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    Ancient Greece

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    • Ancient Greek world by region

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    • History of Greek Antiquity by period

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    • Ancient Greek archaeological sites in Greece

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    • Ancient Greeks

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    • Ancient Macedonians

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    • Ancient Thrace

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    • Ancient Greek architecture

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    • Ancient Greek culture

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    • Ancient Greece in fiction

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    • Ancient Greek geography

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    • Greco-Roman relations in classical antiquity

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    • Greek Antiquity in art and culture

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    • Historians of ancient Greece

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    • Illyria

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    • Ancient Greek law

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    • Ancient Greece-related lists

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    • Military history of Ancient Greece

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    • Museums of Ancient Greece

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    • Panhellenic idea

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    • Ancient Greece peoples

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    • Ancient Greek science

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    • Ancient Greek society

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    • Ancient Greece studies

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    • Transport in Ancient Greece

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    • Ancient Greece

    • Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th-9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (c. 600 AD). Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages and the Byzantine era. Roughly three centuries after the Late Bronze Age c ... Read »


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    • Outline of ancient Greece

    • The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to ancient Greece: Ancient Greece – period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca. 1100 BC and the Dorian invasion, to 146 BC and the Roman conquest of Greece after the Battle of Corinth. It is generally considered to be the semin ... Read »


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    • The Other Greeks

    • The Other Greeks: The Family Farm and the Agrarian Roots of Western Civilization

      The Other Greeks: The Family Farm and the Agrarian Roots of Western Civilization is a 1995 book by Victor Davis Hanson, in which Hanson describes the underlying agriculturally centered laws, warfare, and family life of the Greek Archaic or polis period. Hanson's central argument is that the Greeks who farmed the countr ... Read »


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    • Fifth-century Athens

    • Fifth-century Athens is the Greek city-state of Athens in the time from 480 BC-404 BC. This was a period of Athenian political hegemony, economic growth and cultural flourishing formerly known as the Golden Age of Athens with the later part The Age of Pericles. The period began in 478 BC after defeat of the Persian inv ... Read »


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    • Alexandria Prophthasia

    • Alexandria Prophthasia also known as Alexandria in Drangiana was one of the seventy-plus cities founded or renamed by Alexander the Great. The town was founded by Alexander the Great during an intermediate stop between Herat, the location of another of Alexander's fortresses, and Kandahar. and is mentioned by Strabo, P ... Read »


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    • Altis

    • The Altis (Greek: Ἄλτις) also referred to as the sanctuary to the gods, is the name of a location most well known for being a place of significant religious importance to the Ancient Greeks, considered to be a sacred precinct that was constructed and used from around 776 BCE to fourth century BCE and u ... Read »


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    • Anacalyteria

    • Anacalyteria, in Ancient Greece, were matrimonial feasts celebrated on the day that the bride was permitted to lay aside her veil, and to be seen in public. They were thus called from the Greek ανακαλύψει ("to discover, uncover").  This article incorporates text from a publication now ... Read »


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    • Anacleteria

    • Anacleteria, in antiquity, were feasts celebrated in honor of kings and princes, when they took upon them the administration of their state, and made a solemn declaration thereof to the people. This is synonymous with the modern day coronation. The term was also used of celebrations for kings coming of age. The word ... Read »


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    • Ancient Greek

    • Ancient Greek

      Ancient Greek includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BC), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BC), and Hellenistic period (3rd century BC to the 6th centu ... Read »


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    • Ancient Macedonians

    • Ancient Macedonians
      Μακεδόνες

      The Macedonians (Greek: Μακεδόνες, Makedónes) were an ancient tribe that lived on the alluvial plain around the rivers Haliacmon and lower Axios in the northeastern part of mainland Greece. Essentially an ancient Greek people, they gradually expanded from their homeland along the Haliacmon ... Read »


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    • Aratrum

    • Aratrum is the Latin word for ard, and arotron (ἄροτρον) is the Greek word. The Greeks appear to have had several kinds of ard from the records. Hesiod advised the farmer to always have two ards handy, so that if one broke the other could replace it. These ards should be of two kinds. The first w ... Read »


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    • Arcadia (ancient region)

    • Arcadia (ancient region)

      Arcadia (Greek: Ἀρκαδία) was a region in the central Peloponnese. It took its name from the mythological character Arcas and in Greek mythology, it was the home of the god Pan. In European Renaissance arts, Arcadia was celebrated as an unspoiled, harmonious wilderness. There is also a modern reg ... Read »


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    • Archaic Greece

    • Archaic Greece was the period in Greek history lasting from the eighth century BC to the second Persian invasion of Greece in 480 BC, following the Greek Dark Ages and succeeded by the Classical period. The period began with a massive increase in the Greek population and a series of significant changes which rendered t ... Read »


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    • Argos panoply

    • The Argos panoply is an ancient Greek suit of armour, discovered in 1953 in Argos, Greece. In 1953, at Argos, a team of French excavators led by archaeologist Paul Courbin discovered in a tomb a panoply of bronze armour, consisting of a cuirass and helmet, probably dating to the last quarter of the eighth century BCE. ... Read »


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    • Artemisia II of Caria

    • Artemisia II of Caria

      Artemisia II of Caria (Greek: Ἀρτεμισία; died 350 BCE) was the sister, the wife, and the successor of Mausolus, ruler of Caria, who was nominally the Persian satrap; Mausolus enjoyed the status of king or dynast of the Hecatomnid dynasty. After the death of her brother/husband, she reigned ... Read »


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    • Atë


    • Beauty (ancient thought)

    • Beauty for ancient thinkers existed both in , which is the material world as it is, and as embodied in the spirit, which is the world of mental formations. The classical terms in use to describe beauty were (Grecian) and (Latin). During this time there existed a woman, known as Helen of Troy, who was known as t ... Read »


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    • Bucephalus

    • Bucephalus or Bucephalas (/bjuːˈsɛfələs/; Ancient Greek: Βουκέφαλος or Βουκεφάλας, from βούς bous, "ox" and κεφαλή kephalē, "head" meaning "ox-head") (c. 355 BC – June 326 BC) was the horse of ... Read »


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    • Bucephalus (brand)

    • Bucephalus (Ancient Greek: Βουκέφαλος "ox-headed", from βους, "ox", and κεφαλή, "head") was a type of mark anciently used on horses. It was one of the three most common, besides Ϻ, San, and Ϙ, Koppa. Those horses marked with a San were called Σ ... Read »


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    • Calazans

    • Calazans is a surname of mythological origin. Calazans, according to the myth, was a psychic from Mycenae. Apollo gave him the gift of prophecy. Many young boys were baptized with Calazans as second name, mainly in the great capitals as Athens. The Calazans surname was most common in Ancient Greece. The surname ... Read »


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    • Chaonians

    • The Chaonians (Greek: Χάονες, Chaones) were an ancient Greek tribe that inhabited the region of Epirus located in the north-west of modern Greece and southern Albania. On their southern frontier lay another Epirote kingdom, that of the Molossians, to their southwest stood the kingdom of the Thesprotia ... Read »


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    • Chersonese

    • Chersonese /ˈkɜːrsəniːs/ is a name that was given to several different places in ancient times. The word is Latin; it derives from the Greek term for "peninsula", chersonēsos, from chersos ("dry land") + nēsos (island). It was applied to a number of peninsular localities in the ancient world. T ... Read »


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    • Chiton (costume)

    • A chiton (Greek: χιτών, khitōn) was a form of clothing in Ancient Greece, worn by both sexes, but especially men. It is a sewn garment, unlike the female peplos, a draped garment held on the shoulders by a fibula. There are two forms of chiton, the Doric chiton and the later Ionic chiton. The Doric s ... Read »


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    • Chlamys

    • The chlamys (Ancient Greek): , gen.: χλαμύδος was an ancient Greek type of rather short cloak. By the time of the Byzantine Empire it was, in a much longer form, part of the state costume of the emperor and high officials, surviving as such until at least the 12th century AD. The ephaptis [á¼ ... Read »


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    • Chorobates

    • The Chorobates, described by Vitruvius in Book VII of the Architecture, was used to measure horizontal planes and was especially important in the construction of aqueducts. Similar to modern spirit levels, the Chorobates consisted of a beam of wood 6 m in length held by 2 supporting legs and equipped with 2 plumb line ... Read »


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    • Classics

    • Classics or Classical Studies is the study of classical antiquity. It encompasses the study of the Graeco-Roman world, particularly of its languages, and literature (Ancient Greek and Classical Latin) but also it encompasses the study of Graeco-Roman philosophy, history, and archaeology. Traditionally in the West, the ... Read »


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    • Cloud cuckoo land

    • Cloud cuckoo land refers to a state of absurdly over-optimistic fantasy or an unrealistically idealistic state where everything is perfect. Someone who is said to "live in cloud cuckoo land" is a person who thinks that things that are completely impossible might happen, rather than understanding how things really are. ... Read »


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    • Contorniate

    • A contorniate, or contourniate, is a species of medal or medallion of bronze, having a deep furrow on the contour or edge, as if the object had been turned in the lathe. Contourniate medallions were struck in the days of Constantine and his successors. These medals were not struck to be a form of money, but are believe ... Read »


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    • Cynuria

    • Cynuria or Kynouria (ἡ Κυνουρία - Kynouria or ἡ Κυνουριακή - Kynouriake) is an ancient district on the eastern coast of the Peloponnese, between the Argeia and Laconia, so called from the Cynurians, one of the most ancient tribes in the peninsula. It was b ... Read »


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    • Dictionnaire des Antiquités Grecques et Romaines


    • Dikastes

    • Dikastes (Greek: δικαστής, pl. δικασταί) was a legal office in ancient Greece that signified, in the broadest sense, a judge or juror, but more particularly denotes the Attic functionary of the democratic period, who, with his colleagues, was constitutionally empowered to ... Read »


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    • Doris (Greece)

    • Doris (Greece)

      Doris (Greek: ἡ Δωρίς: Eth. Δωριεύς, pl. Δωριῆς, Δωριεῖς; Latin: Dores, Dorienses), is a small mountainous district in ancient Greece, bounded by Aetolia, southern Thessaly, the Ozolian Locrians, and Phocis; the original homeland of the ... Read »


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    • Ecumene

    • The ecumene (US) or oecumene (UK; Greek: οἰκουμένη, oikouménē, lit. "inhabited") was an ancient Greek term for the known world, the inhabited world, or the habitable world. Under the Roman Empire, it came to refer to civilization and the secular and religious imperial administratio ... Read »


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    • Epirus

    • Epirus

      Epirus (/ᵻˈpaɪrəs/) is a geographical and historical region in southeastern Europe, now shared between Greece and Albania. It lies between the Pindus Mountains and the Ionian Sea, stretching from the Bay of Vlorë and the Acroceraunian mountains in the north to the Ambracian Gulf and the ruined Roman ci ... Read »


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    • Eteocretan language

    • Eteocretan language

      Eteocretan /ˌiːtɪoʊˈkriːtən, ˌɛt-/ (lit. "true Cretan", from Greek ἐτεός, meaning "true" + Cretan) is the non-Greek language of a few alphabetic inscriptions of ancient Crete. In eastern Crete about half a dozen inscriptions have been found which, though written in Greek alp ... Read »


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    • Funeral oration (ancient Greece)

    • A funeral oration or epitaphios logos (Greek: ἐπιτάφιος λόγος) is a formal speech delivered on the ceremonial occasion of a funeral. Funerary customs comprise the practices used by a culture to remember the dead, from the funeral itself, to various monuments, prayers, and rit ... Read »


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    • Greeks in Italy

    • Greek presence in Italy begins with the migrations of the old Greek Diaspora in the 8th century BC, continuing down to the present time. There is a linguistic minority known as the Griko people, who live in the Southern Italian regions of Calabria (Province of Reggio Calabria) and Apulia, especially the peninsula of Sa ... Read »


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    • Hetair-

    • Not to be confused with the Greek prefix Hetero-, which means other, different Hetair- or latinicized Hetaer- is a Greek linguistic root bearing the meaning of companion (cf. Latin Socii and societas). It is used in the following terms. Hetaerina genus of damselfly ... Read »


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    • Hetaira

    • Hetairai (/hɪˈtaɪraɪ/; sing. hetaira /hɪˈtaɪrə/; also hetaera /hɪˈtɪrə/, pl. hetaerae /hɪˈtɪriː/; Ancient Greek: ἑταίρα, "companion," pl. ἑταῖραι) were a type of prostitute in ancient Greece. Traditionally, historians of an ... Read »


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    • History of Taranto

    • The history of Taranto dates back to the 8th century BC when it was founded as a Greek colony, known as Taras. Taranto was founded in 706 BC by Dorian immigrants as the only Spartan colony, and its origin is peculiar: the founders were Partheniae, sons of unmarried Spartan women and perioeci (free men, but not cit ... Read »


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    • Illyrians

    • The Illyrians (Ancient Greek: Ἰλλυριοί, Illyrioi; Latin: Illyrii or Illyri) were a group of Indo-European tribes in antiquity, who inhabited part of the western Balkans and the south-eastern coasts of the Italian peninsula (Messapia). The territory the Illyrians inhabited came to be known ... Read »


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    • Ionians

    • The Ionians (/aɪˈoʊniənz/; Greek: Ἴωνες, Íōnes, singular Ἴων, Íōn) were one of the four major tribes that the Greeks considered themselves to be divided into during the ancient period; the other three being the Dorians, Aeolians, and Achaeans. The Ionian dialect was o ... Read »


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    • Kalos kagathos

    • Kalos kagathos (Ancient Greek: καλὸς κἀγαθός [kalos kaːɡatʰós]), of which (καλοκαγαθία) is the derived noun, is a phrase used by classical Greek writers to describe an ideal of gentlemanly , especially in a military context. Its u ... Read »


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    • Keryneia, Greece

    • Keryneia, Greece

      Keryneia (Greek: Κερύνεια) is a village and a community in the municipal unit of Diakopto, Achaea, Greece. The community consists of the villages Keryneia and Nea Keryneia. It is located 6 km southeast of Aigio and 7 km west of Diakopto. The Greek National Road 8A (Patras - Aigio - Corinth ... Read »


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    • Kleos

    • Kleos (Greek: κλέος) is the Greek word often translated to "renown", or "glory". It is related to the word "to hear" and carries the implied meaning of "what others hear about you". A Greek hero earns kleos through accomplishing great deeds, often through his own death. According to Gregory Nagy, beside ... Read »


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    • Kleroterion

    • The kleroterion (Ancient Greek: κληρωτήριον) is a randomization device used by the Athenian polis during the period of democracy to select citizens to the boule, to most state offices, to the nomothetai, and to court juries. The kleroterion was a slab of stone incised with rows of sl ... Read »


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    • Kouloura

    • A kouloura, or kouloures (Greek plural koulourai) is a circular subsurface pit with stone walls found in certain settlements within Ancient Crete, including Phaistos, Knossos, and Mallia. According on stratigraphy, the kouloura were all constructed around MM II (1850–1750 BC). The name kouloura was coined by ... Read »


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    • Kynodesme

    • A kynodesme (Greek: κυνοδέσμη, English translation: "dog tie") was a cord or string or sometimes a leather strip that was worn by some athletes in Ancient Greece and Etruria to prevent the exposure of the glans penis in public. It was tied tightly around the akroposthion, the part of the fore ... Read »


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    • Labrys

    • Labrys (Greek: λάβρυς, lábrys) is the term for a symmetrical double-bitted axe originally from Crete in Greece, one of the oldest symbols of Greek civilization; to the Romans, it was known as a bipennis. The symbol was commonly associated with female divinities. The double-bitted axe remains a for ... Read »


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    • The Legend of Diyes

    • The Legend of Diyes is the story of the northward migration of the Thracian tribe Dii to the country of Odin. The Dii initially lived among the foothills of the Rhodope Mountains in Thrace. ... Read »


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    • Leiden Conventions

    • The Leiden Conventions are an established set of rules, symbols, and brackets used to indicate the condition of an epigraphic or papyrological text in a modern edition. In previous centuries of classical scholarship, scholars who published texts from inscriptions, papyri, or manuscripts used divergent conventions to in ... Read »


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    • Leleges

    • The Leleges (/ˈlɛláµ»dʒiːz/ LEL-i-jeez; Greek: Λέλεγες) were one of the aboriginal peoples of the Aegean littoral, distinct from the Pelasgians, the Bronze Age Greeks, the Cretan Minoans, the Cycladic Telkhines, and the Tyrrhenians. The classical Hellenes emerged as an amalgam of the ... Read »


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    • Locrians

    • The Locrians (Greek: Λοκροί, Locri) were an ancient Greek tribe that inhabited the region of Locris in Central Greece, around Parnassus. They spoke the Locrian dialect, a Doric-Northwest dialect, and were closely related to their neighbouring tribes, the Phocians and the Dorians. They were divided int ... Read »


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    • Metaneira (hetaera)

    • Metaneira (Μετάνειρα) was a hetaira active in Classical Corinth and Athens. As a child, she was purchased by Nikarete of Corinth. She was raised as a daughter, along with Neaera, and molded into a hetaera. Athenaeus claims that she was the mistress of both Isocrates and Lysias, who according ... Read »


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    • Molossians

    • The Molossians (Ancient Greek: Μολοσσοί, Molossoi) were an ancient Greek tribal state and kingdom that inhabited the region of Epirus since the Mycenaean era. On their north frontier, they had the Chaonians and on their southern frontier the kingdom of the Thesprotians. The Molossians were pa ... Read »


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    • Mount Pentelicus

    • Mount Pentelicus

      Mount Pentelicus or Pentelikon (Greek: Πεντέλη, Πεντελικόν or Πεντελικό Όρος) is a mountain range in Attica, Greece, situated northeast of Athens and southwest of Marathon. Its highest point is the peak Pyrgari, elevation 1,109 m. ... Read »


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    • Mycenaean Greece

    • Mycenaean Greece

      Mycenaean Greece (or Mycenaean civilization) was the last phase of the Bronze Age in Ancient Greece (c. 1600–1100 BC). It represents the first advanced civilization in mainland Greece, with its palatial states, urban organization, works of art and writing system. Among the centers of power that emerged, the most n ... Read »


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    • Necromanteion

    • The Nekromanteion (Greek: Νεκρομαντεῖον) was an ancient Greek temple of necromancy devoted to Hades and Persephone. According to tradition, it was located on the banks of the Acheron river in Epirus, near the ancient city of Ephyra. This site was believed by devotees to be the ... Read »


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    • Olympic winners of the Archaic period

    • Olympic winners of the Archaic period

      Just how far back in history organized athletic contests were held remains a matter of debate, but it is reasonably certain that they occurred in Greece almost 3,000 years ago. However ancient in origin, by the end of the 6th century BC at least four Greek sporting festivals, sometimes called "classical games," had ach ... Read »


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    • List of Olympic winners of the Stadion race

    • List of Olympic winners of the Stadion race

      The following is a list of winners of the Stadion race at the Olympic Games from 776 BC to 225 AD. It is based on the list given by Eusebius of Caesarea using a compilation by Sextus Julius Africanus. The Stadion race was the first and most important competition of the ancient Olympiads and the names of the winners are ... Read »


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    • On a Wound by Premeditation

    • On a Wound by Premeditation is a speech by Lysias, one of the "Canon of Ten" Attic orators (Speech 4 in Lamb's translation). ... Read »


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    • La Parisienne (fresco)

    • La Parisienne

      La Parisienne also known as the Minoan Lady, is part of the Camp Stool Fresco, which was probably painted on the wall of the Sanctuary Hall on the Piano Nobile at the palace of Knossos. The sacral knot worn at the back of the neck seems to indicate that she is a priestess or even a goddess. The archaeological research ... Read »


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    • Pellana

    • Pellana

      Pellana (/pəˈlænə/; Greek: ἡ Πέλλανα, Paus. iii. 20. § 2; τὰ Πέλλανα, Strabo viii. p. 386; Πελλήνη, Xen. Hell. vii. 5. § 9; Polyb. iv. 81, xvi. 37; Plut. Agis, 8), was a city of ancient Lacedaemonia, on the Eurotas river, a ... Read »


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    • Peloponnesian League

    • The Peloponnesian League was an alliance in the Peloponnesus from the 6th to the 4th centuries BC. It is known mainly for being one of the two rivals in the Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC) By the end of the 7th century BC Sparta had become the most powerful city-state in the Peloponnese and was the political a ... Read »


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    • Pentecontaetia

    • Pentecontaetia (Greek: πεντηκονταετία, "the period of fifty years") is the term used to refer to the period in Ancient Greek history between the defeat of the second Persian invasion of Greece at Plataea in 479 BC and the beginning of the Peloponnesian War in 431 BC. The term o ... Read »


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    • Perioeci

    • Perioeci

      This article is part of the series:Spartan Constitution The perioeci, or perioikoi, were the members of an autonomous group of free but non-citizen inhabitants of Sparta. Concentrated in the coastal and highland areas of Laconia and Messenia, the name περίοικοι derives from περί, ... Read »


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    • Politeia

    • Politeia (πολιτεία) is an ancient Greek word used in Greek political thought, especially that of Plato and Aristotle. Derived from the word polis ("city-state"), it has a range of meanings, from 'the rights of citizens' to a 'form of government'. According to Liddell and Scott's Greek-Engli ... Read »


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    • Potnia Theron

    • Potnia Theron (Ἡ Πότνια Θηρῶν, "The Mistress of the Animals") is a term first used (once) by Homer (Iliad 21. 470) and often used to describe female divinities associated with animals. The word Potnia, meaning mistress or lady, was a Mycenaean Greek word inherited by Classical Gr ... Read »


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    • Pottery of ancient Greece

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      Ancient Greek pottery, due to its relative durability, comprises a large part of the archaeological record of ancient Greece, and since there is so much of it (over 100,000 vases are recorded in the Corpus vasorum antiquorum), it has exerted a disproportionately large influence on our understanding of Greek society. Th ... Read »


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    • Prostyle

    • Prostyle is an architectural term defining free standing columns across the front of a building, as often in a portico. The term is often used as an adjective when referring to the portico of a classical building which projects from the main structure. First used in Etruscan and Greek temples, the Romans later on incor ... Read »


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    • Ptolemy (name)

    • The name Ptolemy or Ptolemaeus comes from the Greek Ptolemaios, which seems to mean warlike or son of war. There have been many people named Ptolemy or Ptolemaeus, the most famous of whom are the Greek-Egyptian astronomer Claudius Ptolemaeus, and the Macedonian founder and ruler of the Ptolemaic Kingdom in Egypt, Ptole ... Read »


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    • Rise of Macedon

    • Rise of Macedon

      The rise of Macedon, from a small kingdom at the periphery of classical Greek affairs to one which came to dominate the entire Hellenic world (and beyond), occurred in the span of just 25 years, between 359 and 336 BC. This ascendancy is largely attributable to the personality and policies of Philip II (r. 359–336 ... Read »


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    • Running in Ancient Greece

    • In Ancient Greece, the history of running can be traced back to 776 BC. Running was important to members of ancient Greek society, and is consistently highlighted in documents referencing the Olympic Games. The Olympic Games hosted a large variety of running events, each with their own set of rules. The ancient Greeks ... Read »


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    • Sapaeans

    • Sapaeans, Sapaei or Sapaioi (Ancient Greek, "Σαπαίοι") were a Thracian tribe close to the Greek city of Abdera. One of their kings was named Abrupolis and had allied himself with the Romans. They ruled Thrace after the Odrysians until its incorporation by the Roman Empire as a province. ... Read »


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    • Scholarch

    • A scholarch (Ancient Greek: σχολάρχης, scholarchēs) was the head of a school in ancient Greece. The term is especially remembered for its use to mean the heads of schools of philosophy, such as the Platonic Academy in ancient Athens. Its first scholarch was Plato himself, the founder an ... Read »


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    • Sesklo

    • Sesklo culture

      Sesklo (Greek: Σέσκλο) is a village near the city of Volos. Volos is located within the municipality of Aisonia. Aisonia is located within the regional unit of Magnesia. Magnesia is located within the administrative region of Thessaly. Thessaly is located within Greece. This settlement gives its ... Read »


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    • Sortition

    • Not to be confused with Démarche. In governance, sortition (also known as allotment or demarchy) selects officers as a random sample from a larger pool of candidates. In ancient Athenian democracy, sortition was the traditional and primary method for appointing political officials and its use was regarded as a pri ... Read »


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    • Sparta (magazine)

    • ΣPARTA was a semiannual educational magazine dedicated to the ancient Spartan and Greek history, with a readership that mainly represents teachers, historians, re-enactors, and other individuals interested in the history of ancient Greece. The managing editor was Robert Montgomerie. The magazine was published by Ma ... Read »


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    • Spartiate

    • Spartiate

      This article is part of the series:Spartan Constitution The Spartiates (Greek: Σπαρτιάται, "Spartans") or Homoioi (Greek: Ὅμοιοι, "those who are alike"; sing. homoios) were the males of Sparta known to the Spartans as "peers" or "men of equal status". From a young age, ... Read »


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    • Stephane (Ancient Greece)

    • A stephane (ancient Greek Στέφανος, Lat. Stephanus = wreath, decorative wreath worn on the head; crown) was a metal arc, which was like a fancy headband, higher in the center than along the sides, to be set on a female hairstyled or veiled head, which extended down behind the ears. Many of ancie ... Read »


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    • Sycophancy

    • Sycophancy is flattery that is very obedient, or an indication of deference to another, to an excessive or degree. A user of sycophancy is referred to as a sycophant or, more commonly, a "yes-man". Alternative phrases are often used such as: ... Read »


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    • Tabarja

    • Tabarja

      Tabarja is a coastal town in Lebanon, situated in Kesrouan, 56 kilometers north of Beirut. Tabarja's name is possibly a corruption of the Greek, ΠΕΡΙΦΕΡΕΙΑ (PERIF-ER-YA), which means "district headquarters" and was once home to an ancient castle and port which have since been lost to mode ... Read »


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    • Tarra, Crete

    • Tarra or Tarrha (Greek: Τάρρα) was an ancient city-state of western Crete, near the Samaria Gorge, at the village of Agia Roumeli. It is situated near the sea, on the hill. Tarra was probably established in the Classical period and was a very important religious centre. The city flourished in the Greco- ... Read »


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    • Tenarus

    • Tenarus (Ancient Greek: Ταίναρος) was an ancient town of the Peloponnesus, in Laconia (Sparta), on the promontory of Taenarum (modern day Cape Matapan). A cavern near Tenarus was considered the entrance to Hades, through which Heracles dragged Cerberus from the underworld in his 12th labor, a ... Read »


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    • Thracians

    • The Thracians (/ˈθreɪʃənz/; Ancient Greek: Θρᾷκες Thrāikes, Latin: Thraci) were a group of Indo-European tribes inhabiting a large area in southeastern Europe. They spoke the Thracian language – a scarcely attested branch of the Indo-European language family. The study of T ... Read »


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    • Toumba

    • In archaeology the term Toumba stands for mounds covering Bronze and early Iron Age settlements in Greece. At first they were considered as Grave hills, hence the name that derived from the word Tomb. However excavations showed that they are not tombs but structures like settlements, religious centers, or homes located ... Read »


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    • Towns of ancient Greece

    • The archetypical settlement in ancient Greece was the self-governing city state called the polis, but other types of settlement occurred. A kome was typically a village that was also a political unit. The translation is inexact, but according to Thucydides, Sparta, though it was a polis, resembled four unwalled vi ... Read »


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    • Vouraikos

    • The Vouraikos (Greek: Βουραϊκός) is a river in Achaea, Greece. In ancient times it was called Erasinos. Its source is in the Aroania mountains, near the village of Priolithos. It flows past the towns of Kalavryta and Diakopto, and flows into the Gulf of Corinth near Diakopto. Its length is 40 ... Read »


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    • Wilfred Harvey Schoff

    • Wilfred Harvey Schoff (1874–1932) was an early twentieth century American antiquarian and classical scholar. Schoff was responsible for translating a number of important ancient texts. Among these works was the 1st century CE Greco-Roman Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, as well as the Carthaginian Periplus of Hann ... Read »


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    • Sixteen Women

    • Pausanias, in his Description of Greece (c. 175 CE), refers to "the Sixteen Women", who wove a robe for Hera every four years as part of the Heraean Games. Pausanias offers two stories to explain the origin of the Sixteen: firstly that they were assembled "out of gratitude to Hera for her marriage with Pelops" by Hippo ... Read »


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    • Xenos (Greek)

    • Xenos (Greek: ξένος, xénos, plural xenoi) is a word used in the Greek language from Homer onwards. The most standard definition is "stranger". However, the word, itself, can be interpreted to mean different things based upon context, author and period of writing/speaking, signifying such divergent con ... Read »


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    • Zaeelii

    • Zaeelii is the name of an ancient tribe in Northern Greece known only from silver coins bearing the name. This class of coins may be comparated with that issued by the rude Thraco-Macedonian tribes, such as the Orrescii and Zaeelii. In both cases the possession of silver mines prompted barbarous peoples to issue coin a ... Read »


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    • Zakoros

    • Zakoros is a word which pertains to individuals of the culture of ancient Greece. According to one source the word was used in two senses. In the first sense, and depending in some part on a translation of the word, the zakoros are understood to be people who participated in activities within temples, to sweep and cle ... Read »


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  • What Else?

    • Ancient Greece

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