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    Ancient Egypt

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    • Achaemenid Egypt

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    • Ancient Egypt-related lists

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    • Ancient Egyptians

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    • Ancient Jewish Egyptian history

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    • Archaeological sites in Egypt

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    • Ancient Egyptian architecture

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    • Ancient Egyptian culture

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    • Dynasties of ancient Egypt

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    • Egyptology

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    • Foreign contacts of ancient Egypt

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    • Geography of ancient Egypt

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    • Historians of ancient Egypt

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    • Kemetism

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    • Ancient Egyptian King lists

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    • Ancient Egyptian language

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    • Ancient Egyptian medicine

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    • Military history of ancient Egypt

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    • Nomes of ancient Egypt

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    • Ancient Egypt in popular culture

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    • Predynastic Egypt

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    • Ancient Egyptian science

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    • Ancient Egyptian society

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    • Works about Ancient Egypt

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    • Ancient Egypt stubs

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    • Ancient Egypt

    • Near East (c. 3300–1200 BC) South Asia (c. 3000– 1200 BC) Europe (c. 3200–600 BC) China (c. 2000–700 BC) arsenical bronzewriting, literaturesword, chariot Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now the m ... Read »


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    • Outline of ancient Egypt

    • The following outline is provided as an overview of a topical guide to ancient Egypt: Ancient Egypt – ancient civilization of eastern North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now the modern country of Egypt. Egyptian civilization coalesced around 3150 BCE (according to co ... Read »


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    • Cities of the ancient Near East

    • The earliest cities in history appear in the ancient Near East. The area of the ancient Near East covers roughly that of the modern Middle East; its history begins in the 4th millennium BC and ends, depending on the interpretation of the term, either with the conquest by the Achaemenid Empire in the 6th century BC or t ... Read »


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    • History of ancient Egypt

    • The history of ancient Egypt spans the period from the early prehistoric settlements of the northern Nile valley to the Roman conquest, in 30 BC. The Pharaonic Period is dated from the 32nd century BC, when Upper and Lower Egypt were unified, until the country fell under Macedonian rule, in 332 BC. Egypt's history ... Read »


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    • List of ancient Egyptian sites

    • This is a list of ancient Egyptian sites, throughout all of Egypt and Nubia. Sites are listed by their classical name whenever possible, if not by their modern name, and lastly with their ancient name if no other is available. A nome is a subnational administrative division of Ancient Egypt. The area from about A ... Read »


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    • List of ancient Egyptian towns and cities

    • This is a list of known ancient Egyptian towns and cities. The list is for sites intended for permanent settlement and does not include fortresses and other locations of intermittent habitation. ... Read »


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    • 4.2 kiloyear event

    • The 4.2 kiloyear BP aridification event was one of the most severe climatic events of the Holocene period. Starting in about 2200 BC, it probably lasted the entire 22nd century BC. The drought may have initiated southeastward habitat tracking within the Indus Valley Civilization. The 4.2 kiloyear BP event has been ... Read »


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    • 5.9 kiloyear event

    • The 5.9 kiloyear event was one of the most intense aridification events during the Holocene Epoch. It occurred around 3900 BC (5900 years Before Present) and ended the Neolithic Subpluvial and probably initiating the most recent desiccation of the Sahara, as well a five century period of colder climate in more northerl ... Read »


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    • Abadiyeh, Egypt

    • Abadiyeh is a place in Egypt situated about a dozen miles west of Denderch. W. M. Flinders Petrie was assisted with excavations by David Randall-MacIver and Arthur Cruttenden Mace, these having been done on the behalf of the Egyptian Exploration Fund (EEF). The excavations, considered in totality, consisted of sit ... Read »


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    • Achaemenid Empire

    • Achaemenid Empire

      Standard of Cyrus the Great The Achaemenid Empire (/əˈkiːmənɪd/, from Old Persian HaxāmaniÅ¡iya,c. 550–330 BC), also called the (First) Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great. At its greatest extent from the Balkans to the Indus Valley, it was one of th ... Read »


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    • Amarna Era

    • The Amarna period includes the reigns of Akhenaten, Smenkhkare, [http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/tutankhamun.shtml Tutankhamun and Ay Ay. The period is named after the capital city established by Akhenaten, son of Amenhotep III. Akhenaten started his reign as Amenhotep IV, but changed his name when he dis ... Read »


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    • Ancient Egyptian agriculture

    • The civilization of Ancient Egypt was indebted to the Nile River and its dependable seasonal flooding. The river’s predictability and the fertile soil allowed the Egyptians to build an empire on the basis of great agricultural wealth. Egyptians are credited as being one of the first groups of people to practice ag ... Read »


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    • Ancient Egyptian retainer sacrifices

    • Ancient Egyptian retainer sacrifice is a type of human sacrifice in which pharaohs and occasionally other high court nobility would have servants killed after the pharaohs' deaths to continue to serve them in the afterlife. In Egypt, retainer sacrifice only existed during the First Dynasty, from about 3100 BC to 2900 B ... Read »


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    • Annals of Thutmose III

    • The Annals of Thutmose III are composed of numerous inscriptions of ancient Egyptian military records gathered from the 18th dynasty campaigns of Thutmose III's armies in Syro-Palestine, from regnal years 22 (1458 BCE) to 42 (1438 BCE). These recordings can be found on the inside walls of the chamber housing the "holy ... Read »


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    • Antirhodos

    • Antirhodos

      Antirhodos (sometimes Antirrhodos or Anti Rhodes) was an island in the eastern harbor of Alexandria, Egypt, on which a Ptolemaic palace was sited. The island was occupied until the reigns of Septimius Severus and Caracalla and it probably sank in the 4th century, when it succumbed to earthquakes and a tsunami following ... Read »


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    • Beauty and cosmetics in ancient Egypt


    • Biblical Egypt

    • Biblical Egypt is Ancient Egypt as it appears within the narrative of the Hebrew Bible, especially the Torah (Pentateuch). Egypt plays a central role in the narrative of the Torah from Abraham to Moses and the Exodus. The Books of Genesis and Exodus describe a period of Hebrew servitude in Egypt, from their settlement ... Read »


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    • Bident

    • A bident is a two-pronged implement resembling a pitchfork. In classical mythology, the bident is a weapon associated with Hades, the ruler of the underworld. Likewise, the three-pronged trident is the implement of Poseidon (Neptune), god of the seas and earthquakes, and the lightning bolt, which superficially looks as ... Read »


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    • Cemetery GIS

    • Cemetery GIS is a necropolis in the Giza Plateau. It derives its name from its proximity to pyramid G I (Khufu). The tombs are located on the south side of that pyramid and hence the name G I South Cemetery. Reisner thought the cemetery a continuation of the G7000 cemetery which is part of the Giza East Field. The cons ... Read »


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    • Egyptian blue

    • Egyptian blue

      Egyptian blue, also known as calcium copper silicate (CaCuSi4O10 or CaOCuO(SiO2)4) or cuprorivaite, is a pigment used in ancient Egypt for thousands of years. It is considered to be the first synthetic pigment. It was known to the Romans by the name caeruleum – from which the English word cerulean derives. After t ... Read »


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    • Egyptian–Hittite peace treaty


    • Clothing in ancient Egypt

    • Ancient Egyptian clothes refers to clothing worn in ancient Egypt from the end of the Neolithic period (prior to 3100 BC) to the collapse of the Ptolemaic dynasty with the death of Cleopatra VII in 30 BC. Egyptian clothing was filled with a variety of colors. Adorned with precious gems and jewels, the fashions of the A ... Read »


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    • Festival Songs of Isis and Nephthys

    • The Songs of Isis and Nephthys. A work probably not older than the XXVIth Dynasty; the author is unknown. It forms part of the funeral hieratic papyrus of Nesi Ámsu (No. 10158 in the British Museum). The title is “The Verses of the Festival of the two Zerti,” and the papyrus tells us it was to be sung by t ... Read »


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    • First Intermediate Period of Egypt

    • First Intermediate Period of Egypt

      The First Intermediate Period, often described as a "dark period" in ancient Egyptian history, spanned approximately one hundred twenty-five years, from ca. 2181–2055 BC, after the end of the Old Kingdom. It included the seventh, eighth, ninth, tenth, and part of the eleventh dynasties. Very little monumental evid ... Read »


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    • Gardens of ancient Egypt

    • The gardens of ancient Egypt probably began as simple fruit orchards and vegetable gardens, irrigated with water from the Nile. Gradually as the country became richer, they evolved into pleasure gardens, with flowers, ponds and alleys of fruit and shade trees. Temples, palaces, and private residences had their own gard ... Read »


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    • Giza East Field

    • The East Field is located to the east of Khufu’s pyramid and contains cemetery G 7000. This cemetery was a burial place for some of the family members of Khufu. The cemetery also includes mastabas from tenants and priests of the pyramids dated to the 5th dynasty and 6th dynasty. The East Field consists of the thr ... Read »


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    • Giza West Field

    • The Giza West Field is located on the Giza Plateau, to the west of the Pharaoh Khufu’s pyramid. It is divided up into smaller areas, such as the cemeteries referred to as the Abu Bakr Excavations (1949-50, 1950-1,1952 and 1953), and several cemeteries named based on the mastaba numbers such as Cemetery G 1000, Cem ... Read »


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    • The Greatest Pharaohs

    • The Greatest Pharaohs is a 1997 American educational documentary film about Ancient Egypt distributed by A&E and narrated by Frank Langella with commentary by experts in the field. It is 200 minutes long and split into four parts, with each part explaining the lives of four Egyptian pharaohs. The film uses intervi ... Read »


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    • History of Persian Egypt

    • The history of Persian Egypt is divided into three eras: Egypt was a rich country, and the Persians had coveted it for more than a millennium. It had been conquered twice by the Achaemenids (525–404 and 343–332 bce, until Alexander's conquest), but the stable and powerful Ptolemaic kingdom, and then the Roma ... Read »


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    • How the ancient Egyptians divided water

    • An ancient document called the Westcar Papyrus illuminates how the ancient Egyptians believed they could divide water in lakes and the Nile River. Westcar Papyrus|The Westcar Papyrus (also known as "Three Tales of Wonder from the Court of King Khufu") is composed of twelve rolls of papyrus written during the Hyksos pe ... Read »


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    • Origins of the Hyksos

    • The Hyksos, a people that constituted the fifteenth dynasty of Egypt were of non-Egyptian origin. Most archaeologists describe the Hyksos as a mixed, West Asian people. While the term "Asiatic", is often used of the Hyksos, in the context of Ancient Egypt, it refers to any people native to areas east of Egypt. West As ... Read »


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    • Index of ancient Egypt-related articles

    • Articles related to ancient Egypt include: ... Read »


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    • King's Highway (ancient)


    • Land reform in ancient Egypt

    • Land ownership in ancient Egypt cycled between private, monarch and feudal. A strong king could take advantage of harsh situations such as famine, buy lands from private owners and make them a property of the crown. A weaker king would have to buy services from strong lords by giving them gifts of land. Pirenne disting ... Read »


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    • Mastaba

    • A mastaba (/ˈmæstəbə/,/ˈmɑːstɑːbɑː/ or /mɑːˈstɑːbɑː/) or "pr-djt" (meaning "house for eternity" or "eternal house" in Ancient Egyptian), is a type of ancient Egyptian tomb in the form of a flat-roofed, rectangular structure with inward sloping sides, constructed out ... Read »


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    • Mersa Gawasis

    • Mersa Gawasis (Ancient Egyptian Saww) is a small Egyptian harbour on the Red Sea and a former Egyptian port city. The harbour lies at the mouth of Wadi Gawasis, 2 km south of the mouth of Wadi Gasus. 25 km north is the city of Safaga and 50 km south al-Qusair. The place was apparently used as a port in the re ... Read »


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    • Migdol

    • Migdol, or migdal, is a Hebrew word (מגדּלה מגדּל, מגדּל מגדּול) which means either a tower (from its size or height), an elevated stage (a rostrum or pulpit), or a raised bed (within a river). Physically, it can mean fortified land, i.e. a walled city o ... Read »


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    • Min (ship)

    • The Min is a modern working copy of an Ancient Egyptian ship of Hatshepsut's time, built for the BBC documentary The Pharaoh Who Conquered the Sea. It was named after the Egyptian fertility god Min. ... Read »


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    • Naharin

    • Naharin, MdC transliteration nhrn, was the Ancient Egyptian term for the kingdom of Mitanni during the New Kingdom period of the 18th Dynasty. The New Kingdom 18th dynasty was in conflict with the kingdom of Mitanni for control of the Levant from the reigns of Thutmose I, Thutmose III  and Amenhotep II. Amenhotep ... Read »


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    • Neo-Assyrian Empire


    • Nile boat

    • The Nile River is a major resource for the people living along it, especially thousands of years ago. The El Salha Archaeological Project discovered an abundance of evidence of an ancient boat that traveled the Nile River dating back to 3,000 years ago. Pictographs and pebble carvings were uncovered, indicating a boat ... Read »


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    • Nile Valley Civilizations

    • The term Nile Valley Civilizations is sometimes used in Afrocentrism or Pan-Africanism to group a number of interrelated and interlocking, regionally distinct cultures that formed along the length of the Nile Valley from its headwaters in Ethiopia and Sudan to its mouth in the Mediterranean Sea. Introduced around 1970 ... Read »


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    • Noph

    • Noph or Moph was the Hebrew name for the ancient Egyptian city of Memphis, which stood on the Nileear the site of modern-day Cairo. It is mentioned several times in the Hebrew Bible (Isaiah 19:13; Jeremiah 2:16; 44:1; 46:14, 19; Ezekiel. 30:13, 16). ... Read »


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    • North City, Amarna

    • The North City was an administrative area in the Ancient Egyptian city of Amarna in Upper Egypt, the short-lived capital of Pharaoh Akhenaten of the 18th Dynasty. It contains the ruins of royal palaces, especially the Northern Palace and other administrative buildings and occupies an area between the river and the clif ... Read »


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    • Ovis longipes palaeoaegyptiacus

    • Ovis longipes palaeo-aegyptiacus is a type of the extinct wild barbary sheep found in the ancient Southern Egypt and Nubia. The ovacaprines were domesticated and often depicted on the stone tomb murals of the pharaohs for religious or aesthetic purposes. Ovis longipes palaeo-aegyptiacus was one of the two most commonly ... Read »


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    • Pharaohs in the Bible

    • The Bible makes reference to various pharaohs (פַּרְעֹה‎, /paʁˈʕo/) of Egypt. These include unnamed pharaohs in the accounts of the Israelite settlement in Egypt, the subsequent oppression of the Israelites, and during the period of the Exodus, as well as a number of later rulers. ... Read »


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    • Pharaonic Tayma inscription

    • The Pharaonic Tayma inscription is a hieroglyphic petroglyph near the oasis of Tayma in Tabuk province. It was discovered by local archaeologists in 2010. The rock engraving was found around 400 km north of Madinah and northeast of the ancient Nabatean site of Madain Saleh. It marks the first confirmed hieroglyphic ... Read »


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    • Interregnum queen

    • An interregnum queen is ideally the Great Royal Wife of a former Egyptian pharaoh, according to a 1932 report. In this given scenario, she effectively rules as regent in the place of her son until he reaches the age to assume the role of pharaoh. As it stands, the son is already presumed to be the de jure pharaoh, shar ... Read »


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    • Ancient Egyptian race controversy

    • The question of the race of ancient Egyptians was raised historically as a product of the early racial concepts of the 18th and 19th centuries, and was linked to models of racial hierarchy primarily based on craniometry, anthropometry and genetics. A variety of views circulated about the racial identity of the Egyptian ... Read »


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    • Black Egyptian hypothesis

    • The Black Egyptian hypothesis is the hypothesis that Ancient Egypt was a predominately Black civilization, as the term is currently understood in modern American ethic perception. Mainstream scholars recognize that many indigenous Egyptians (e.g. Nubians), including several Pharaohs, were of ancestry that, in the moder ... Read »


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    • Rope stretcher

    • In ancient Egypt, a rope stretcher (or harpedonaptai) was a surveyor who measured real property demarcations and foundations using knotted cords, stretched so the rope did not sag. When performed by a king to begin building a temple the stretching of the rope was probably a religious ceremony. On artefacts as ancient a ... Read »


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    • Rosemarie and Dietrich Klemm Collection

    • The Rosemarie and Dietrich Klemm Collection, deposited in the British Museum in London, consists of thousands of rock samples from the sites of Egyptian quarries. The collection was formed by the Egyptologist Rosemarie Klemm and the geologist Dietrich D. Klemm, both at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich. Compari ... Read »


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    • Sea Peoples

    • The Sea Peoples were a purported seafaring confederation of groups known to have attacked ancient Egypt prior to the Late Bronze Age collapse. Following the creation of the concept in the nineteenth century, it became one of the most famous chapters of Egyptian history, given its connection with, in the words of Wilhel ... Read »


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    • Sebakh

    • Sebakh (less commonly transliterated as sebbakh) is an Aramaic word which translates to "dry land" in English. This term is used to describe decomposed organic material that can be employed both as an agricultural fertilizer and as a fuel for fires. Most sebakh consists of ancient, deteriorated mud brick. Mud bric ... Read »


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    • Shendyt

    • The shendyt was a kilt-like garment worn in ancient Egypt. It was made of cloth and was worn around the waist, typically extending to above the knees. Shendyts are depicted on pharaohs, deities, and commoners in a variety of situations in Egyptian artwork. The shendyt may have been an adaptation of early hunting skirt ... Read »


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    • Slavery in ancient Egypt

    • Slavery in Ancient Egypt was established in the New Kingdom (1550-1175 BCE), with slaves along with servants and peasants making up 80% of the population. Interpretation of the textual evidence of slaves in Ancient Egypt is indistinct and has been difficult to differentiate between “slave” and “servantâ ... Read »


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    • Therapeutae

    • The Therapeutae were a Jewish sect which flourished in Alexandria and other parts of the Diaspora of Hellenistic Judaism in the final years of the Second Temple period. The primary source concerning the Therapeutae is the account De vita contemplativa ("The Contemplative Life"), purportedly by the Jewish philosopher Ph ... Read »


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    • Thinite Confederacy

    • Thinite Confederacy

      The Thinite Confederacy is an Egyptological term for a hypothesized tribal confederation in Ancient Egypt. It is thought to have preceded the full unification of Upper Egypt c. 3100 BC. The leaders of the Thinite Confederacy were most likely tribal nobles. Based at the city of Thinis, the Thinite Confederacy would ... Read »


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    • Jonathan Tokeley-Parry

    • Jonathan Tokeley-Parry is a British restorer and who is notable for smuggling more than 3000 pieces of Egyptian antiquities out of Egypt by disguising them as reproductions. It has been reported that Tokeley-Parry changed his name from Jonathan Foreman. ... Read »


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    • Tryphé


    • Tulle bi telli

    • Tulle-bi-telli, also known as Assuit after Assuit where it is made, is a textile marrying cotton or linen mesh with small strips of metal, with its origins dating back to Ancient Egypt. Other spellings include assuite, asyut, assyut, asyute, and azute. The name translates roughly as "net with metal". Assuit has gr ... Read »


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    • Tutankhamun's meteoric iron dagger blade


    • Urban planning in ancient Egypt

    • The use of urban planning in ancient Egypt is a matter of continuous debate. Because ancient sites usually survive only in fragments, and many ancient Egyptian cities have been continuously inhabited since their original forms, relatively little is actually understood about the general designs of Egyptian towns for any ... Read »


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    • Uronarti

    • Uronarti

      Uronarti was an ancient Egyptian fortress that was located on an island on the Nile River. It was located near the Second Cataract, specifically to the south of it. It stands out from the other fortresses because of its triangular-shaped geography. It is believed to be constructed during the Middle Kingdom (19th centur ... Read »


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    • Wah-Sut

    • Wah-Sut

      C.T. Currelly and Arthur Weigall1901-1903 Wah-Sut (Wah-sut-Khakaure-maa-kheru-em-Abdju- Enduring-are-the-places-of-Khakaure-justified-in-Abydos) is a cult town south of Abydos in Middle Egypt. Baisedon the name, we know that the town saw built to be an outlying part of Abydos. The town itself was built by the Egyptian ... Read »


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    • Whdw

    • Whdw is a term for something understood within Ancient Egyptian culture. According to one source the term refers to a process of decay within the lower intestine, i.e. it refers to Feces within the bowels. Steuer and Bertrand de Cusance Morant Saunders contend that the term is more difficult to translate, and offer al ... Read »


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    • Women in ancient Egypt

    • Women in ancient Egypt had a status that significantly contrasts the status of many modern women because they occupied power in ways that women commonly do not in contemporary societies. Although men and women in Egypt had traditionally distinct powers in society, there was no insurmountable barrier in front of those w ... Read »


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    • All Gizah Pyramids.jpg


    • All Gizah Pyramids.jpg


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    • Ancient Egypt

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