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  • Ancient Greek society

    Ancient Greek society

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    • Ancient Greek government

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    • Economy of ancient Greece

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    • Education in ancient Greece

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    • Ancient Greek emigrants

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    • Ancient Greek law

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    • Ancient Greek patronymics

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    • Ancient Greek religion

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    • Social classes in ancient Greece

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    • Ancient Greek titles

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    • Tribes of ancient Attica

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    • Ancient Greek units of measurement

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    • Against Timarchus

    • Against Timarchus (Greek: Κατὰ Τιμάρχου) was a speech by Aeschines accusing Timarchus of being unfit to involve himself in public life. The case was brought about in 346/5, in response to Timarchus, along with Demosthenes, bringing a suit against Aeschines, accusing him of miscondu ... Read »


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    • Agela

    • Agela was an assembly of young men in Dorian Crete, who lived together from their eighteenth year till the time of their marriage. Up to the end of their seventeenth year they remained in their father's house; and from the circumstance of their belonging to no agela, they were called apageloi. They were then enrolled i ... Read »


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    • Agora

    • The agora (/ˈæɡərə/; Ancient Greek: Ἀγορά Agorá) was a central spot in ancient Greek city-states. The literal meaning of the word is "gathering place" or "assembly". The agora was the center of athletic, artistic, spiritual and political life of the city. The Ancient Agora of Athen ... Read »


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    • Amphictyonic League

    • In the Archaic period of Greek history, an amphictyony (Greek: ἀμφικτυονία), a "league of neighbors", or Amphictyonic League was an ancient religious association of Greek tribes formed in the dim past, before the rise of the Greek polis. The six Dorian cities of coastal southwest Asia ... Read »


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    • Andron (architecture)

    • Andron (Greek: ἀνδρών andrōn), or andronitis (ἀνδρωνῖτις andrōnitis), is part of a Greek house that is reserved for men, as distinguished from the gynaeceum (γυναικεῖον gynaikeion), the women's quarters. The andron was used for ... Read »


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    • Asylum (antiquity)

    • In ancient Greece and Rome, an asylum referred to a place where people facing persecution could seek refuge. These locations were largely religious in nature, such as temples and other religious sites. In ancient Greece the temples, altars, sacred groves, and statues of the gods generally possessed the privileges ... Read »


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    • Athenian democracy

    • Athenian democracy developed around the fifth century BC in the Greek city-state (known as a polis) of Athens, comprising the city of Athens and the surrounding territory of Attica, and is the first known democracy in the world. Other Greek cities set up democracies, most following the Athenian model, but none are as w ... Read »


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    • Attic numerals

    • Attic numerals were used by the ancient Greeks, possibly from the 7th century BC. They were also known as Herodianic numerals because they were first described in a 2nd-century manuscript by Herodian. They are also known as acrophonic numerals because the symbols derive from the first letters of the words that the symb ... Read »


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    • Canephoria

    • The Canephoria (Greek: Κανηφορία), also known as Proselia (Προσήλια) was an ancient Greek ceremony, which made part of a feast, celebrated by the maids on the eve of their marriage. The Canephoria, as practiced in Athens, consisted of the following: the maid, conducted ... Read »


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    • Charisticary

    • A charisticary is a person to whom is given the enjoyment of the revenues of a monastery, hospital, or benefice, also known as a comendatory or donatory. The charisticaries among the Ancient Greeks were a kind of donatories who enjoyed all the revenues of hospitals and monasteries, without giving an account thereof to ... Read »


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    • Classical definition of effeminacy

    • Malakia (μαλακία, "softness", "weakliness") is an ancient Greek word that, in relation to men, has sometimes been translated as "effeminacy". The contrary characteristic in men was karteria (καρτερία, "patient endurance", "perseverance"). The standard Greek-English Lex ... Read »


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    • Common Peace

    • Common Peace (Κοινὴ Εἰρήνη, Koinē Eirēnē) was the term used in ancient Greece for a peace treaty that simultaneously declared peace between all the combatants in a war. The concept was invented with the Peace of Antalcidas in 387 BC. Prior to that time, peace treaties in Gr ... Read »


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    • Direct democracy

    • Direct democracy (also known as pure democracy) is a form of democracy in which people decide (e.g. vote on, form consensus on) policy initiatives directly. This differs from the majority of modern democracies, which are representative democracies. Direct democracy is similar to, but distinct from, representative ... Read »


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    • Dokimasia

    • In Ancient Greece, dokimasia (Greek: δοκιμασία) was the name used at Athens to denote the process of ascertaining the capacity of the citizens for the exercise of public rights and duties. If, for instance, a young citizen was to be admitted among the epheboi, he was examined in an assembly ... Read »


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    • Ecclesia (ancient Athens)

    • The ecclesia or ekklesia (Greek: ἐκκλησία) was the principal assembly of the democracy of ancient Athens during its "Golden Age" (480–404 BCE). It was the popular assembly, open to all male citizens with 2 years of military service. In 594 BC, Solon allowed all Athenian citizens to partic ... Read »


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    • Eleutheria

    • The Greek word "ἐλευθερία" (capitalized Ἐλευθερία; Attic Greek pronunciation: [eleu̯tÊ°er'ia]), transliterated as eleutheria, is an Ancient Greek term for, and personification of, liberty. Eleutheria personified had a brief career on coins of Alexandria. I ... Read »


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    • Ephebos

    • Ephebos (ἔφηβος) (often in the plural epheboi), also anglicised as ephebe (plural: ephebes) or archaically ephebus (plural: ephebi), is a Greek word for an adolescent or a social status reserved for that age in Antiquity. Though the word can simply refer to the adolescent age of young men of tr ... Read »


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    • Epigamia

    • In ancient Athens "epigamia" (Ancient Greek: ἐπιγαμία) designated the legal right to contract a marriage. In particular it regulated the right of intermarrying into another city-state. In the period of Athenian democracy, such intermarriage was not allowed, and only a decree of the popular ... Read »


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    • Epikleros

    • An epikleros (ἐπίκληρος; plural epikleroi) was an heiress in ancient Athens and other ancient Greek city states, specifically a daughter of a man who had no male heirs. In Sparta, they were called patrouchoi (πατροῦχοι), as they were in Gortyn. Athenian women we ... Read »


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    • Eusebeia

    • Eusebeia (Greek: εὐσέβεια from εὐσεβής "pious" from εὖ eu meaning "well", and σέβας sebas meaning "reverence", itself formed from seb- meaning sacred awe and reverence especially in actions) is a Greek word abundantly used in Greek philosophy as we ... Read »


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    • Gamelia

    • Gamelia (Γαμηλία) in ancient Athens may be a wedding customary law, or a name of a wedding festival or wedding solemnities in general. Gamelion was the name of the month (15 December- 15 January) in the Attic calendar, when marriages took place. The demes and phratries of Attica possessed various ... Read »


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    • Genos

    • In ancient Greece, a genos (Greek: γένος, "race, stock, kin", plural genē - γένη) was a social group claiming common descent, referred to by a single name (see also Sanskrit "Gana"). Most gene seem to have been composed of noble families—Herodotus uses the term to denote noble familie ... Read »


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    • Gynaeceum

    • In Ancient Greece, the gynaeceum (Greek: γυναικεῖον gynaikeion, from Ancient Greek γυναικεία gynaikeia "part of the house reserved for the women"; literally "of or belonging to women, feminine") or the gynaeconitis (γυναικωνῖτΠ... Read »


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    • Gynaeconomi

    • Gynaeconomi (Greek: γυναικονόμοι) were magistrates at Athens, who superintended the conduct of Athenian women. (Pollux, viii. 112.) We know little of the duties of these officers, and even the time when they were instituted is not quite certain. Bockh (de Philoch. p. 24) has endea ... Read »


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    • Harmodius and Aristogeiton

    • Harmodius (Greek: Ἁρμόδιος, Harmódios) and Aristogeiton (Ἀριστογείτων, Aristogeíton; both died 514 BC) were two men from ancient Athens. They became known as the Tyrannicides (τυραννοκτόνοι, tyrannoktonoi) after ... Read »


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    • Hellenic calendars

    • The various ancient Greek calendars began in most states of ancient Greece between Autumn and Winter except for the Attic calendar, which began in Summer. The Greeks, as early as the time of Homer, appear to have been familiar with the division of the year into the twelve lunar months but no intercalary month Embolimo ... Read »


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    • Ionian League

    • The Ionian League (ancient Greek: Ἴωνες, Íōnes; κοινὸν Ἰώνων, koinón Iōnōn; or κοινὴ σύνοδος Ἰώνων, koinē sýnodos Iōnōn; Latin: commune consilium), also called the Panionic League, was ... Read »


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    • Marriage in ancient Greece

    • The institution of marriage in ancient Greece encouraged responsibility in personal relationships. Marriages were usually arranged by the parents; professional matchmakers were reluctantly used. Each city was politically independent, with its own laws affecting marriage. Orphaned daughters were left to uncles or cousin ... Read »


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    • Mental illness in ancient Greece

    • Mental illness was an issue that many faced in ancient times much like in the modern world. In ancient Greece, many were divided over what they believed to be the cause of the illness that a patient faced. Some believed it was the punishment of the gods while others believed it to be caused a physical problem, this led ... Read »


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    • Metic

    • In ancient Greece, a metic (Greek métoikos: from metá, indicating change, and oîkos "dwelling") was a foreign resident of Athens, one who did not have citizen rights in their Greek city-state (polis) of residence. The history of foreign migration to Athens dates back to the archaic period. Solon was said ... Read »


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    • Oikistes

    • When a Greek polis chose to settle a new colony (apoikia), an individual - the oikistes (οἰκιστής)- was chosen as leader and invested with the power of selecting a settling place, directing the initial labors of the colonists and guiding the fledgling colony through its hard early years. ... Read »


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    • Oikos

    • The ancient Greek word oikos (ancient Greek: οἶκος, plural: οἶκοι; English prefix: eco- for ecology and economics) refers to three related but distinct concepts: the family, the family's property, and the house. Its meaning shifts even within texts, which can lead to confusion. The oi ... Read »


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    • Ostracism

    • Ostracism (Greek: ὀστρακισμός, ostrakismos) was a procedure under the Athenian democracy in which any citizen could be expelled from the city-state of Athens for ten years. While some instances clearly expressed popular anger at the citizen, ostracism was often used preemptively. It w ... Read »


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    • Panhellenion

    • The Panhellenion (Greek: Πανελλήνιον) or Panhellenium was a league of Greek city-states established in the year 131-132 AD by the Roman Emperor Hadrian while he was touring the Roman provinces of Greece. Hadrian was philhellenic, and idealized the Classical past of Greece. The Panhelle ... Read »


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    • Paroikoi

    • Paroikoi (plural of Greek πάροικος, paroikos, the etymological origin of and parochial) is the term that replaced "metic" in the Hellenistic and Roman period to designate foreign residents. In Asia Minor they were named katoikoi. In the Byzantine Empire, paroikoi were non-proprietary peasants, ... Read »


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    • Partheniae

    • In Ancient Greece, the Partheniae or Parthenians (in Greek οἱ Παρθενίαι / hoi Partheníai , literally “sons of virgins”, i.e. unmarried young girls) were a lower ranking Spartiate population which, according to tradition, left Laconia to go to Magna Graecia and founded Tar ... Read »


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    • Petalism

    • In ancient Syracuse petalism was a form of banishment similar to ostracism in Athens. In a special vote, citizens wrote on leaves (Greek "petala", "leaves") the names of those they wished to banish from public life. In Athens, names were written on "ostraka", "shells, potsherds". A certain number of such votes could se ... Read »


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    • Phratry

    • In ancient Greece, a phratry (phratria, Greek: φ(ρ)ατρία, "brotherhood", "kinfolk", derived from φρατήρ meaning "brother") was a social division of the Greek tribe (phyle). The nature of these phratries is, in the words of one historian, "the darkest problem among the [Greek] soci ... Read »


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    • Phyle

    • Phyle (Greek φυλή phulē, "clan, race, people"; pl. phylai, φυλαί; derived from ancient Greek φύεσθαι "to descend, to originate") is an ancient Greek term for clan or tribe. They were usually ruled by a basileus. Some of them can be classified by their geographic locati ... Read »


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    • Salmacis (fountain)

    • Salmacis was a fountain, located near the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus. In classical times, it had: "the slanderous repute, for what reason I do not know, of making effeminate all who drink from it. It seems that the effeminacy of man is laid to the charge of the air or of the water; yet it is not these, but rather rich ... Read »


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    • Trial of Socrates

    • The trial of Socrates (399 BC) was held to determine the philosopher’s guilt of two charges: asebeia (impiety) against the pantheon of Athens, and corruption of the youth of the city-state; the accusers cited two impious acts by Socrates: “failing to acknowledge the gods that the city acknowledges” and ... Read »


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    • Stasis (political history)

    • Stasis (Ancient Greek: στάσις) is a term in Greek political history. It refers to: According to the Iliad, the goal of all men of honour in archaic Greece was to always be the first and superior to the others. This ideal was called the aristeuein- or aristeia-Ideal. In Homer's days, this ideal ... Read »


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    • Symposium

    • In ancient Greece, the symposium (Greek: συμπόσιον symposion, from συμπίνειν sympinein, "to drink together") was a drinking party. Literary works that describe or take place at a symposium include two Socratic dialogues, Plato's Symposium and Xenophon's Symposium, a ... Read »


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    • Synedrion

    • A synedrion or synhedrion (Greek: συνέδριον, "sitting together", hence "assembly" or "council"; Hebrew: סנהדרין‎‎, sanhedrin) is an assembly that holds formal sessions. The Latinized form is synedrium. Depending on the widely varied constitutions, it applied to ... Read »


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    • Synoecism

    • Synoecism or synecism (/sᵻˈniːsɪzəm/ si-NEE-siz-əm; Ancient Greek: συνοικισμóς, sunoikismos, Ancient Greek: [syːnɔi̯kismós]), also spelled synoikism (/sᵻˈnɔɪkɪzəm/ si-NOY-kiz-əm), was originally the amalgamation of villages in ... Read »


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    • Trittys

    • Trittyes (Ancient Greek: τριττύες; singular trittys (τριττύς)) were population divisions in ancient Attica, established by the reforms of Cleisthenes in 508 BC. The name means "third." There were thirty trittyes and ten tribes in Attica. Each tribe, or phyle of Athens was co ... Read »


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