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    Archaeology

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Archaeology

    • Archaeology by location

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    • Periods and stages in archaeology

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Periods and stages in archaeology


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    • Archaeological sub-disciplines

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Archaeological sub-disciplines


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    • Archaeological cultures

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Archaeological cultures


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    • Archaeology-related lists

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Archaeology-related lists


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    • Ancestral Puebloans

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Ancestral Puebloans


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    • Archaeologists

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    • Archaeology by ethnicity

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    • Archaeology in popular culture

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    • Archaeoseismology

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Archaeoseismology


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    • Archaeological artifacts

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Archaeological artifacts


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    • Archaeology awards

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Archaeology awards


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    • Archaeological collections

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Archaeological collections


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    • Cultural heritage

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Cultural heritage


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    • History of archaeology

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    • Archaeology images

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    • Members of the French School at Athens

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Members of the French School at Athens


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    • Methods in archaeology

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Methods in archaeology


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    • Archaeological organisations

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Archaeological organisations


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    • Philosophy of archaeology

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Philosophy of archaeology


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    • Professorships in archaeology

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    • Pseudoarchaeology

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    • Archaeology publications

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Archaeology publications


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    • Archaeological sites

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Archaeological sites


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    • Archaeological theory

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Archaeological theory


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    • Archaeological terminology

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Archaeological terminology


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    • Archaeology timelines

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Archaeology timelines


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    • Treasure

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    • Archaeology stubs

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    • Archaeology

    • Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifacts, architecture, biofacts or ecofacts, and cultural landscapes. Archaeology can be considered both a social science and a branch of the humanities. In North Ame ... Read »


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    • Glossary of archaeology

    • This page is a glossary of archaeology, the study of the human past from material remains. ... Read »


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    • Agriculture

    • Agriculture is the cultivation and breeding of animals, plants and fungi for food, fiber, biofuel, medicinal plants and other products used to sustain and enhance human life. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses t ... Read »


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    • Archaeo-optics

    • Archaeo-optics, or archaeological optics, is the study of the experience and ritual use of light by ancient peoples. Archaeological optics is a branch of sensory archaeology, which explores human perceptions of the physical environment in the remote past, and is a sibling of archaeoastronomy, which deals with ancient o ... Read »


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    • Archaeogaming

    • Archaeogaming is an archaeological framework which, broadly speaking, includes the study of archaeology in and of video-games as well as the use of video-games for archaeological purposes. To this end, the study can include, but is in no means limited to: the physical excavation of video-game hardware, the use of archa ... Read »


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    • Archeogeography

    • Archeogeography is an academic discipline that deals with the dynamics of space over time and helps to explore other dimensions of geohistorical objects that have been made so far by the disciplines of historical geography, the geo-history and archaeology of the landscape or the environment. ... Read »


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    • Athens Charter (preservation)

    • The Athens Charter for the Restoration of Historic Monuments is a seven-point manifesto adopted at the First International Congress of Architects and Technicians of Historic Monuments in Athens in 1931. The Athens Charter for the Restoration of Historic Monuments was produced by the participants of the First Internati ... Read »


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    • Bedolina Map

    • The Rock 1 of Bedolina, the so-called Bedolina Map, is a famous engraved prehistoric rock which is part of the Camonica valley (Alps, Italian side, Lombardy region) petroglyph complex. It is known as being one of the most ancient topographic maps, interpreted as the depiction of cultivated plots, mountain paths and vil ... Read »


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    • Biofact (archaeology)

    • In archaeology, a biofact (or ecofact) is organic material found at an archaeological site that carries archaeological significance. Biofacts are natural objects found with artifacts or features such as big horn sheep bones, charcoal, plants, and pollen. Biofacts are handled by humans; however, once manipulation occurs ... Read »


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    • Bonito Phase

    • Bonito Phase is an archeological term that refers to the period between 900 and 1140 CE, during which the Ancestral Puebloans in the Chaco Canyon area constructed numerous great houses. The system is divided into three parts: the Early Bonito phase from 900 to 1040; the Classic Bonito phase from 1040 to 1100, and the L ... Read »


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    • British Archaeological Reports

    • The British Archaeological Reports (BAR) is a book series of the archaeology of Britain published by BAR Publishing. The series, which is accompanied by an International series, runs in excess of 2000 volumes combined. ... Read »


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    • Chaco Meridian

    • The Chaco Meridian is a theoretical north-south axis on which lie the Ancestral Puebloan sites, Aztec Ruins and Chaco Canyon, as well as Paquime at Casas Grandes in northern Mexico. Archeologist Stephen H. Lekson developed the theory, which suggests the location of these sites on the same approximate line of longitude ... Read »


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    • Destruction layer

    • A destruction layer is a stratum found in the excavation of an archaeological site showing evidence of the hiding and burial of valuables, the presence of widespread fire, mass murder, unburied corpses, loose weapons in public places, or other evidence of destruction, either by natural causes (for example earthquakes), ... Read »


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    • Digital artifact

    • Digital artifact in information science, is any undesired or unintended alteration in data introduced in a digital process by an involved technique and/or technology. In anthropology and archeology a digital artifact is an artifact that is of a digital nature or creation. For example, a gif is such an artifact. Digita ... Read »


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    • East Community

    • East Community is an Ancestral Puebloan great house community and archeological site located 12 miles (19 km) east of Pueblo Bonito, at the eastern end of Chaco Culture National Historical Park, New Mexico. Archeological evidence uncovered during the 1980s suggests the site was occupied by both Chacoans and Mesa Ver ... Read »


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    • George El Andary

    • George El Andary

      Dr. Sheikh George El Andary (Arabic: الدكتور الشيـخ جورج العنداري‎‎) the International researcher in archaeology, museums and manuscripts, is the son of sheikh Nematallah El Andary, the grandson of sheikh Isaac bin sheikh Elias El Anda ... Read »


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    • Entheogenic drugs and the archaeological record

    • Entheogenic drugs have been used by various groups for thousands of years. There are numerous historical reports as well as modern, contemporary reports of indigenous groups using entheogens, chemical substances used in a religious, shamanic, or spiritual context. A Finnish study assayed psilocybin concentrations ... Read »


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    • Field Archaeology Act (Minnesota)

    • The Field Archaeology Act is a state Act legislating the preservation, interpretation and protection of archaeology in the state of Minnesota, United States of America. The Act is divided into twelve sections. Complete statute language here. The Act was first brought into force in 1963 and has undergone ten revisi ... Read »


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    • Hammerscale (archaeology)

    • Hammerscale, also written hammer scale, is a flaky or spheroidal byproduct of the iron forging process (for modern equivalent, see mill scale). Hammerscale is almost universally recovered from archaeological excavations in areas where iron ore was refined and forged. Hammerscale’s magnetic character also aids in i ... Read »


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    • Hill-slope enclosure

    • The term hill-slope enclosure describes a type of late prehistoric earthwork found across South West England and also in Wales. Normally formed from a single bank, or ditch and bank, enclosing an area of less than 1 hectare, and not on the summit of a hill. They are often found on a spur of a larger hill or range of hi ... Read »


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    • Institute of Human Origins

    • The Institute of Human Origins (IHO) is a non-profit, multidisciplinary research organization dedicated to the recovery and analysis of the fossil evidence for human evolution. It was founded by the team of paleoanthropologists that discovered Lucy, and became affiliated with Arizona State University in 1997. In 2014, ... Read »


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    • Mammalian assemblage zone

    • In palaeontology, a mammalian assemblage zone (MAZ) is a collection of fossil bones of mammals. ... Read »


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    • Mill Branch site

    • The Mill Branch archaeological site is located in Warren County, Georgia west of Augusta and south of Thomson. It is located in the Brier Creek watershed. A reservoir was deemed necessary to assist in kaolin processing during times of drought. For this project to commence, a permit was needed from the Corps of Engineer ... Read »


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    • Mughal Tahakhana

    • Mughal Tahakhana

      Mughal Tahakhana or Shah Shuja Tahakhana is a three storied building known as Tahakhana(Bengali: তাহখানা, Persian: تاهخانا /ˌtɑːhɑːkɑːnɑː/), means cold building or palace. The historical Tahakhana is located at the Gauḍa (region) in ... Read »


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    • National Historic Preservation Act of 1966

    • National Historic Preservation Act of 1966

      The National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) (Public Law 89-665; 54 U.S.C. 300101 et seq.) is legislation intended to preserve historical and archaeological sites in the United States of America. The act created the National Register of Historic Places, the list of National Historic Landmarks, and the State Historic P ... Read »


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    • Oppidum

    • An oppidum (plural oppida) is a large fortified Iron Age settlement. Oppida are associated with the Celtic late La Tène culture, emerging during the 2nd and 1st centuries BC, spread across Europe, stretching from Britain and Iberia in the west to the edge of the Hungarian plain in the east. They continued in use ... Read »


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    • Paleofeces

    • Paleofeces (UK: Palaeofaeces) are ancient human feces, often found as part of archaeological excavations or surveys. The term coprolite is often used interchangeably. Intact feces of ancient people may be found in caves in arid climates and in other locations with suitable preservation conditions. They are studied to d ... Read »


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    • Parchments of Awraman

    • The Parchments of Awraman are three parchment documents, found in 1909 in a cave in the Hawraman region of Iranian Kurdistan. They were found in Tang-i Var, Kuh-e Salan Mountain, near the village of Shahr Hawraman. The documents were found in a sealed jar by a villager, and then sent to London in October 1913. The doc ... Read »


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    • Peer-Polity Interaction

    • Peer Polity Interaction is a concept in archaeological theory developed by Colin Renfrew and John Cherry, to explain change in society and material culture. Peer-Polity Interaction models see the primary driver of change as the relationships and contacts between societies of relatively equal standing. According to the ... Read »


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    • Phosphate analysis in archaeological sites


    • Phum Snay

    • Phum Snay

      Phum Snay (Khmer: ភូមិ ស្នាយ) is an Iron Age archaeological site discovered in May 2000 in Preah Neat Prey District, Banteay Meanchey Province, Northwest Cambodia, around 80 km (50 mi) from the temple ruins of Angkor. The site was excavated between 2001 and 2003 by pri ... Read »


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    • Plastiglomerate

    • Plastiglomerate is a term that was proposed by Patricia Corcoran, Charles Moore and Kelly Jazvac for a stone that contains mixtures of sedimentary grains, and other natural debris (e.g. shells, wood) that is held together by hardened molten plastic. It has been considered a potential marker of the Anthropocene, an info ... Read »


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    • Shah Tepe

    • Shah Tepe is a prehistoric archaeological site located in the Gorgan plain of Northeastern Iran, about 13 km north – northwest from the city of Gurgan. Topographically, it is an oval mound with a longitudinal axis pointing north – south. The eastern side is steeper and straighter, while the western is stro ... Read »


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    • Sheldon Gosline

    • 'Sheldon Lee Gosline is an American Egyptologist who has extensively studied the ancient civilizations of the Far East. He is noted for proposing the existence of a developing literate civilization in southern China dating to the second millennium BCE. Sheldon Lee Gosline began his professional education at the Un ... Read »


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    • Small house (pueblo)

    • Small house (or small house site) refers to small masonry dwellings built by the Ancestral Puebloans. There are hundreds of small house sites in Chaco Canyon. They were first constructed during the late 8th and early 9th centuries, about fifty to seventy-five years before work began on great houses. They differ from gr ... Read »


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    • Southern Levant

    • The Southern Levant is a geographical region encompassing the southern half of the Levant. It corresponds approximately to modern-day Israel, Palestine, and Jordan; some definitions also include southern Lebanon, southern Syria and/or the Sinai Peninsula. As a strictly geographical description, it is sometimes used by ... Read »


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    • Two layer hypothesis

    • The 'Two Layer' Hypothesis, or immigration hypothesis, is an archaeological theory that suggests the human occupation of mainland Southeast Asia occurred over two distinct periods by two separate racial groups, hence the term 'layer'. According to the Two Layer Hypothesis, early indigenous Australo-Melanesian peoples c ... Read »


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