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  • Anthropology

    Anthropology

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    • Anthropologists

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    • Anthropophagy

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    • Anthrozoology

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    • Anthropology awards

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    • Biological anthropology

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    • Anthropological categories of peoples

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    • Christian anthropology

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    • Cultural anthropology

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    • Cultural history

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    • Customs involving siblings

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    • Decades in anthropology

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    • Diaspora studies

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    • Economic anthropology

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    • Economic botany

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    • Ethnobiology

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    • Ethnography

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    • Ethnolinguistics

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    • Ethnology

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    • Anthropology documentary films

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    • Forensic facial reconstruction

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    • Guanche mummies

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    • Human geography

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    • Kinship and descent

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    • Linguistics

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    • Anthropological linguistics

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    • Anthropology literature

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    • Matriarchy

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    • Medical anthropology

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    • Anthropology museums

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    • Anthropology organizations

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    • Paleoanthropology

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    • Patriarchy

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    • Personal life

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    • Philosophical anthropology

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    • Psychological anthropology

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    • Sexual orientation and science

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    • Social anthropology

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    • Anthropology timelines

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    • Visual anthropology

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    • Anthropology writers

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    • Anthropology stubs

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    • Anthropogeny

    • Anthropogeny is the study of human origins. It is not simply a synonym for human evolution by natural selection, which is only a part of the processes involved in human origins. Many other factors besides biological evolution were involved, ranging over climatic, geographic, ecological, social, and cultural ones. Anthr ... Read »


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    • Anthropology

    • Anthropology is the study of various aspects of humans within past and present societies.Social anthropology and cultural anthropology study the norms and values of societies. Linguistic anthropology studies how language affects social life. Biological or physical anthropology studies the biological development of huma ... Read »


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    • Intercultural theatre

    • Intercultural theater, also known as cross-cultural theatre, may transcend time, while mixing and matching cultures or subcultures. Mixing and matching is the unavoidable process in the making of inner connections and the presentations of inter-culturalities. Majority of the works in the intercultural theatre is basica ... Read »


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    • Outline of anthropology

    • The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to anthropology: Anthropology – study of humanity. Anthropology has origins in the natural sciences, the humanities, and the social sciences. The term was first used by François Péron when discussing his encounters with Tasmanian Aborigin ... Read »


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    • Philosophical anthropology

    • Philosophical anthropology, sometimes called anthropological philosophy, is a discipline dealing with questions of metaphysics and phenomenology of the human person, and interpersonal relationships. Augustine of Hippo was one of the first Christian ancient Latin authors with a very clear anthropological vision, al ... Read »


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    • Acephalous society

    • In anthropology, an acephalous society (from the Greek ἀκέφαλος "headless") is a society which lacks political leaders or hierarchies. Such groups are also known as egalitarian or non-stratified societies. Typically these societies are small-scale, organized into bands or tribes that make deci ... Read »


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    • Action group (sociology)

    • In sociology and anthropology, an action group or task group is a group of people joined temporarily to accomplish some task or take part in some organized collective action. As the members of the action group are brought together on a single occasion and then disband, they cannot be regarded as constituting a full-fl ... Read »


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    • Actor–network theory


    • African Atlantis

    • African Atlantis

      Leo Viktor Frobenius (29 June 1873 – 9 August 1938) was an ethnologist and archaeologist and a major figure in German ethnography. He was born in Berlin as the son of a Prussian officer and died in Biganzolo, Lago Maggiore, Piedmont, Italy. He undertook his first expedition to Africa in 1904 to the Kasai dist ... Read »


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    • Agriculture

    • Agriculture is the cultivation and breeding of animals, plants and fungi for food, fiber, biofuel, medicinal plants and other products used to sustain and enhance human life. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses t ... Read »


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    • Alliance theory

    • The alliance theory, also known as the general theory of exchanges, is a structuralist method of studying kinship relations. It finds its origins in Claude Lévi-Strauss's Elementary Structures of Kinship (1949) and is in opposition to the functionalist theory of Radcliffe-Brown. Alliance theory has oriented most ant ... Read »


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    • American anthropology

    • American anthropology has culture as its central and unifying concept. This most commonly refers to the universal human capacity to classify and encode human experiences symbolically, and to communicate symbolically encoded experiences socially. American anthropology is organized into four fields, each of which plays a ... Read »


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    • Anthrobotics

    • Anthrobotics is the science of developing and studying robots that are either entirely or in some way human-like. The term anthrobotics was originally coined by Mark Rosheim in a paper entitled "Design of An Omnidirectional Arm" presented at the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, May 13–18, ... Read »


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    • Anthropocentrism

    • Anthropocentrism (/ˌænθroʊpoʊˈsɛntrɪzəm/; from Greek Ancient Greek: ἄνθρωπος, ánthrōpos, "human being"; and Ancient Greek: κέντρον , kéntron, "center") the belief that considers human beings to be the most significant entity of the ... Read »


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    • Anthropological Survey of India

    • Anthropological Survey of India

      Anthropological Survey of India (AnSI) is the apex Indian organisation involved in anthropological studies and field data research for human and cultural aspects, working primarily in the fields of physical anthropology and cultural anthropology. While maintaining a strong focus on indigenous populations, it also attem ... Read »


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    • Anthropological theories of value

    • Anthropological theories of value attempt to expand on the traditional theories of value used by economists or ethicists. They are often broader in scope than the theories of value of Adam Smith, David Ricardo, John Stuart Mill, Karl Marx, etc. usually including sociological, political, institutional, and historical pe ... Read »


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    • Anthropologist

    • An anthropologist is a person engaged in the practice of anthropology. Anthropology is the study of various aspects of humans within past and present societies.Social anthropology and cultural anthropology study the norms and values of societies. Linguistic anthropology studies how language affects social life. Biologi ... Read »


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    • Anthropology of development

    • The anthropology of development is a term applied to a body of anthropological work which views development from a critical perspective. The kind of issues addressed, and implications for the approach typically adopted can be gleaned from a list questions posed by Gow (1996). These questions involve anthropologists ask ... Read »


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    • Anthropology of media

    • Anthropology of media (also anthropology of mass media, media anthropology) is an area of study within social or cultural anthropology that emphasizes ethnographic studies as a means of understanding producers, audiences, and other cultural and social aspects of mass media. The use of qualitative methods, particul ... Read »


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    • Anthropopoiesis

    • In anthropology, anthropopoiesis is the self-building process of social man and of a whole culture, particularly referred to what concerns modifications of socialized body. The concept found applications mainly in French and Italian contemporary literatures. In accordance with theoretic background which supports the i ... Read »


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    • Anthrozoology

    • Anthrozoology (also known as human–non-human-animal studies, or HAS) is the subset of ethnobiology that deals with interactions between humans and other animals. It is an interdisciplinary field that overlaps with other disciplines including anthropology, ethnology, medicine, psychology, veterinary medicine and zo ... Read »


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    • Apolista

    • Apolista is a native South American nation of western Bolivia. Sedentary farmers, hunters, gatherers and fishers, they spoke an Arawakan languages now gravely endangered, if not extinct. From 1713, they were gathered at a variety of missions with other nations, and rapidly lost their traditional culture to the point th ... Read »


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    • Applied anthropology

    • Applied anthropology refers to the application of the method and theory of anthropology to the analysis and solution of practical problems. In Applied Anthropology: Domains of Application, Kedia and Van Willigen define the process as a "complex of related, research-based, instrumental methods which produce change or st ... Read »


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    • Aquatic locomotion

    • Aquatic locomotion is biologically propelled motion through a liquid medium. The simplest propulsive systems are composed of cilia and flagella. Swimming has evolved a number of times in a range of organisms including arthropods, fish, molluscs, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Swimming evolved a number of times in u ... Read »


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    • Arabid race

    • The Arabid race (also Orientalid race) is a historical term for a morphological subtype of the Caucasoid race, as used in traditional physical anthropology. The Arabid race is thought to have originated in the Arabian Peninsula, and it is currently predominant there as well. It is a major element in the Levant reg ... Read »


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    • Archaeology

    • Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifacts, architecture, biofacts or ecofacts, and cultural landscapes. Archaeology can be considered both a social science and a branch of the humanities. In North Ame ... Read »


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    • Areni-1 cave complex

    • Areni-1 cave

      The Areni-1 cave complex (Armenian: Արենիի քարանձավ) is located near the Areni village in southern Armenia along the Arpa River. In 2010, it was announced that the earliest known shoe was found at the site. In January 2011, the earliest known winery in the world was announced t ... Read »


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    • Areni-1 shoe

    • The Areni-1 shoe is a 5,500-year-old leather shoe that was found in 2008 in excellent condition in the Areni-1 cave complex located in the Vayots Dzor province of Armenia. It is a one-piece leather-hide shoe that has been dated as a few hundred years older than the one found on Ötzi the Iceman, making it the oldest ... Read »


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    • Areni-1 winery

    • Coordinates: 39°43′53″N 45°12′13″E / 39.731335°N 45.203626°E / 39.731335; 45.203626 The Areni-1 winery is a 6100-year-old winery that was discovered in 2007 in the Areni-1 cave complex in the village of Areni in the Vayots Dzor province of the Republic of Armenia by a ... Read »


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    • Anthropology of art

    • Anthropology of art is a sub-field in social anthropology dedicated to the study of art in different cultural contexts. The anthropology of art focuses on historical, economic and aesthetic dimensions in non-Western art forms, including what is known as 'tribal art'. Franz Boas, one of the pioneers of modern anthr ... Read »


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    • Art world

    • The art world comprises everyone involved in producing, commissioning, presenting, preserving, promoting, chronicling, criticizing, and selling fine art. It is a wider term than art market, though that is a large part of it. Howard S. Becker describes it as "the network of people whose cooperative activity, organized v ... Read »


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    • Artificiality

    • Artificiality (also called factitiousness, or the state of being artificial or man-made) is the state of being the product of intentional human manufacture, rather than occurring naturally through processes not involving or requiring human activity. Artificiality often carries with it the implication of being fals ... Read »


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    • Australian Aboriginal kinship

    • Australian Aboriginal kinship is the system of law governing social interaction, particularly marriage, in traditional Australian Aboriginal culture. It is an integral part of the culture of every Aboriginal group across Australia. Subsection systems are a unique social structure that divide all of Australian Abor ... Read »


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    • Australian archaeology

    • Australian Archaeology is a biannual peer reviewed academic journal published by the Australian Archaeological Association. It was established in 1974 and covers all fields of archaeology as well as other subjects that are relevant to archaeological research and practice in Australia and nearby areas. The journal uses ... Read »


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    • Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies

    • Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies

      The Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies (AIATSIS) is an independent Australian Government statutory authority. It is a collecting, publishing and research institute and is considered to be Australia's premier resource for information about the cultures and societies of Aboriginal and T ... Read »


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    • Avunculate

    • The avunculate, sometimes called avunculism or avuncularism, is any social institution where a special relationship exists between an uncle and his sisters' children. This relationship can be formal or informal, depending on the society. Early anthropological research focused on the association between the avunculate a ... Read »


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    • Ayllu

    • Ayllu is the traditional form of a community in the Andes, especially among Quechuas and Aymaras. They are an indigenous local government model across the Andes region of South America, particularly in Bolivia and Peru. Ayllus functioned prior to Inca conquest, during the Inca and Spanish colonial period, and continue ... Read »


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    • Basic needs

    • The basic needs approach is one of the major approaches to the measurement of absolute poverty in developing countries. It attempts to define the absolute minimum resources necessary for long-term physical well-being, usually in terms of consumption goods. The poverty line is then defined as the amount of income requir ... Read »


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    • Behavioral modernity

    • ↑ Pliocene (before Homo) Behavioral modernity is a suite of behavioral and cognitive traits that distinguishes current Homo sapiens from other anatomically modern humans, hominins, and primates. Although often debated, most scholars agree that modern human behavior can be characterized by abstract thinking, plann ... Read »


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    • Belterra, Pará


    • Ota Benga

    • Ota Benga

      Ota Benga (c. 1883 – March 20, 1916) was a Congolese man, a Mbuti pygmy known for being featured in an anthropology exhibit at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St. Louis, Missouri in 1904, and in a human zoo exhibit in 1906 at the Bronx Zoo. Benga had been purchased from African slave traders by the ex ... Read »


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    • Bibliography of anthropology

    • This bibliography of anthropology lists some notable publications in the field of anthropology, including its various subfields. It is not comprehensive and continues to be developed. It also includes a number of works that are not by anthropologists but are relevant to the field, such as literary theory, sociology, ps ... Read »


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    • Big man (anthropology)

    • A big man is a highly influential individual in a tribe, especially in Melanesia and Polynesia. Such person may not have formal tribal or other authority (through for instance material possessions, or inheritance of rights), but can maintain recognition through skilled persuasion and wisdom. The big man has a large gro ... Read »


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    • Biocultural anthropology

    • Biocultural anthropology can be defined in numerous ways. It is the scientific exploration of the relationships between human biology and culture. "Instead of looking for the biology underlying biological roots of human behavior, biocultural anthropology attempts to understand how culture affects our biological capacit ... Read »


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    • Biocultural diversity

    • Biocultural diversity is defined by Luisa Maffi as "the diversity of life in all its manifestations: biological, cultural, and linguistic — which are interrelated (and possibly coevolved) within a complex socio-ecological adaptive system." "The diversity of life is made up not only of the diversity of plants and a ... Read »


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    • Biogenetic structuralism

    • Charles D. Laughlin, Jr. (born 1938) is a neuroanthropologist known primarily for having co-founded a school of neuroanthropological theory called Biogenetic Structuralism. Laughlin is an emeritus professor of anthropology and religion at Carleton University in Ottawa, Canada. Following service in the American air ... Read »


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    • Biological functionalism

    • Biological functionalism is an anthropological paradigm, asserting that all social institutions, beliefs, values and practices serve to address pragmatic concerns. In many ways, the theorem derives from the longer-established structural functionalism, yet the two theorems diverge from one another significantly. While b ... Read »


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    • Body culture studies

    • Body culture studies describe and compare bodily practice in the larger context of culture and society, i.e. in the tradition of anthropology, history and sociology. As body culture studies analyse culture and society in terms of human bodily practices, they are sometimes viewed as a form of materialist phenomenology. ... Read »


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    • Bomboniere

    • Bomboniere (Italian bomboniera, from the french bonbonnière, a box containing "bonbons" (candies)) also known as "favors", are gifts given by hosts to their guests on special occasions such as bar and bat mitzvahs, weddings, baptism, First Communion or Confirmation. They usually include Jordan almonds, known in Ital ... Read »


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    • Bongo-Bongo (linguistics)

    • Bongo-Bongo in linguistics is used as a name for an imaginary language. It is most commonly invoked in etymological studies to conceptualize random similarities between unrelated languages. It has also been used as a name for a constructed language invented by John Lyons as a teaching tool in linguistics. Random s ... Read »


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    • Bride service

    • Bride service has traditionally been portrayed in the anthropological literature as the service rendered by the bridegroom to a bride's family as a bride price or part of one (see dowry). Bride service and bride wealth models frame anthropological discussions of kinship in many regions of the world. Patterns of matri ... Read »


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    • Buffer theory

    • In the late 1950s a number of European countries (most notably West Germany and France) decided on a migration policy known as the buffer theory. Owing to rapid economic recovery in the post World War II period (aided by the American Marshall plan) there were many more job vacancies than people who were available or b ... Read »


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    • Calceology

    • Calceology (from Latin calcei "shoes" and -λογία, -logiā, "-logy") is the study of footwear, especially historical footwear whether as archaeology, shoe fashion history, or otherwise. It is not yet formally recognized as a field of research. Calceology comprises the examination, registration, research ... Read »


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    • Callaïs


    • Cantometrics

    • Cantometrics ("song measurements") is a method developed by Alan Lomax and a team of researchers for relating elements of the world's traditional vocal music (or folk songs) to features of social organization as defined via George Murdock's Human Relations Area Files, resulting in a taxonomy of expressive human communi ... Read »


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    • Carneiro's circumscription theory


    • Catchphrase

    • A catchphrase (or catch phrase) is a phrase or expression recognized by its repeated utterance. Such phrases often originate in popular culture and in the arts, and typically spread through a variety of mass media (such as literature and publishing, motion pictures, television and radio), as well as word of mouth. Some ... Read »


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    • Cerebral rubicon

    • A "cerebral rubicon" in paleontology is the minimum cranial capacity required for a specimen to be classified as a certain paleospecies or genus. The term is mostly used in reference to human evolution. The Scottish anthropologist Sir Arthur Keith set the limit at 750 cc for the genus Homo. The minimum cranial capacit ... Read »


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    • Ceremonial pole

    • A ceremonial pole symbolizes a variety of concepts in several different cultures. For example, in the Miao culture in Yunnan China. In The Evolution of the Idea of God, Grant Allen notes that Samoyeds of Siberia, and Damara of South Africa plant stakes at the graves of ancestors. According to Zelia Nuttall in The Funda ... Read »


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    • Ceremony

    • A ceremony (UK /ˈsɛrɪməni/, US /ˈsɛrəˌmoʊni/) is an event of ritual significance, performed on a special occasion. The word may be of Etruscan origin, via the Latin caerimonia. A ceremony may mark a rite of passage in a human life, marking the significance of, for example: Other, societ ... Read »


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    • Chaîne opératoire


    • Chief Culture Officer

    • Chief Culture Officer (2009) is the eighth book by Canadian author and anthropologist Grant McCracken. The book looks at how modern business attempt to connect with culture. In the author's analysis he considers examples such as Dove's campaign for real beauty, and the I Love New York advertising campaign. According t ... Read »


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    • Chiefdom

    • A chiefdom is a form of hierarchical political organization in non-industrial societies usually based on kinship, and in which formal leadership is monopolized by the legitimate senior members of select families or 'houses'. These elites form a political-ideological aristocracy relative to the general group. In an ... Read »


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    • Chronotope

    • In literary theory and philosophy of language, the chronotope is how configurations of time and space are represented in language and discourse. The term was taken up by Russian literary scholar M.M. Bakhtin who used it as a central element in his theory of meaning in language and literature. The term itself comes from ... Read »


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    • Classificatory kinship

    • Classificatory kinship systems, as defined by Lewis Henry Morgan, put people into society-wide kinship classes on the basis of abstract relationship rules. These may have to do with genealogical relations locally (e.g., son to father, daughter to mother, daughter to father) but the classes bear no overall relation to g ... Read »


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    • Cognitive anthropology

    • Cognitive anthropology is an approach within cultural anthropology in which scholars seek to explain patterns of shared knowledge, cultural innovation, and transmission over time and space using the methods and theories of the cognitive sciences (especially experimental psychology and evolutionary biology) often throug ... Read »


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    • Cognitive archaeology

    • Cognitive archaeology is a theoretical perspective in archaeology which focuses on the ways that ancient societies thought and the symbolic structures that can be perceived in past material culture. Cognitive archaeologists often study the role that ideology and differing organizational approaches would have had on an ... Read »


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    • Cognized environment

    • Cognized environment is a concept first introduced by the late anthropologist, Roy Rappaport (1968), in contrast to what he called the operational environment (see Rappaport 1979:97-144, 1984:337-352). Rappaport was an ecological anthropologist, like Andrew P. Vayda, and wished to contrast the actual reality and adapta ... Read »


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    • Configurational analysis

    • In cultural and social studies, configurations are patterns of behaviour, movement (→movement culture) and thinking, which research observes when analysing different cultures and/ or historical changes. The term “configurations” is mostly used by comparative anthropological studies and by cultural histor ... Read »


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    • Conflict continuum

    • Conflict continuum is a model or concept used by various social science researchers in modelling conflict, usually going from low "irritations" to high "explosiveness" intensity. These conceptual models facilitate discussion as in "anywhere on the conflict continuum". Elise M. Boulding was a Quaker sociologist inf ... Read »


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    • Contrast set

    • A contrast set is a bounded collection of items, each of which could fill the same slot in a given schema, syntactic structure, or other linguistic environment. The seven days of the week, the fifty United States, the eight Hawaiian islands, the letters in the alphabet, the categories "male" and "female," the students ... Read »


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    • Anthropological criminology

    • Anthropological criminology (sometimes referred to as criminal anthropology, literally a combination of the study of the human species and the study of criminals) is a field of offender profiling, based on perceived links between the nature of a crime and the personality or physical appearance of the offender. Although ... Read »


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    • Critical ethnography

    • Critical ethnography applies a critical theory based approach to ethnography. It focuses on the implicit values expressed within ethnographic studies and, therefore, on the unacknowledged biases that may result from such implicit values. It has been called critical theory in practice. In the spirit of critical theory, ... Read »


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    • Critical medical anthropology

    • Critical medical anthropology (CMA) is a branch of medical anthropology that blends critical theory and ground-level ethnographic approaches in the consideration of the political economy of health, and the effect of social inequality on people's health. It puts emphasis on the structure of social relationships, rather ... Read »


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    • Cross-cultural psychiatry

    • Cross-cultural psychiatry, transcultural psychiatry, or cultural psychiatry is a branch of psychiatry concerned with the cultural context of mental disorders and the challenges of addressing ethnic diversity in psychiatric services. It emerged as a coherent field from several strands of work, including surveys of the p ... Read »


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    • Cross-cultural studies

    • Cross-cultural studies, sometimes called holocultural studies or comparative studies, is a specialization in anthropology and sister sciences (sociology, psychology, economics, political science) that uses field data from many societies to examine the scope of human behavior and test hypotheses about human behavior and ... Read »


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    • Cultural artifact

    • Cultural artifact or artefact is a term used in the social sciences, particularly anthropology,ethnology, and sociology for anything created by humans which gives information about the culture of its creator and users. Artifact is the spelling in North American English; artefact is usually preferred elsewhere. Cultura ... Read »


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    • Cultural ecology

    • Cultural ecology is the study of human adaptations to social and physical environments. Human adaptation refers to both biological and cultural processes that enable a population to survive and reproduce within a given or changing environment. This may be carried out diachronically (examining entities that existed in d ... Read »


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    • Cultural group selection

    • Seeing Anthropology: Cultural Anthropology Through Film by Karl G. Heider introduces cultural anthropology with the use of both text and audiovisual media. First published in 1997, the work uses the tools of the ethnographic film discipline to inform its audience of the various cultural anthropology topics. Also, the t ... Read »


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    • Cultural identity

    • Cultural identity is the identity or feeling of belonging to a group. It is part of a person's self-conception and self-perception and is related to nationality, ethnicity, religion, social class, generation, locality or any kind of social group that has its own distinct culture. In this way, cultural identity is both ... Read »


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    • Cultural identity theory

    • Cultural identity refers to a person's sense of belonging to a particular culture or group. This process involves learning about and accepting traditions, heritage, language, religion, ancestry, aesthetics, thinking patterns, and social structures of a culture. Normally, people internalize the beliefs, values, norms, a ... Read »


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    • Cultural materialism (anthropology)

    • Cultural materialism is an anthropological research orientation first introduced by Marvin Harris in his 1968 book The Rise of Anthropological Theory, as a theoretical paradigm and research strategy. It is said to be the most enduring achievement of that work. Harris subsequently developed a full elaboration and defens ... Read »


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    • Cultural practice

    • Cultural practice generally refers to the manifestation of a culture or sub-culture, especially in regard to the traditional and customary practices of a particular ethnic or other cultural group. In the broadest sense, this term can apply to any person manifesting any aspect of any culture at any time. However, in pra ... Read »


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    • Cultural system

    • A cultural system is the interaction of different elements of culture. While a cultural system is quite different from a social system, sometimes both systems together are referred to as the sociocultural system. A major concern in the social sciences is the problem of order. One way that social order has been the ... Read »


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    • Culture

    • Culture (/ˈkʌltʃər/) can be defined in numerous ways. In the words of anthropologist E.B. Tylor, it is "that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society." Alternatively, in a contemporary variant, "Cult ... Read »


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    • Culture of capitalism

    • The culture of capitalism or capitalist culture is the set of social practices, social norms, values and patterns of behavior that are attributed to the capitalist economic system in a capitalist society. Capitalist culture promotes the accumulation of capital and the sale of commodities, where individuals are primaril ... Read »


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    • Culture of poverty

    • The culture of poverty is a concept in social theory that expands on the idea of a cycle of poverty. It attracted academic and policy attention in the 1970s, survived harsh academic criticism (Goode and Eames, 1996; Bourgois, 2001; Small M.L., Harding D.J., Lamont M., 2010), and made a comeback at the beginning of the ... Read »


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    • Culture shock

    • Culture shock is an experience a person may have when one moves to a cultural environment which is different from one's own; it is also the personal disorientation a person may feel when experiencing an unfamiliar way of life due to immigration or a visit to a new country, a move between social environments, or simply ... Read »


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    • Cyborg anthropology

    • Cyborg anthropology is the discipline that studies the interaction between humanity and technology from an anthropological perspective. The discipline is relatively new, but offers novel insights on new technological advances and their effect on culture and society. Cyborg anthropology originated as a sub-focus gr ... Read »


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    • Darwinian anthropology

    • Darwinian anthropology describes an approach to anthropological analysis which employs various theories from Darwinian evolutionary biology. Whilst there are a number of areas of research that can come under this broad description (Marks, 2004) some specific research projects have been closely associated with the label ... Read »


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    • Debt: The First 5000 Years

    • Debt: The First 5,000 Years

      Debt: The First 5,000 Years is a book by anthropologist David Graeber published in 2011. It explores the historical relationship of debt with social institutions such as barter, marriage, friendship, slavery, law, religion, war and government; in short, much of the fabric of human life in society. It draws on the histo ... Read »


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    • Deep history

    • Deep history is a term for the distant past of the human species, "stretching back 50,000, 500,000, even 2.6 million years to the earliest humans". As an intellectual discipline, deep history encourages scholars in anthropology, archaeology, primatology, genetics and linguistics to work together to write a common narra ... Read »


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    • Deep social mind

    • Deep social mind is a concept in evolutionary psychology; it refers to the distinctively human capacity to 'read' (that is, to infer) the mental states of others while reciprocally enabling those others to read one's own mental states at the same time. The term 'deep social mind' was first coined in 1999 by Andrew Whit ... Read »


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    • Derbfine

    • The derbfine (English pronunciation: /dɛrᵻˈviːnáµ»/, Irish: dearbhfhine Irish pronunciation: [dʲaɾˠəˈvË iɲə]) was a term for patrilineal groups and power structures defined in the first written tracts in Early Irish law. Its principal purpose was as an institution of property ... Read »


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    • Deterritorialization

    • Deterritorialization (French: déterritorialisation) is a concept created by Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari in Anti-Oedipus (1972). The term "deterritorialization" first occurs in French psychoanalytic theory to refer, broadly, to the fluid, dissipated and schizophrenic nature of human subjectivity in contempor ... Read »


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    • Development anthropology

    • Development anthropology refers to the application of anthropological perspectives to the multidisciplinary branch of development studies. It takes international development and international aid as primary objects. In this branch of anthropology, the term development refers to the social action made by different agent ... Read »


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    • Diary studies

    • Diary studies is a research method that collects qualitative information by having participants record entries in a log or diary about the activity or experience being studied. This collection of data uses a longitudinal technique, meaning that it is reported by the participants over a period of time ranging from so ... Read »


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    • Diaspora studies

    • Diaspora studies is an academic field established in the late twentieth century to study dispersed ethnic populations, which are often termed diaspora peoples. The usage of the term diaspora carries the connotation of forced resettlement, due to expulsion, coercion, slavery, racism, or war, especially nationalist confl ... Read »


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    • Diderot effect

    • The Diderot effect is a social phenomenon related to consumer goods that comprises two ideas. The first posits that goods purchased by consumers will be cohesive to their sense of identity, and as a result, will be complementary to one another. The second states that the introduction of a new possession that is deviant ... Read »


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    • Digging stick

    • In archaeology and anthropology, a digging stick, or sometimes yam stick, is a wooden implement used primarily by subsistence-based cultures to dig out underground food such as roots and tubers or burrowing animals and anthills. The stick may also have other uses in hunting or general domestic tasks. They are common t ... Read »


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    • Digital artifact

    • Digital artifact in information science, is any undesired or unintended alteration in data introduced in a digital process by an involved technique and/or technology. In anthropology and archeology a digital artifact is an artifact that is of a digital nature or creation. For example, a gif is such an artifact. Digita ... Read »


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    • Direct historical approach

    • The direct historical approach to archaeology was a methodology developed in the United States of America during the 1920s-1930s by William Duncan Strong and others, which argued that knowledge relating to historical periods is extended back into earlier times. This methodology involves taking an archaeological site th ... Read »


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    • Discourse

    • Discourse (from Latin discursus, "running to and from") denotes written and spoken communications such as: As discourse, an enouncement (statement) is not a unit of semiotic signs, but an abstract construct that allows the semiotic signs to assign meaning, and so communicate specific, repeatable communications to, bet ... Read »


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    • Dmanisi skull 5

    • Dmanisi skull 5

      The Dmanisi skull, also known as Skull 5 or D4500, is one of five Homo erectus skulls discovered in Dmanisi, Georgia. Described in a publication in October 2013, it is believed to be about 1.8 million years old and is the most complete skull of a Homo species, and the first complete adult hominin skull of that degree ... Read »


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    • Dominance (ethology)

    • Dominance in ethology is an "individual's preferential access to resources over another." Dominance in the context of biology and anthropology is the state of having high social status relative to one or more other individuals, who react submissively to dominant individuals. This enables the dominant individual to obta ... Read »


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    • Dominant culture

    • The dominant culture is a culture that is the most powerful, widespread, or influential within a social or political entity in which multiple cultures are present. In a society refers to the established language, religion, values, rituals, and social customs. These traits are often the norm for the society as a whole. ... Read »


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    • Doxa

    • Doxa (from ancient Greek δόξα, "glory", "praise" from δοκεῖν dokein, "to appear", "to seem", "to think" and "to accept") is a Greek word meaning common belief or popular opinion. Used by the Greek rhetoricians as a tool for the formation of argument by using common opinions, the doxa was ... Read »


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    • Dual inheritance theory

    • Dual inheritance theory (DIT), also known as gene–culture coevolution or biocultural evolution, was developed in the 1960s through early 1980s to explain how human behavior is a product of two different and interacting evolutionary processes: genetic evolution and cultural evolution. In DIT, culture is defined as ... Read »


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    • Bessie Dunlop of Lynn

    • Donald Foley (born 1963) is an American actor. Shortly after the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks, Donald Foley made a decision. “It kind of woke me up a little bit,” he said. Life was too short and too uncertain to waste it doing something he didn’t really want to do, he said. A self-employed computer pr ... Read »


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    • Ecological anthropology

    • Ecological anthropology is a sub-field of anthropology and is defined as the “study of cultural adaptations to environments”. The sub-field is also defined as, "the study of relationships between a population of humans and their biophysical environment". The focus of its research concerns “how cultural b ... Read »


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    • Economic anthropology

    • Economic anthropology is a field that attempts to explain human economic behavior in its widest historic, geographic and cultural scope. It is practiced by anthropologists and has a complex relationship with the discipline of economics, of which it is highly critical. Its origins as a sub-field of anthropology began wi ... Read »


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    • Political economy in anthropology

    • Political Economy in anthropology is the application of the theories and methods of Historical Materialism to the traditional concerns of anthropology, including, but not limited to, non-capitalist societies. Political Economy introduced questions of history and colonialism to ahistorical anthropological theories of so ... Read »


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    • Educational anthropology

    • Educational anthropology, or the Anthropology of Education, is a sub-field of anthropology and is widely associated with the pioneering work of Margaret Mead and later, George Spindler, Solon Kimball, and Dell Hymes. It gained traction as a field of study during the 1970s, particularly due to professors at Teachers Col ... Read »


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    • Emic and etic

    • In anthropology, folkloristics, and the social and behavioral sciences, emic and etic refer to two kinds of field research done and viewpoints obtained:emic, from within the social group (from the perspective of the subject) and etic, from outside (from the perspective of the observer). "The emic approach investig ... Read »


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    • Endocannibalism

    • Endocannibalism is a practice of eating the flesh of a human being from the same community (tribe, social group or society), usually after they have died. Endocannibalism has also been used to describe the consumption of relics in a mortuary context. Herodotus (3.38) mentions funerary cannibalism among the Callati ... Read »


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    • Environmental anthropology

    • Environmental anthropology is a sub-specialty within the field of anthropology that takes an active role in examining the relationships between humans and their environment across space and time. The sixties was a breakthrough decade for environmental anthropology, with functionalism and system theories prevalent ... Read »


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    • Epochalism

    • Epochalism – an attitude of respect for the progressive spirit of the age and for social and technological advancement - was contrasted by Clifford Geertz with what he termed the (essentialist) valorisation of traditional values, as a central social polarity pervading developing nations. More broadly, the term us ... Read »


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    • Ethnobiology

    • Ethnobiology is the scientific study of the way living things are treated or used by different human cultures. It studies the dynamic relationships between people, biota, and environments, from the distant past to the immediate present. "People-biota-environment" interactions around the world are documented and studie ... Read »


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    • Ethnocynology

    • Ethnocynology, is a neologism coined by anthropologist Bryan Cummins in his book First Nations, First Dogs: Canadian Aboriginal Ethnocynology (2002). It refers to the study of dogs within their cultural contexts. The term is not in general use. Cummins states that the domestic dog, despite being found in virtually all ... Read »


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    • Ethnofiction

    • Ethnofiction is a neologism which refers to an ethnographic docufiction, a blend of documentary and fictional film in the area of visual anthropology. It is a film type in which, by means of fictional narrative or creative imagination, often improvising, the portrayed characters (natives) play their own roles as member ... Read »


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    • Ethnographic realism

    • Within the field of anthropology and other social sciences, ethnography is a form of research that relies on a range of sources of data, but usually tends to rely mainly on participant observation. However, the term also refers to the product of this type of research, which of course normally takes a textual form. As a ... Read »


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    • Ethnography

    • Ethnography (from Greek ἔθνος ethnos "folk, people, nation" and γράφω grapho "I write") is the systematic study of people and cultures. It is designed to explore cultural phenomena where the researcher observes society from the point of view of the subject of the study. An ethnography is ... Read »


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    • Ethnohistory

    • Ethnohistory is the study of cultures and indigenous peoples' customs by examining historical records as well as other sources of information on their lives and history. It is also the study of the history of various ethnic groups that may or may not still exist. The term is most commonly used in writing about the hist ... Read »


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    • Ethnolinguistics

    • Ethnolinguistics (sometimes called cultural linguistics) is a field of linguistics which studies the relationship between language and culture, and the way different ethnic groups perceive the world. It is the combination between ethnology and linguistics. The former refers to the way of life of an entire community, i. ... Read »


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    • Ethnomuseology

    • Ethnomuseology is the study of museums and museum curation in the context of the culture and cultural traditions of its collections. It is an interdisciplinary field combining museum studies, anthropology, ethnography, and often various fine arts. As stated by Moira Simpson, "Ethnomuseology is the field of scholar ... Read »


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    • Ethnomycology

    • Ethnomycology is the study of the historical uses and sociological impact of fungi and can be considered a subfield of ethnobotany or ethnobiology. Although in theory the term includes fungi used for such purposes as tinder, medicine (medicinal mushrooms) and food (including yeast), it is often used in the context of t ... Read »


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    • Ethnoornithology

    • Ethnoornithology (also ethno-ornithology) is the study of the relationship between people and birds (from "ethno-" - relating to people and culture - and "ornithology" - the study of birds). It is a branch of ethnozoology and so of the wider field of ethnobiology. Ethnoornithology is an interdisciplinary subject and co ... Read »


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    • Ethnoscape

    • Ethnoscape is one of five elementary frameworks (ethnoscapes, mediascapes, technoscapes, financescapes, and ideoscapes) used by Arjun Appadurai, in purpose of exploring fundamental disjunctures of global cultural flows. The suffix -scape indicates that these terms are perspectival constructs inflected by the historical ... Read »


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    • Ethnoscience

    • Ethnoscience has been defined as an attempt "to reconstitute what serves as science for others, their practices of looking after themselves and their bodies, their botanical knowledge, but also their forms of classification, of making connections, etc." (Augé, 1999: 118). Ethnoscience’s focus was not alway ... Read »


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    • Evolutionary anthropology

    • Evolutionary anthropology is the interdisciplinary study of the evolution of human physiology and human behaviour and the relation between hominids and non-hominid primates. Evolutionary anthropology is based in natural science and social science. Various fields and disciplines of evolutionary anthropology are: Evolut ... Read »


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    • Exocannibalism

    • Exocannibalism (from Greek Exo-, "from outside" and Cannibalism, 'to eat humans'), as opposed to endocannibalism, is the consumption of flesh outside one's close social group—for example, eating one's enemy. When done ritually, it has been associated with being a means of imbibing valued qualities of the victim or ... Read »


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    • Experimental language

    • An experimental language is a constructed language designed for linguistics research, often on the relationship between language and thought. One particular assumption having received much attention in fiction is popularly known as the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis. The claim is that the structure of a language somehow ... Read »


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    • Extension transference

    • Extension transference is the symbolic sub-division of a particular goal or purpose so that the sub-divided concepts seem fragmented from the original purpose. "…when applied to language and experience, becomes a useful theoretical concept. Thus, spoken language is a symbolization of something that happened, is h ... Read »


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    • Faluche

    • A faluche is a traditional cap worn by students in France. It is a black velvet beret, decorated with colored ribbons and badges. Several student groups wear the faluche, especially bitards, basochards, and faluchards. Previously, the faluche was associated almost exclusively with faluchards, although other folklore e ... Read »


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    • Female promiscuity

    • Promiscuity tends to be frowned upon by many societies, expecting most members to have committed, long-term relationships with single partners. Female promiscuity is not unique to humans, and has been observed in other animals, including primates. Most societies have historically been more critical of women's promiscu ... Read »


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    • Feminist anthropology

    • Feminist anthropology is a four-field approach to anthropology (archeological, biological, cultural, linguistic) that seeks to transform research findings, anthropological hiring practices, and the scholarly production of knowledge, using insights from feminist theory. Simultaneously, feminist anthropology challenges e ... Read »


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    • Fiction-absolute

    • The concept of fiction-absolute exists firstly within the context of anthropology, secondly within the study of group psychology and tribalism. The term was coined and defined by journalist Tom Wolfe in his 2006 Jefferson Lecture for the National Endowment for the Humanities. Wolfe defined the term as the propaganda t ... Read »


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    • Fictive kinship

    • Fictive kinship is a term used by anthropologists and ethnographers to describe forms of kinship or social ties that are based on neither consanguineal (blood ties) nor affinal ("by marriage") ties, in contrast to true kinship ties. To the extent that consanguineal and affinal kinship ties might be considered real or t ... Read »


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    • Financescape

    • Financescape is one the five aspects of global cultural flows that renowned globalization theorist Arjun Appadurai proposed in his article Disjuncture and Difference in the Global Cultural Economy that he claims can be used to distinguish the various disjunctures or disconnections between economy, culture and politics, ... Read »


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    • Fire knife

    • The fire knife is a traditional Samoan cultural implement that is used in ceremonial dances. It was originally composed of a machete wrapped in towels on both ends with a portion of the blade exposed in the middle. Tribal performers of fire knife dancing (or Siva Afi or even "Ailao Afi" as it is called in Samoa) dance ... Read »


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    • First contact (anthropology)

    • In anthropology, first contact is the first meeting of two cultures previously unaware of one another. Notable examples of first contact are those between the Spanish Empire and the Arawak (and ultimately all of the Americas) in 1492; and the Aboriginal Australians with Europeans in 1788 when the First Fleet arrived in ... Read »


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    • Foramen cecum (dental)

    • The Foramen cecum, in dental anthropology, is a minor expression of the protosylid of the tooth. It is thus indirectly related to the five non-metric dental crown traits. According to dental, biological studies, racially mixed populations have been discovered with deformed Foramen cecums, resulting in unique tooth groo ... Read »


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    • FORDISC

    • Before ForDisc, many anthropologists based their studies off of museum skeletal collections such as the Hamann-Todd collection that is housed at Case Western Reserve in Cleveland, Ohio, and the Terry collection housed at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, DC. These museum collections house skeletal remains that ... Read »


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    • Forensic facial reconstruction

    • Forensic facial reconstruction (or forensic facial approximation) is the process of recreating the face of an individual (whose identity is often not known) from their skeletal remains through an amalgamation of artistry, forensic science, anthropology, osteology, and anatomy. It is easily the most subjective—as w ... Read »


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    • Fosterage

    • Fosterage, the practice of a family bringing up a child not their own, differs from adoption in that the child's parents, not the foster-parents, remain the acknowledged parents. In many modern western societies foster care can be organised by the state to care for children with troubled family backgrounds, usually on ... Read »


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    • Four field approach

    • The four field approach in anthropology sees the discipline as composed of the four subfields of Archaeology, Linguistics, Physical Anthropology and Cultural anthropology. The approach is conventionally understood as having been developed by Franz Boas who developed the discipline of anthropology in the United States. ... Read »


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    • Frazer Lecture

    • The Sir James George Frazer Memorial Lectureship in Social Anthropology is a British academic lecture series. In 1920 a sum of £675 was raised by a Committee of the University of Cambridge for the purpose of commemorating Sir James Frazer’s contributions to learning. In accordance with the wishes of the subscr ... Read »


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    • Friction of distance

    • The concept of friction of distance is based on the notion that distance usually requires some amount of effort (energy) and/or money to overcome. Because of this "friction", spatial interactions, especially transport and the particular case of human migration, will tend to take place more often over shorter distances; ... Read »


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    • Generative anthropology

    • Generative anthropology is a field of study based on the theory that the origin of human language was a singular event and that the history of human culture is a genetic or "generative" development stemming from the development of language. In contrast to more common theories that examine human culture in terms of a m ... Read »


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    • Geometric morphometrics in anthropology

    • The study of geometric morphometrics in anthropology has made a major impact on the field of morphometrics by aiding in some of the technological and methodological advancements. Geometric morphometrics is an approach that studies shape using Cartesian landmark and semilandmark coordinates that are capable of capturing ... Read »


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    • Gibraltar 2

    • Gibraltar 2

      Gibraltar 2, also known as Devil's Tower Child, represented five skull fragments of a female Neanderthal child discovered in the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar. The discovery of the fossils at the Devil's Tower Mousterian rock shelter was made by archaeologist Dorothy Garrod in 1926. It represented the second ... Read »


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    • Gebelein predynastic mummies

    • Pre-dynastic Egyptian Man

      The Gebelein predynastic mummies are six naturally mummified bodies, dating to approximately 3400 BC from the Late Predynastic period of Ancient Egypt. They were the first complete predynastic bodies to be discovered. The well-preserved bodies were excavated at the end of the nineteenth century by Wallis Budge, the ... Read »


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    • Gorgoneion

    • In Ancient Greece, the Gorgoneion (Greek: Γοργόνειον) was a special apotropaic amulet showing the Gorgon head, used most famously by the Olympian deities Athena and Zeus: both are said to have worn the gorgoneion as a protective pendant. It was assumed, among other godlike attributes, as a ... Read »


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    • Grave goods

    • Grave goods, in archaeology and anthropology, are the items buried along with the body. They are usually personal possessions, supplies to smooth the deceased's journey into the afterlife or offerings to the gods. Grave goods may be classed as a type of votive deposit. Most grave goods recovered by archaeologists cons ... Read »


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    • Guanche mummies

    • Guanche mummies are the intentionally desiccated remains of members of the indigenous Guanche people of the Canary Islands. The majority of Guanche mummies were made during the eras prior to Spanish settlement of the area in the 15th century. The methods of embalming are similar to those that were used by the Ancient E ... Read »


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    • Guilt society

    • In cultural anthropology, a guilt society, or guilt culture, is the concept of a society in which the primary method of social control is the inculcation of feelings of guilt for behaviors that the individual believes to be undesirable. It is possible to classify societies, specifically apollonian ones, according to th ... Read »


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    • Hau (sociology)

    • Hau is a notion made popular by the French sociologist Marcel Mauss in his 1925 book The Gift. Surveying the practice of gifting, he came to the conclusion that it involved belief in a force binding the receiver and giver. The term 'Hau', used by the Maori, became a paradigmatic example for such a view. Writing at the ... Read »


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    • Headhunting

    • Headhunting is the practice of taking and preserving a person's head after killing the person. Headhunting was practised in historic times in parts of Oceania, South and Southeast Asia, West and Central Africa, and Mesoamerica, as well as among certain tribes of the Celts, the West Germanic tribes, and Scythians of anc ... Read »


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    • Hell money

    • Hell money is a form of joss paper printed to resemble legal tender bank notes. The notes are not an officially recognized currency or legal tender since their sole intended purpose is to be offered as burnt-offerings to the deceased as often practiced by the Chinese and several East Asian cultures. This faux money has ... Read »


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    • High-altitude adaptation in humans

    • High-altitude adaptation in humans is an instance of evolutionary modification in certain human populations, including those of Tibet in Asia, the Andes of the Americas, and Ethiopia in Africa, who have acquired the ability to survive at extremely high altitudes. This adaptation means irreversible, long-term physiologi ... Read »


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    • Hill people

    • Hill people is a general term for people who live in hills and mountains. There are a wide variety of hill people around the world, many of whom live by small scale pastoralism or on small farms. Musical instruments of hill people, such as various forms of horn, are notable for their ability to be heard at great distan ... Read »


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    • Hill tribe (Thailand)

    • Hill tribe (Thai: ชาวดอย, ชาวเขา, คนเขา,, Thai pronunciation: [tɕʰāːw.dɔ̄ːj, tɕʰāːw.kʰǎw, kʰōn.kʰǎw]) (Northern Thai: จาวดอย, คนดอ ... Read »


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    • Historical anthropology

    • Historical anthropology is a historiographical movement which applies methodologies and objectives from Social and Cultural Anthropology to the study of historical societies. Like most such movements, it is understood in different ways by different scholars, and to some may be synonymous with the history of mentalities ... Read »


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    • Historical behaviour studies

    • Historical behaviour studies (Historische Verhaltensforschung) is a field of research in cultural history and cultural anthropology and a particular methodological approach to the study of human behaviour. Historical behaviour studies are a type of cultural sociology under the particular aspect of historical chang ... Read »


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    • Historical ecology

    • Historical ecology is a research program that focuses on the interactions between humans and their environment over long-term periods of time, typically over the course of centuries. In order to carry out this work, historical ecologists synthesize long-series data collected by practitioners in diverse fields. Rather t ... Read »


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    • Historical particularism

    • Historical particularism (coined by Marvin Harris in 1968) is widely considered the first American anthropological school of thought. Closely associated with Franz Boas and the Boasian approach to anthropology, historical particularism rejected the cultural evolutionary model that had dominated anthropology until Boas ... Read »


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    • History of anthropology

    • History of anthropology in this article refers primarily to the 18th- and 19th-century precursors of modern anthropology. The term anthropology itself, innovated as a New Latin scientific word during the Renaissance, has always meant "the study (or science) of man." The topics to be included and the terminology have va ... Read »


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    • History of human migration

    • Human migration, being the movement by people from one place to another with the intention of settling temporarily or permanently in the new location, typically involves movements over long distances and from one country or region to another. Migration can be voluntary or involuntary. Involuntary migration includes th ... Read »


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    • HLA-NET

    • HLA-NET is a network targeted to the study of Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) from a populational point of view. The network was initiated by COST Action BM0803 in January 2009. Currently HLA-NET activities are being coordinated by a subcommittee of the scientific committee of the European Federation for Immunogenetics. ... Read »


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    • Homo faber

    • Homo faber (Latin for "Man the Maker") is the concept of human beings able to control their fate and their environment through tools. In Latin literature, Appius Claudius Caecus uses this term in his Sententiæ, referring to the ability of man to control his destiny and what surrounds him: Homo faber suae quisqu ... Read »


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    • Homology (anthropology)

    • In anthropology and archaeology, homology is a type of analogy whereby two human beliefs, practices or artifacts are separated by time but share similarities due to genetic or historical connections. Specifically in anthropology, a homology is a structure that is shared through descent from a common ancestor. The conc ... Read »


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    • Hoplology

    • Hoplology is a science that studies human combative behavior and performance. The word hoplology is derived from the Greek terms hoplos (a mythical plate-armored animal) and ὅπλον hóplon, a wooden shield carried by some warriors in ancient Greece. The word hoplite, derived from hoplon, is the t ... Read »


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    • House society

    • In anthropology, a house society is a society where kinship and political relations are organized around membership in corporately-organized dwellings rather than around descent groups or lineages, as in the "House of Windsor". The concept was originally proposed by Claude Lévi-Strauss who called them "société ... Read »


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    • Human

    • Human

      †Homo sapiens idaltu White et al., 2003Homo sapiens sapiens Modern humans (Homo sapiens, primarily ssp. Homo sapiens sapiens) are the only extant members of Hominina tribe (or human tribe), a branch of the tribe Hominini belonging to the family of great apes. They are characterized by erect posture and bipedal lo ... Read »


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    • Human behavioral ecology

    • Human behavioral ecology (HBE) or human evolutionary ecology applies the principles of evolutionary theory and optimization to the study of human behavioral and cultural diversity. HBE examines the adaptive design of traits, behaviors, and life histories of humans in an ecological context. One aim of modern human behav ... Read »


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    • Human ecosystem

    • Human ecosystems are complex cybernetic systems that are increasingly being used by ecological anthropologists and other scholars to examine the ecological aspects of human communities in a way that integrates multiple factors as economics, socio-political organization, psychological factors, and physical factors relat ... Read »


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    • Human ethology

    • Ethology is concerned with the evolutionary significance of an animal's behaviors in its natural environment. Broadly speaking, ethology focuses on behavior processes across species rather than focusing on the behaviors of one animal group. Ethology as a discipline is generally thought of as a sub-category of biology, ... Read »


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    • Human evolution

    • Human evolution is the evolutionary process that led to the emergence of anatomically modern humans. The topic typically focuses on the evolutionary history of the primates—in particular the genus Homo, and the emergence of Homo sapiens as a distinct species of the hominids (or great apes) rather than studying the ... Read »


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    • Human geography

    • Human geography is the branch of the social sciences that deals with the study of people and their communities, cultures, economies and interaction with the environment by noticing their relations with and across space and place. As an intellectual discipline, geography is divided into the sub-fields of physical geogra ... Read »


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    • Human height

    • Human height or stature is the distance from the bottom of the feet to the top of the head in a human body, standing erect. It is measured using a stadiometer, usually in centimetres when using the metric system, or feet and inches when using the imperial system. When populations share genetic background and environme ... Read »


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    • Human migration

    • Human migration is the movement by people from one place to another with the intentions of settling, permanently in the new location. The movement is often over long distances and from one country to another, but internal migration is also possible; indeed, this is the dominant form globally. Migration may be individua ... Read »


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    • Human sex ratio

    • In anthropology and demography, the human sex ratio is the ratio of males to females in a population. More data are available for humans than for any other species, and the human sex ratio is more studied than that of any other species, but interpreting these statistics can be difficult. Like most sexual species, the ... Read »


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    • Human Terrain System

    • The Human Terrain System (HTS) was a United States Army, Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) support program employing personnel from the social science disciplines – such as anthropology, sociology, political science, regional studies and linguistics – to provide military commanders and staff with an unde ... Read »


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    • Human Traces

    • Human Traces is a 2005 novel by Sebastian Faulks, best known as the British author of Birdsong and Charlotte Gray. The novel took Faulks five years to write. It tells of two friends who set up a pioneering asylum in 19th-century Austria, in tandem with the evolution of psychiatry and the start of the First World War. ... Read »


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    • Human zoo

    • Human zoos, also called ethnological expositions, were 19th-, 20th-, and 21st-century public exhibitions of humans, usually in a so-called natural or primitive state. The displays often emphasized the cultural differences between Europeans of Western civilization and non-European peoples or other Europeans with a lifes ... Read »


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    • Human–animal marriage


    • Hunting hypothesis

    • In paleoanthropology, the hunting hypothesis is the hypothesis that human evolution was primarily influenced by the activity of hunting for relatively large and fast animals, and that the activity of hunting distinguished human ancestors from other hominins. While it is undisputed that early humans were hunters, the i ... Read »


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    • Incest

    • Incest is sexual activity between family members or close relatives. This typically includes sexual activity between people in a consanguineous relationship (blood relations), and sometimes those related by affinity, such as individuals of the same household, stepfamily, those related by adoption or marriage, or member ... Read »


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    • Incest between twins

    • Incest between twins or twincest is a subclass of sibling incest and includes both heterosexual and homosexual relationships. While in modern Western European culture such behaviour is considered taboo, incest between twins is a common feature in Indo-European, Asian (such as Japan and Bali) and Oceanian mythology, and ... Read »


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    • Incest taboo

    • An incest taboo is any cultural rule or norm that prohibits sexual relations between closely related persons. All human cultures have norms that exclude certain close relatives from those considered suitable or permissible sexual or marriage partners, making such relationships taboo. However, different norms exist amon ... Read »


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    • Indigenous psychology

    • Indigenous psychology is defined by Kim and Berry (1993) as "the scientific study of human behavior or mind that is native, that is not transported from other regions, and that is designed for its people." Indigenous psychology generally advocates examining knowledge, skills and beliefs people have about themselves and ... Read »


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    • Inis Beag

    • Coordinates: 53°23′56″N 9°53′49″W / 53.399°N 9.897°W / 53.399; -9.897 Inis Beag (Irish: "Little Island") is a remote island off the coast of Connemara, Ireland, near the Aran Islands. It contains a small, isolated Irish-speaking Catholic community which cultural anthrop ... Read »


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    • Institute for Social Anthropology

    • The Institute for Social Anthropology (ISA) is a research institute of the Austrian Academy of Sciences (AAS) in Vienna, Austria. The Institute for Social Anthropology is an Asia-specialized research institute at the AAS. Its long-term research focus lies on "Consensus and Conflict in Asia and the Eastern Mediterr ... Read »


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    • Intercultural therapy

    • Intercultural therapy is a form of psychotherapy aimed at benefiting culturally diverse groups. It recognises the importance of race, culture, beliefs, values, attitudes, religion and language in the life of the client. The concept has been developed by Jafar Kareem in his book Intercultural Therapy. Kareem (1992) beli ... Read »


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    • Isotopic signature

    • An isotopic signature (also isotopic fingerprint) is a ratio of non-radiogenic 'stable isotopes', stable radiogenic isotopes, or unstable radioactive isotopes of particular elements in an investigated material. The ratios of isotopes in a sample material are measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. This process is ... Read »


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    • IUAES

    • The International Union of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences (IUAES) is the largest world forum of anthropologists and ethnologists, with members from more than fifty countries. Every five years, in different parts of the world, the IUAES sponsors a major Congress (ICAES/World Congress), gathering researchers f ... Read »


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    • Jebel Irhoud

    • Jebel Irhoud (Arabic: جبل إيغود‎‎) is an archaeological cave site located near Sidi Moktar, about 100 km west of Marrakesh, Morocco. Since c. 1991, seven significant hominid fossils have been discovered. These skeletal remains have been radiocarbon dated to around 160,000 years ago. ... Read »


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    • Kalahari Debate

    • The Kalahari Debate is a series of back and forth arguments that began in the 1980s amongst anthropologists, archaeologists, and historians about how the San people and hunter-gatherer societies in southern Africa have lived in the past. On one side of the debate were scholars led by Richard Borshay Lee and Irven DeVor ... Read »


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    • Kasepuhan

    • The Kasepuhan or Kasepuhan Banten Kidul are a traditional Sundanese community of approximately 5,300 people, who live in the southern part of Gunung Halimun National Park, in the Indonesian province of West Java. Gunung Halimun National Park is located within the borders of the Sukabumi Regency, Bogor and southern Bant ... Read »


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  • What Else?

    • Anthropology

Extras