• Articulatory synthesis

    Articulatory synthesis

    • Articulatory synthesis refers to computational techniques for synthesizing speech based on models of the human vocal tract and the articulation processes occurring there. The shape of the vocal tract can be controlled in a number of ways which usually involves modifying the position of the speech articulators, such as the tongue, jaw, and lips. Speech is created by digitally simulating the flow of air through the representation of the vocal tract.

      There is a long history of attempts to build mechanical "talking heads." Mechanical devices.Gerbert (d. 1003), Albertus Magnus (1198–1280) and Roger Bacon (1214–1294) are all said to have built speaking heads (Wheatstone 1837). However, historically confirmed speech synthesis begins with Wolfgang von Kempelen (1734–1804), who published an account of his research in 1791 (see also Dudley & Tarnoczy 1950).

      The first electrical vocal tract analogs were static, like those of Dunn (1950), Ken Stevens and colleagues (1953), Gunnar Fant (1960). Rosen (1958) built a dynamic vocal tract (DAVO), which Dennis (1963) later attempted to control by computer. Dennis et al. (1964), Hiki et al. (1968) and Baxter and Strong (1969) have also described hardware vocal-tract analogs. Kelly and Lochbaum (1962) made the first computer simulation; later digital computer simulations have been made, e.g. by Nakata and Mitsuoka (1965), Matsui (1968) and Paul Mermelstein (1971). Honda et al. (1968) have made an analog computer simulation.

      The first software articulatory synthesizer regularly used for laboratory experiments was developed at Haskins Laboratories in the mid-1970s by Philip Rubin, Tom Baer, and Paul Mermelstein. This synthesizer, known as ASY, was a computational model of speech production based on vocal tract models developed at Bell Laboratories in the 1960s and 1970s by Paul Mermelstein, Cecil Coker, and colleagues. Another popular model that has been frequently used is that of Shinji Maeda, which uses a factor-based approach to control tongue shape.

      • Baxter, Brent, and William J. Strong. (1969). WINDBAG—a vocal-tract analog speech synthesizer. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 45, 309(A).
      • Birkholz P, Jackel D, Kröger BJ (2007) Simulation of losses due to turbulence in the time-varying vocal system. IEEE Transactions on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing 15: 1218-1225
      • Birkholz P, Jackel D, Kröger BJ (2006) Construction and control of a three-dimensional vocal tract model. Proceedings of the International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP 2006) (Toulouse, France) pp. 873–876
      • Coker. C. H. (1968). Speech synthesis with a parametric articulatory model. Proc. Speech. Symp., Kyoto, Japan, paper A-4.
      • Coker, C. H. (1976). "A model for articulatory dynamics and control". Proceedings of the IEEE. 64 (4): 452–460. doi:10.1109/PROC.1976.10154. 
      • Coker; Fujimura, O. (1966). "Model for the specification of the vocal tract area function". Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 40: 1271. Bibcode:1966ASAJ...40.1271C. doi:10.1121/1.2143456. 
      • Dennis, Jack B. (1963). Computer control of an analog vocal tract. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 35, 1115(A).
      • Dudley, Homer; Tarnoczy, Thomas H. (1950). "The speaking machine of Wolfgang von Kempelen". Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 22 (2): 151–66. Bibcode:1950ASAJ...22..151D. doi:10.1121/1.1906583. 
      • Dunn, Hugh K. (1950). "Calculation of vowel resonances, and an electrical vocal tract". Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 22 (6): 740–53. Bibcode:1950ASAJ...22..740D. doi:10.1121/1.1906681. 
      • Engwall, O. (2003). Combining MRI, EMA & EPG measurements in a three-dimensional tongue model. Speech Communication, 41, 303-329.
      • Fant, C. Gunnar M. (1960). Acoustic theory of speech production. The Hague, Mouton.
      • Gariel, M. (1879). "Machine parlante de M. Faber". J. Physique Théorique et Appliquée. 8: 274–5. doi:10.1051/jphystap:018790080027401. 
      • Gerard, J.M.; Wilhelms-Tricarico, R.; Perrier, P.; Payan, Y. (2003). "A 3D dynamical biomechanical tongue model to study speech motor control". Recent Research Developments in Biomechanics. 1: 49–64. 
      • Henke, W. L. (1966). Dynamic Articulatory Model of Speech Production Using Computer Simulation. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, MIT, Cambridge, MA.
      • Honda, Takashi, Seiichi Inoue, and Yasuo Ogawa. (1968). A hybrid control system of a human vocal tract simulator. Reports of the 6th International Congress on Acoustics, ed. by Y. Kohasi, pp. 175–8. Tokyo, International Council of Scientific Unions.
      • Kelly, John L., and Carol Lochbaum. (1962). Speech synthesis. Proceedings of the Speech Communications Seminar, paper F7. Stockholm, Speech Transmission Laboratory, Royal Institute of Technology.
      • Kempelen, Wolfgang R. Von. (1791). Mechanismus der menschlichen Sprache nebst der Beschreibung seiner sprechenden Maschine. Wien, J. B. Degen.
      • Maeda, S. (1988). Improved articulatory model. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 84, Sup. 1, S146.
      • Maeda, S. (1990). Compensatory articulation during speech: evidence from the analysis and synthesis of vocal-tract shapes using an articulatory model. In W. J. Hardcastle and A. Marchal (Eds.), Speech Production and Speech Modelling, Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, 131-149.
      • Matsui, Eiichi. (1968). Computer-simulated vocal organs. Reports of the 6th International Congress on Acoustics, ed. by Y. Kohasi, pp. 151–4. Tokyo, International Council of Scientific Unions.
      • Mermelstein, Paul. (1969). Computer simulation of articulatory activity in speech production. Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Washington, D.C., 1969, ed. by D. E. Walker and L. M. Norton. New York, Gordon & Breach.
      • Mermelstein, P. (1973). "Articulatory model for the study of speech production". Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 53 (4): 1070–1082. Bibcode:1973ASAJ...53.1070M. doi:10.1121/1.1913427. PMID 4697807. 
      • Nakata, Kazuo; Mitsuoka, T. (1965). "Phonemic transformation and control aspects of synthesis of connected speech". J. Radio Res. Labs. 12: 171–86. 
      • Rahim, M.; Goodyear, C.; Kleijn, W.; Schroeter, J.; Sondhi, M. (1993). "On the use of neural networks in articulatory speech synthesis". Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 93 (2): 1109–1121. Bibcode:1993ASAJ...93.1109R. doi:10.1121/1.405559. 
      • Rosen, George (1958). "Dynamic analog speech synthesizer". Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 30 (3): 201–9. Bibcode:1958ASAJ...30..201R. doi:10.1121/1.1909541. 
      • Rubin, P. E.; Baer, T.; Mermelstein, P. (1981). "An articulatory synthesizer for perceptual research". Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 70 (2): 321–328. Bibcode:1981ASAJ...70..321R. doi:10.1121/1.386780. 
      • Rubin, P., Saltzman, E., Goldstein, L., McGowan, R., Tiede, M., & Browman, C. (1996). CASY and extensions to the task-dynamic model. Proceedings of the 1st ESCA Tutorial and Research Workshop on Speech Producing Modeling - 4th Speech Production Seminar, 125-128.
      • Stevens, Kenneth N.; Kasowski, S.; Fant, C. Gunnar M. (1953). "An electrical analog of the vocal tract". Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 25 (4): 734–42. Bibcode:1953ASAJ...25..734S. doi:10.1121/1.1907169. 
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    • Articulatory synthesis