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    Aesthetics

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    • Aesthetics publications

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    • Ancient Greek aesthetics

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    • Aniconism

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    • Art criticism

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    • Art genres

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    • Concepts in aesthetics

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    • Design

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    • Film theory

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    • Grotesque

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    • Gustation

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    • Human appearance

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    • Japanese aesthetics

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    • Literary criticism

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    • Movements in aesthetics

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    • New Criticism

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    • Philosophers of art

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    • Philosophy of music

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    • Phonaesthetics

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    • Symmetry

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    • Theories of aesthetics

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    • Visual arts theory

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    • Outline of aesthetics

    • The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to aesthetics: Aesthetics – branch of philosophy and axiology concerned with the nature of beauty. Aesthetics can be described as all of the following: more... more... ... Read »


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    • Acquired taste

    • An acquired taste is an appreciation for something unlikely to be enjoyed by a person who has not had substantial exposure to it. In the case of food and drink, this may be due to a strong odor (such as stinky tofu, Gefilte fish, durian, hákarl, black salt, nattō, stinking toe, asafoetida, surströmming, or cer ... Read »


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    • Aesthetic atrophy

    • Aesthetic atrophy is the diminished capacity to appreciate new or unfamiliar music or other sensory stimuli. It is typically accompanied by the sufferer's retreat to familiar and comfortable works. ... Read »


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    • The Aesthetic Dimension

    • The Aesthetic Dimension: Towards a Critique of Marxist Aesthetics

      The Aesthetic Dimension: Toward a Critique of Marxist Aesthetics (German: Die Permanenz der Kunst: Wider eine bestimmte marxistische Ästhetik) is a 1977 book on aesthetics by philosopher Herbert Marcuse, in which Marcuse provides an account of modern art's political implications and relationship with society at larg ... Read »


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    • Aesthetic relativism

    • Aesthetic relativism is the philosophical view that the judgment of beauty is relative to different individuals and/or cultures and that there are no universal criteria of beauty. For example, in historical terms, the female form as depicted in the Venus of Willendorf and the women in the paintings of Rubens would toda ... Read »


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    • Aesthetic Theory

    • Aesthetic Theory

      Aesthetic Theory (German: Ästhetische Theorie) is a book by the German philosopher Theodor Adorno, which was culled from drafts written between 1961 and 1969 and ultimately published posthumously in 1970. Although anchored by the philosophical study of art, the book is interdisciplinary and incorporates elements of ... Read »


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    • Aestheticism

    • Aestheticism (also the Aesthetic Movement) is an intellectual and art movement supporting the emphasis of aesthetic values more than social-political themes for literature, fine art, music and other arts. This meant that Art from this particular movement focused more on being beautiful rather than having a deeper meani ... Read »


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    • Aestheticization of politics

    • The aestheticization of politics was an idea first coined by Walter Benjamin as being a key ingredient to Fascist regimes. In this theory, life and the affairs of living are conceived of as innately artistic, and related to as such politically. Politics are in turn viewed as artistic, and structured like an art form wh ... Read »


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    • Aestheticization of violence

    • The aestheticization of violence in high culture art or mass media has been the subject of considerable controversy and debate for centuries. In Western art, graphic depictions of the Passion of Christ have long been portrayed, as have a wide range of depictions of warfare by later painters and graphic artists. Theater ... Read »


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    • Aesthetics

    • Aesthetics (/ɛsˈθɛtɪks/; also spelled æsthetics and esthetics also known in Greek as Αισθητική, or "Aisthētiké") is a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty. It is more scientifically defined ... Read »


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    • Aesthetics of music

    • In the pre-modern tradition, the aesthetics of music or musical aesthetics explored the mathematical and cosmological dimensions of rhythmic and harmonic organization. In the eighteenth century, focus shifted to the experience of hearing music, and thus to questions about its beauty and human enjoyment (plaisir and jou ... Read »


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    • Aesthetics of nature

    • Aesthetics of nature is a sub-field of philosophical ethics, and refers to the study of natural objects from their aesthetical perspective. Aesthetics of nature developed as a sub-field of philosophical ethics. In the 18th and 19th century, the aesthetics of nature advanced the concepts of disinterestedness, the p ... Read »


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    • Affect (philosophy)

    • Affect (from Latin affectus or adfectus) is a concept, used in the philosophy of Baruch Spinoza and elaborated by Henri Bergson, Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari, that places emphasis on bodily experience. For Spinoza, as discussed in Parts Two and Three of his Ethics, affects are states of mind and body related to ... Read »


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    • African aesthetic

    • While the African continent is vast and its peoples diverse, certain standards of beauty and correctness in artistic expression and physical appearance are held in common among various African societies. Taken collectively, these values and standards have been characterised as comprising a generally accepted African ... Read »


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    • Afro-Surrealism

    • Afro-Surrealism or Afrosurrealism is a literary and cultural aesthetic that is a response to mainstream surrealism in order to reflect the lived experience of people of color. First coined by Amiri Baraka, this movement focuses on the present day experience of African Americans. Much of Afro-Surrealism is based on the ... Read »


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    • American Society for Aesthetics

    • American Society for Aesthetics (ASA) is a philosophical organization founded in 1942 to promote the study of aesthetics. The ASA sponsors national and regional conferences, and publishes the Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, the American Society for Aesthetics Graduate Ejournal, and the ASA Newsletter. The orga ... Read »


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    • Aniconism

    • Aniconism is the absence of material representations of the natural and supernatural world in various cultures, particularly in the monotheistic Abrahamic religions. It may extend from only God and deities to saint characters, all living beings, and everything that exists. The phenomenon is generally codified by the re ... Read »


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    • Applied aesthetics

    • Applied aesthetics is the application of the branch of philosophy of aesthetics to cultural constructs. Although structural integrity, cost, the nature of building materials, and the functional utility of the building contribute heavily to the design process, architects can still apply aesthetic considerations to buil ... Read »


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    • Architectural design values

    • Architectural design values make up an important part of what influences architects and designers when they make their design decisions. However, architects and designers are not always influenced by the same values and intentions. Value and intentions differ between different architectural movements. It also differs b ... Read »


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    • Philosophy of architecture

    • Philosophy of Architecture is a branch of philosophy of art, dealing with aesthetic value of architecture, its semantics and relations with development of culture. Plato, whose influence on architecture is widely documented (e.g., 'idealism', 'neo-Platonic' architecture), may be counted as part of a classical geom ... Read »


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    • Art

    • Art is a diverse range of human activities in creating visual, auditory or performing artifacts (artworks), expressing the author's imaginative or technical skill, intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power. In their most general form these activities include the production of works of art, the crit ... Read »


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    • Art and emotion

    • In psychology of art, the relationship between art and emotion has newly been the subject of extensive study thanks to the intervention of esteemed art historian Alexander Nemerov. Emotional or aesthetic responses to art have previously been viewed as basic stimulus response, but new theories and research have suggeste ... Read »


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    • Art and morality

    • Art and morality have been discussed, compared and linked for as long as they have been identified as concepts. In the Republic,Plato saw the function of the actor as bogus, presenting a dangerous illusion of reality, and masking the truth of existence by the pretence of acting. Aristotle, in The Poetics, saw the role ... Read »


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    • Art criticism

    • Art criticism is the discussion or evaluation of visual art.Art critics usually criticise art in the context of aesthetics or the theory of beauty. A goal of art criticism is the pursuit of a rational basis for art appreciation but it is questionable whether such criticism can transcend prevailing socio-political circu ... Read »


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    • List of art critics

    • This incomplete list of art critics enumerates persons who had or have a significant part of their known creative output in the form of art criticism, which consists mostly of the written discussion and aesthetic evaluation of works of art. There is no official list of art critics, the compilation of which is compound ... Read »


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    • Art for art's sake


    • Artist

    • An artist is a person engaged in one or more of any of a broad spectrum of activities related to creating art, practicing the arts or demonstrating an art. The common usage in both everyday speech and academic discourse is a practitioner in the visual arts only. The term is often used in the entertainment business, esp ... Read »


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    • Artistic inspiration

    • Inspiration (from the Latin inspirare, meaning "to breathe into") refers to an unconscious burst of creativity in a literary, musical, or other artistic endeavour. The concept has origins in both Hellenism and Hebraism. The Greeks believed that inspiration or "enthusiasm" came from the muses, as well as the gods Apollo ... Read »


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    • Artistic merit

    • Artistic merit is a term that is used in relation to cultural products when referring to the judgment of their perceived quality or value as works of art. Criticism of virtually any art form – be it music, film, literature, or painting – centers on the concept of artistic merit, which different critics can h ... Read »


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    • The arts and politics

    • A strong relationship between the arts and politics, particularly between various kinds of art and power, occurs across historical epochs and cultures. As they respond to existing at or occurring in the same period of time. events and politics, the arts take on political as well as social dimensions, becoming themselve ... Read »


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    • Arts criticism

    • Arts criticism is the process of describing, analyzing, interpreting, and judging works of art. It is distinct from art criticism (which focuses on visual arts) due to its broader remit. The disciplines of arts criticism can be defined by the object being considered rather than the methodology (through analysis of its ... Read »


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    • Ashta Nayika

    • The Ashta-Nayika is a collective name for eight types of nayikas or heroines as classified by Bharata in his Sanskrit treatise on performing arts - Natya Shastra. The eight nayikas represent eight different states (avastha) in relationship to her hero or nayaka. As archetypal states of the romantic heroine, it has been ... Read »


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    • Attractiveness

    • Attractiveness or attraction is a quality that causes an interest or desire in something or someone. The term attraction may also refer to the object of the attraction itself, as in tourist attraction. Visual attractiveness or visual appeal is attraction produced primarily by visual stimuli. Physical attractivene ... Read »


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    • Authenticity (philosophy)

    • Authenticity is a technical term used in psychology as well as existentialist philosophy and aesthetics (in regard to various arts and musical genres). In existentialism, authenticity is the degree to which one is true to one's own personality, spirit, or character, despite external pressures; the conscious self is see ... Read »


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    • Authenticity in art

    • Authenticity in art is the different ways in which a work of art or an artistic performance may be considered authentic.Denis Dutton distinguishes between nominal authenticity and expressive authenticity. The first refers to the correct identification of the author of a work of art, to how closely a performance of a pl ... Read »


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    • British Society of Aesthetics

    • The British Society of Aesthetics (BSA) is a philosophical organization founded in 1960 to promote the study of aesthetics. The BSA sponsors national and regional conferences, and publishes the British Journal of Aesthetics, as well as a newsletter. The organization also funds projects that promote the goals of the BSA ... Read »


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    • Chess aesthetics

    • Chess aesthetics or beauty in chess is generally appreciated by both players and composers. This is evident, for example, in brilliancy prizes awarded to some games in certain tournaments and also in the world of chess composition. There are many books published featuring chess problems or puzzles that emphasize its ae ... Read »


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    • Circassian beauties

    • Circassian beauties is a phrase used to refer to an idealized image of the women of the Circassian people of the Northwestern Caucasus. A fairly extensive literary history suggests that Circassian women were thought to be unusually beautiful, spirited, and elegant, and as such were desirable as concubines. This reputa ... Read »


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    • The Climax (illustration)

    • The Climax is an 1893 illustration by Aubrey Beardsley (1872–1898), a leading artist of the Decadent (1880-1900) and Aesthetic movements. It depicts a scene from Oscar Wilde's play Salome, in which the femme fatale Salome has just kissed the severed head of John the Baptist, which she grasps in her hands. Elements ... Read »


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    • Communication aesthetics

    • Communication Aesthetics was devised by Mario Costa and Fred Forest at Mercato San Severino in Italy in 1983. It is a theory of aesthetics calling for artistic practise engaging with and working through the developments, evolutions and paradigms of late twentieth century communications technologies. Observing the emerg ... Read »


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    • Conceptual art

    • Conceptual art, sometimes simply called conceptualism, is art in which the concept(s) or idea(s) involved in the work take precedence over traditional aesthetic and material concerns. Some works of conceptual art, sometimes called installations, may be constructed by anyone simply by following a set of written instruct ... Read »


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    • Critique

    • Critique is a of disciplined, systematic analysis of a written or oral discourse. Although critique is commonly understood as fault finding and negative judgment, it can also involve merit recognition, and in the philosophical tradition it also means a methodical practice of doubt. The contemporary sense of critique h ... Read »


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    • Cultural sensibility

    • Cultural sensibility refers to how sensibility ("openness to emotional impressions, susceptibility and sensitiveness") relates to a person’s moral, emotional or aesthetic ideas or standards. The term should not be confused with the more common term "cultural sensitivity". ... Read »


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    • Sara Danius

    • Sara Danius

      Sara Maria Danius (born 5 April 1962 in Täby) is a Swedish scholar of literature and aesthetics. Danius is Professor of Aesthetics at Södertörn University and Docent of Literature at Uppsala University. Danius graduated from in 1986. She received her Master of Arts in Critical Theory at the University of Not ... Read »


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    • Depiction

    • Depiction is reference conveyed through pictures. Basically a picture refers to its object through a non-linguistic two-dimensional scheme. A picture is not writing or notation. A depictive two-dimensional scheme is called a picture plane and may be constructed according to descriptive geometry where they are usually d ... Read »


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    • Philosophy of design

    • Philosophy of design is the study of assumptions, foundations, and implications of design. The field is defined by an interest in a set of problems, or an interest in central or foundational concerns in design. In addition to these central problems for design as a whole, many philosophers of design consider these probl ... Read »


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    • Ecstasy (emotion)

    • Ecstasy (from Ancient Greek ἔκστασις ékstasis) is a subjective experience of total involvement of the subject, with an object of his or her awareness. In classical Greek literature it refers to removal of the mind or body "from its normal place of function". Total involvement with an objec ... Read »


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    • Erotic art

    • Erotic art covers any artistic work that is intended to evoke erotic arousal or that depicts scenes of love-making. It includes drawings, engravings, films, music, paintings, photographs, sculptures and writing. Defining erotic art is difficult since perceptions of both what is erotic and what is art fluctuate. A ... Read »


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    • Escapism

    • Escapism is the avoidance of unpleasant, boring, arduous, scary, or banal aspects of daily life. It can also be used as a term to define the actions people take to help relieve persisting feelings of depression or general sadness. Entire industries have sprung up to foster a growing tendency of people to remove th ... Read »


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    • Everyday Aesthetics

    • Everyday Aesthetics is a recent subfield of philosophical aesthetics focusing on everyday events, settings and activities in which the faculty of sensibility is saliently at stake. Alexander Baumgarten established Aesthetics as a discipline and defined it as scientia cognitionis sensitivae, the science of sensory knowl ... Read »


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    • Evolutionary aesthetics

    • Evolutionary aesthetics refers to evolutionary psychology theories in which the basic aesthetic preferences of Homo sapiens are argued to have evolved in order to enhance survival and reproductive success. Based on this theory, things like color preference, preferred mate body ratios, shapes, emotional ties with objec ... Read »


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    • Experimental aesthetics

    • Experimental aesthetics is a field of psychology founded by Gustav Theodor Fechner in the 19th century. According to Fechner, aesthetics is an experiential perception which is empirically comprehensible in light of the characteristics of the subject undergoing the experience and those of the object. Experimental aesthe ... Read »


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    • Expression (architecture)

    • Expression (Lat. expressio) in architecture implies a clear and authentic displaying of the character or personality of an individual (architect). The expression is often identified with the architectural movement of expressionism, whose main starting point and aim is to present and express what has been „seen†... Read »


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    • Eyesore

    • An eyesore is something that is largely considered to look unpleasant or ugly. Its technical usage is as an alternative perspective to the notion of landmark. Common examples include dilapidated buildings, graffiti, litter, polluted areas, and excessive commercial signage such as billboards. Some eyesores may be a matt ... Read »


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    • Feminist aesthetics

    • Feminist aesthetics refers not to a particular aesthetic or style but to perspectives that question assumptions in art and aesthetics concerning sex-role stereotypes, or gender. In particular, feminists argue that despite seeming neutral or inclusive, the way people think about art and aesthetics is influenced by sex r ... Read »


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    • Feng shui

    • Feng shui

      Feng Shui (pinyin: fēng shuǐ, pronounced [fɤ́ŋ ʂwèi] FUNG shway) is a Chinese philosophical system of harmonizing everyone with the surrounding environment. It is closely linked to Taoism. The term feng shui literally translates as "wind-water" in English. This is a cultural shorthand taken from ... Read »


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    • Fictive art

    • Fictive art is a practice that involves the production of objects, events, and entities designed to support the plausibility of a central narrative. Fictive art projects disguise their fictional essence by incorporating materials that stand as evidence for narrative factuality and thus are designed to deceive the viewe ... Read »


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    • Philosophy of film

    • The philosophy of film is a branch of aesthetics within the discipline of philosophy that seeks to understand the most basic questions regarding film. Philosophy of film has significant overlap with film theory, a branch of film studies. The earliest person to explore philosophical questions regarding film was Hug ... Read »


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    • Fine art

    • In European academic traditions, fine art is art developed primarily for aesthetics or beauty, distinguishing it from applied art that also has to serve some practical function, such as pottery or most metalwork. Historically, the five main fine arts were painting, sculpture, architecture, music and poetry, with perfo ... Read »


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    • Flying Star Feng Shui

    • Xuan Kong Flying Star feng shui or Xuan Kong Fei Xing is one of disciplines in Feng Shui, and is an integration of the principles of Yin Yang, the interactions between the five elements, the eight trigrams, the Lo Shu numbers, and the 24 Mountains, by using time, space and objects to create an astrological chart to ana ... Read »


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    • Form follows function

    • Form follows function is a principle associated with modernist architecture and industrial design in the 20th century. The principle is that the shape of a building or object should be primarily based upon its intended function or purpose. The American architect Louis Sullivan coined the phrase, although the autho ... Read »


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    • Formalism (art)

    • In art history, formalism is the study of art by analyzing and comparing form and style—the way objects are made and their purely visual aspects. In painting, formalism emphasizes compositional elements such as color, line, shape, texture, and other perceptual aspects rather than iconography or the historical and ... Read »


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    • Gerontissa Gavrielia

    • Gerontissa Gavrielia

      Gerontissa Gavrielia (Elder Gabriela), also known as Mother Gavrielia (15 October 1897 – 28 March 1992) was a Greek Orthodox nun, known for her care of the poor and sick. She was the second woman to be admitted to a Greek university and was a trained physiotherapist prior to taking up her religious calling at the ... Read »


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    • Gesamtkunstwerk

    • A Gesamtkunstwerk (German: [gəˈzamtˌkʊnstvɛʁk], translated as "total work of art", "ideal work of art", "universal artwork", "synthesis of the arts", "comprehensive artwork", "all-embracing art form" or "total artwork") is a work of art that makes use of all or many art forms or strives to do so. The ... Read »


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    • Grotesque body

    • The grotesque body is a concept, or literary trope, put forward by Russian literary critic Mikhail Bakhtin in his study of François Rabelais' work. The essential principle of grotesque realism is degradation, the lowering of all that is abstract, spiritual, noble, and ideal to the material level. Through the use of ... Read »


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    • Guqin aesthetics

    • When the guqin is played, the modern name for a plucked seven-string Chinese musical instrument of the zither family, a number of aesthetic elements are involved. The first aesthetic is musicality. In the second section of "Pingsha Luoyan", for example, the initial few bars contain a nao vibrato followed by a phas ... Read »


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    • Historicism

    • Historicism is a mode of thinking that assigns major significance to a specific context, such as historical period, geographical place, and local culture. As such it varies in emphasis from individualist theories of knowledge such as empiricism and rationalism, which neglect the role of traditions. Historicism therefor ... Read »


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    • History of aesthetics before the 20th century

    • This description of the history of aesthetics before the twentieth century is based on an article from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition. The first important contributions to aesthetic theory are usually considered to stem from philosophers in Ancient Greece, among which the most noticeable are Plato ... Read »


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    • Human figure (aesthetics)

    • In aesthetics, the human figure or human form in art, sculpture and other art forms involves a study and appreciation of the beauty of the human body in its depiction or presentation. The study involves an appreciation of the body shape, including body postures - sitting, standing or even sleeping, and movements - walk ... Read »


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    • Human physical appearance

    • Human physical appearance is the outward phenotype or look of human beings. There are infinite variations in human phenotypes, though society reduces the variability to distinct categories. Physical appearance of humans, in particular those attributes which are regarded as important for physical attractiveness, are be ... Read »


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    • Huoheian

    • Huǒhēiàn (Chinese: ) is an ancient Chinese system of aesthetics believed to serve as the philosophical yang to fengshui's yin. It was originally described as an art of only theoretical use, although it was eventually adopted as the de facto alternative to fengshui. Huǒhēiàn translate as "fire and ... Read »


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    • Hypsos

    • Hypsos is a Greek philosophical concept considered comparable to the modern concept of the sublime, or a moment that brings oral speech to an astonishing and monumental pause. Its root hypso- literally means "aloft", "height", or "on high". However, a distinguishing feature of hypsos in rhetorical studies is that it â ... Read »


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    • Indian aesthetics

    • Indian art evolved with an emphasis on inducing special spiritual or philosophical states in the audience, or with representing them symbolically. Of particular concern to Indian drama and literature are the term 'bhAva' or the state of mind and 'rasa' (Sanskrit रस lit. 'juice' or 'essence') referring gen ... Read »


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    • Idea art

    • Idea art, is an art form in which small individual idea(s) and not the grand concept(s) or ideologies involved in the work take precedence over generic aesthetic, material and disciplinary concerns. Works of idea art may be in text, found object, 2d, 3d, moving images, sound, performance, digital, interactive media and ... Read »


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    • Index of aesthetics articles

    • This is an alphabetical index of articles about aesthetics. - A Mathematician's Apology - A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful - Abhinavagupta - Abstract art - Abstract Illusionism - Academic art - Acquired taste - Action painting - Aesthetic atrophy - Aesthetic canon - Aes ... Read »


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    • International Association of Empirical Aesthetics

    • The International Association of Empirical Aesthetics (IAEA) is a psychological organization founded to scientifically investigate the nature of aesthetic experience and aesthetic behavior. The group has members in over 25 countries. IAEA was founded at the first international congress in Paris in 1965 by Daniel Berlyn ... Read »


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    • International Institute of Applied Aesthetics

    • The International Institute of Applied Aesthetics (IIAA) is an institute operating under the Palmenia Center for Continuing Education of the University of Helsinki. It is focused on environmental aesthetics and other kinds of humanistic environmental research. The Institute is situated in Lahti, Finland and its fu ... Read »


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    • Kitsch movement

    • Kitsch painting is an international movement of classical painters founded upon a 24 September 1998 speech and philosophy by Odd Nerdrum, later clarified in his book On Kitsch with Jan-Ove Tuv and others. The movement incorporates the techniques of the Old Masters with narrative, romanticism, and emotionally charged im ... Read »


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    • Literary criticism

    • Literary criticism (or literary studies) is the study, evaluation, and interpretation of literature. Modern literary criticism is often influenced by literary theory, which is the philosophical discussion of literature's goals and methods. Though the two activities are closely related, literary critics are not always, ... Read »


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    • Philosophy and literature

    • Philosophy and literature involves the literary treatment of philosophers and philosophical themes (the literature of philosophy), and the philosophical treatment of issues raised by literature (the philosophy of literature). Strictly speaking, the philosophy of literature is a branch of aesthetics, the branch of ... Read »


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    • Lookism

    • Lookism is a concept used to describe a setting where there exists discriminatory treatment toward physically unattractive people; mainly in the workplace but also in social settings. While not classified in the same way as racial, cultural, sexual discrimination, "lookism" is widespread and affects how people are perc ... Read »


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    • Marxist aesthetics

    • Marxist aesthetics is a theory of aesthetics based on, or derived from, the theories of Karl Marx. It involves a dialectical and materialist, or dialectical materialist, approach to the application of Marxism to the cultural sphere, specifically areas related to taste such as art, beauty, etc. Marxists believe that eco ... Read »


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    • Masterpiece

    • Masterpiece, magnum opus (Latin, great work) or chef d'œuvre (French, master of work, plural chefs d'œuvre) in modern use is a creation that has been given much critical praise, especially one that is considered the greatest work of a person's career or to a work of outstanding creativity, skill, profundity, or w ... Read »


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    • Mediology

    • Mediology (from the French word "médiologie"), broadly indicates a wide-ranging method for the analysis of cultural transmission in society and across societies, a method which challenges the conventional idea that 'technology is not culture'. The mediological method pays specific attention to the role of organisati ... Read »


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    • The medium is the message

    • "The medium is the message" is a phrase coined by Marshall McLuhan meaning that the form of a medium embeds itself in any message it would transmit or convey, creating a symbiotic relationship by which the medium influences how the message is perceived. The phrase was introduced in McLuhan's book , published in 196 ... Read »


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    • Metaphor in philosophy

    • Metaphor, the description of one thing as something else, has become of interest in recent decades to both analytic philosophy and continental philosophy, but for different reasons. In the Anglo-American tradition of analytic philosophy, in particular, the philosophy of language, metaphor has attracted interest be ... Read »


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    • Philosophy of music

    • Philosophy of music is the study of "...fundamental questions about the nature of music and our experience of it". The philosophical study of music has many connections with philosophical questions in metaphysics and aesthetics. Some basic questions in the philosophy of music are: "Explications of the concept of m ... Read »


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    • Musicology

    • Musicology (from Greek μουσική (mousikē), meaning "music", and -λογία (-logia), meaning "study of") is the scholarly analysis and research-based study of music. Musicology is part of the humanities. A scholar who participates in musical research is a musicologist. Traditionally, ... Read »


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    • Musivisual language

    • In art, musivisual language is a semiotic system that is the synchronous union of music and image. The term was coined by Spanish composer Alejandro Román, and for over a century, has appeared in film and other media (television, video or multimedia). According to Román: Musivisual Language is a special lan ... Read »


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    • Neuroesthetics

    • Neuroesthetics (or neuroaesthetics) is a relatively recent sub-discipline of empirical aesthetics. Empirical aesthetics takes a scientific approach to the study of aesthetic perceptions of art, music, or any object that can give rise to aesthetic judgments. Neuroesthetics received its formal definition in 2002 as the s ... Read »


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    • Nimism

    • In aesthetics, nimism is a particular kind of trope or symbol characterized by exaggeration. The term is derived from Latin (nimis), "too much" and (nimietas), excess. Unlike a hyperbole or paradox, it is not applied to linguistic or rhetorical phenomena only, but usually refers to other forms of disparity, e.g. dispro ... Read »


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    • Paradigm

    • In science and philosophy, a paradigm /ˈpærədaɪm/ is a distinct set of concepts or thought patterns, including theories, research methods, postulates, and standards for what constitutes legitimate contributions to a field. Paradigm comes from Greek παράδειγμα (paradeigma), ... Read »


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    • Paradox of fiction

    • The paradox of fiction is a philosophical problem about how people can experience strong emotions from purely fictional things, such as art, literature, and imagination. The paradox draws attention to an everyday issue of how people are moved by things which, in many ways, do not really exist. Although the ontology of ... Read »


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    • Paragone

    • Paragone (Italian: paragone, meaning comparison), is a debate from the Italian Renaissance in which one form of art (architecture, sculpture or painting) is championed as superior to all others. Leonardo da Vinci's treatise on painting, noting the difficulty of painting and supremacy of sight, is a noted example. Giorg ... Read »


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    • Philosophical poets

    • A philosophical poet is an author or scholar who employs poetic devices, styles, or forms to explore subjects common to the field of philosophy. Their writing often addresses questions related to the meaning of life, the nature of being (ontology), theories of knowledge and knowing (epistemology), principles of beauty ... Read »


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    • Philosophy and Literature

    • Philosophy and literature involves the literary treatment of philosophers and philosophical themes (the literature of philosophy), and the philosophical treatment of issues raised by literature (the philosophy of literature). Strictly speaking, the philosophy of literature is a branch of aesthetics, the branch of ... Read »


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    • Poet as legislator

    • The theme of poet as legislator reached its grandiose peak in the Romantic era, epitomised in the view of the lonely, alienated poet as 'unacknowledged legislator' to the whole world. However the concept had a long prehistory in Western culture, with classical figures like Orpheus or Solon being appealed to as precede ... Read »


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    • Poetics

    • Poetics is the theory of literary forms and literary discourse. It may refer specifically to the theory of poetry, although some speakers use the term so broadly as to denote the concept of "theory" itself. The term "poetics" comes from the Greek ποιητικός poietikos "pertaining to poetry ... Read »


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    • Poetry

    • Poetry (the term derives from a variant of the Greek term, poiesis, "making") is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, and metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning. Poetry has a long h ... Read »


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    • Poshlost

    • Poshlost or Poshlost' (Russian: по́шлость ; IPA: [ˈpoʂləsʲtʲ]) is a Russian word for a particular negative human character trait or man-made thing or idea. It has been cited as an example of an untranslatable word, as there is no single exact English equivalent. It carries m ... Read »


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    • Processing fluency

    • Processing fluency is the ease with which information is processed. Perceptual fluency is the ease of processing stimuli based on manipulations to perceptual quality. Retrieval fluency is the ease with which information can be retrieved from memory. Research in cognitive neuroscience and psychology has shown that ... Read »


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    • Psychic distance

    • Psychic distance is a term which has at least three distinct means across the fields of aesthetics, international business/international marketing, and computer science. Psychic distance is made up of the Greek word "psychikos – ψυχικός", an adjective referring to an individual's mind and ... Read »


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    • Qene

    • Qene also known as Säm əna Wärq is a unique style of poetry from Ethiopia that is rich and deep in meaning, which demands critical thinking and analysis of the poetry to understand its meaning. It demands having not only a strong Amharic, Tigrigna, or Ge’ez vocabulary, but also familiarity with the cultur ... Read »


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    • Rasika

    • A rasika is a term for an aesthete of Hindustani classical music. The term is derived from Sanskrit meaning full of Passion, elegant; with discrimination. Connoisseur - An expert able to appreciate a field; especially in the fine arts. A rasika is a term for audience in Sinhalese A rasika, in carnatic music terminolo ... Read »


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    • Relational art

    • Relational art or relational aesthetics is a mode or tendency in fine art practice originally observed and highlighted by French art critic Nicolas Bourriaud. Bourriaud defined the approach as "a set of artistic practices which take as their theoretical and practical point of departure the whole of human relations and ... Read »


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    • Representation (arts)

    • Representation is the use of signs that stand in for and take the place of something else. It is through representation that people organize the world and reality through the act of naming its elements. Signs are arranged in order to form semantic constructions and express relations. For many philosophers, both ancien ... Read »


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    • Ringbang

    • Ringbang is variously a Caribbean fusion of music genres, a philosophy, and an aesthetic propounded by Eddy Grant in 1994. In an interview ca. 2000, Grant defined ringbang thus: In applying ringbang to music, Grant attempted to define a meta-style purported to encompass all Caribbean rhythms such as to create a music ... Read »


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    • Rotation method

    • In philosopher Søren Kierkegaard's Either/Or, the rotation method is the mechanism used by higher level aesthetes in order to avoid boredom. The method is an essential hedonistic aspect of the aesthetic way of life. Kierkegaard likens the rotation method to the crop rotation used in agriculture, in which the soil i ... Read »


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    • Arthur Schopenhauer's aesthetics


    • Sensoaesthetics

    • Sensoaesthetics is the application of scientific methods to the study of the aesthetic, sensual and emotional aspects of materials. The purpose of Sensoaesthetics is to understand how people interact with materials, and use that understanding to improve design and incorporate multisensory integration into the proc ... Read »


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    • Sentimentalism (literature)

    • Sentimentalism is the practice of being sentimental, or the tendency to base actions and reactions from emotions and feelings as opposed to reason. As a literary mode, sentimentalism has been a recurring aspect of world literature, and is important to the traditions of India, China, and Vietnam. Sentimentalism may refe ... Read »


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    • Sexual attraction

    • Sexual attraction is attraction on the basis of sexual desire or the quality of arousing such interest.Sexual attractiveness or sex appeal is an individual's ability to attract the sexual or erotic interest of another person, and is a factor in sexual selection or mate choice. The attraction can be to the physical or o ... Read »


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    • Sexual selection

    • Sexual selection is a mode of natural selection where members of one biological sex choose mates of the other sex to mate with (intersexual selection), and compete with members of the same sex for access to members of the opposite sex (intrasexual selection). These two forms of selection mean that some individuals have ... Read »


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    • Sexual selection in humans

    • Sexual selection in humans concerns the concept of sexual selection, introduced by Charles Darwin as an element of his theory of natural selection, as it affects humans. The role of sexual selection in human evolution has not been firmly established although neoteny has been cited as being caused by human sexual select ... Read »


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    • Social practice

    • Social practice is a theory within psychology that seeks to determine the link between practice and context within social situations. Emphasized as a commitment to change, social practice occurs in two forms: activity and inquiry. Most often applied within the context of human development, social practice involves know ... Read »


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    • Social practice (art)

    • Social practice is an art medium that focuses on social engagement, inviting collaboration with individuals, communities, and institutions in the creation of participatory art. It is also referred to by a range of different names: public practice, socially engaged art,community art, new-genre public art,participatory a ... Read »


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    • Sociological art

    • Sociological Art is an artistic movement and approach to aesthetics that emerged in France in the early 1970s and became the basis for the Sociological Art Collective formed by , Fred Forest, and Jean-Paul Thénot in 1974. As early as 1968, art critics Pierre Restany and François Pluchart used the term “ ... Read »


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    • Sophistication

    • Sophistication is in direct conflict with nature. Modern definitions include quality of refinement — displaying good taste, wisdom and subtlety rather than crudeness, stupidity and vulgarity. In the perception of social class, sophistication can link with concepts such as status, privilege and superiority. In ... Read »


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    • Superficiality

    • What social psychologists call "the principle of superficiality versus depth" has pervaded Western culture since at least the time of Plato. Socrates sought to convince his debaters to turn from the superficiality of a worldview based on the acceptance of convention to the examined life of philosophy, founded (as ... Read »


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    • Theological aesthetics

    • Theological aesthetics is the interdisciplinary study of theology and aesthetics, and has been defined as being "concerned with questions about God and issues in theology in the light of and perceived through sense knowledge (, feeling, imagination), through beauty, and the arts". This field of study is broad and inclu ... Read »


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    • Uncanny

    • The psychological concept of the uncanny as something that is strangely familiar, rather than just mysterious, was perhaps first fixed by Sigmund Freud in his essay Das Unheimliche. Because the uncanny is familiar, yet incongruous, it has been seen as creating cognitive dissonance within the experiencing subject, due ... Read »


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    • Vulgarity

    • Vulgarity is the quality of being common, coarse, or unrefined. This judgement may refer to language, visual art, social classes, or social climbers. John Bayley claims it may never be self-referential because, to be aware of vulgarity is to display a degree of sophistication which thereby elevates the subject above th ... Read »


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    • Wang Keping (academic)

    • Wang Keping is philosophy professor and PhD supervisor of Beijing International Studies University (BISU), China. He is also Director and doctoral supervisor at the Institute of Philosophy of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS). He enjoys the Chinese State Council Special Allowance since 1998 and is currently ... Read »


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  • What Else?

    • Aesthetics

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