins a fireplace. The word is formed with ingle, meaning "fireplace" in Old English (from Old Scots or Irish Gaelic aingeal, "angel" or euphemistically "fire"), and nook. The inglenook originated as a partially enclosed hearth area, ap ... Read »


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    • Iron railing

    • An iron railing is a fence made of iron. This may either be wrought iron, which is ductile and durable and may be hammered into elaborate shapes when hot, or the cheaper cast iron, which is of low ductility and quite brittle. Cast iron can also produce complicated shapes, but these are created through the use of moulds ... Read »


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    • Ironwork

    • Ironwork is any weapon, artwork, utensil or architectural feature made of iron especially used for decoration. There are two main types of ironwork: wrought iron and cast iron. While the use of iron dates as far back as 4000BC, it was the Hittites who first knew how to extract it (see iron ore) and develop weapons. Use ... Read »


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    • Jagati (temple)

    • A Jagati is a raised surface, platform or terrace upon which some buddhist or hindu temples are built This feature is seen in isolated temples such as the temples of Khajuraho. It is usually not seen in temples enclosed by walls. The jagati lies on a base called Adhiṣṭhāna which adds to its height. The ... Read »


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    • Jali

    • A jali or jaali, (Hindi:जाली jālÄ«, meaning "net") is the term for a perforated stone or latticed screen, usually with an ornamental pattern constructed through the use of calligraphy and geometry. This form of architectural decoration is found in Indian architecture, Indo-Islamic Architecture ... Read »


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    • Jamb statue

    • A jamb statue is a figure carved on the jambs of a doorway or window. These statues are often human figures- either religious figures or secular or ecclesiastical leaders. Jambs are usually a part of a portal, accompanied by lintel and trumeau. Two commonly known examples of jamb statues are the ones located in Chartr ... Read »


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    • Jesmonite

    • Jesmonite is a composite material used in fine arts, crafts, and construction. It consists of a gypsum-based material in an acrylic resin. Jesmonite is a versatile material and is used in several ways. It is typically used for creating sculptures and other three-dimensional works, but can be used with other materi ... Read »


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    • Jettying

    • Jettying (jetty, jutty, getee (obsolete) from Old French getee, jette) is a building technique used in medieval timber-frame buildings in which an upper floor projects beyond the dimensions of the floor below. This has the advantage of increasing the available space in the building without obstructing the street. Jetti ... Read »


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    • Jharokha

    • A jharokha (or jharoka) is a type of overhanging enclosed balcony used in Architecture of Rajasthan . Jharokhas jutting forward from the wall plane could be used both for adding to the architectural beauty of the building itself or for a specific purpose. One of the most important functions it served was to allow women ... Read »


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    • Keystone (architecture)

    • A keystone is the wedge-shaped stone piece at the apex of a masonry arch, or the generally round one at the apex of a vault. In both cases it is the final piece placed during construction and locks all the stones into position, allowing the arch or vault to bear weight. In both arches and vaults, keystones are often en ... Read »


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    • King post

    • A king post (or king-post or kingpost) is a central vertical post used in architectural or bridge designs, working in tension to support a beam below from a truss apex above (whereas a crown post visually similar, supports items above from the beam below). In aircraft design a strut called a king post acts in compress ... Read »


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    • Kirtimukha

    • Kirtimukha (Sanskrit kÄ«rtimukha, mistakenly also kÄ«rttimukha, a bahuvrihi compound translating to "glorious face") is the name of a swallowing fierce monster face with huge fangs, and gaping mouth, quite common in the iconography of Indian and Southeast Asian temple architecture. In Southeast Asia it is often ref ... Read »


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  • What Else?

    • Architectural elements

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