Main

  • Alfred the Great

    Alfred the Great

    • Alfred the Great
      Statue d'Alfred le Grand à Winchester.jpg
      Statue of Alfred the Great by Hamo Thornycroft in Winchester, unveiled during the millenary commemoration of Alfred's death.
      King of Wessex
      Reign 23 April 871 – 26 October 899
      Predecessor Æthelred
      Successor Edward the Elder
      Born 849
      Wantage, then in Berkshire, now Oxfordshire
      Died 26 October 899 (around 50) Winchester
      Burial c. 1100
      Hyde Abbey, Winchester, Hampshire, now lost
      Spouse Ealhswith
      Issue Æthelflæd, Lady of the Mercians
      Edward, King of Wessex
      Æthelgifu, abbess of Shaftesbury
      Æthelweard of Wessex
      Ælfthryth, Countess of Flanders
      Full name
      Ælfred of Wessex
      House Wessex
      Father Æthelwulf, King of Wessex
      Mother Osburh
      Religion Roman Catholic
      Full name
      Ælfred of Wessex

      Alfred the Great (Old English: Ælfrēd, Ælfrǣd, "elf counsel" or "wise elf"; 849 – 26 October 899) was King of Wessex from 871 to 899.

      Alfred successfully defended his kingdom against the Viking attempt at conquest, and by the time of his death had become the dominant ruler in England. He is one of only two English monarchs to be given the epithet "the Great", the other being the Scandinavian Cnut the Great. He was also the first King of the West Saxons to style himself "King of the Anglo-Saxons". Details of Alfred's life are described in a work by the 10th-century Welsh scholar and bishop Asser.

      Alfred had a reputation as a learned and merciful man of a gracious and level-headed nature who encouraged education, proposing that primary education be taught in English, and improved his kingdom's legal system, military structure and his people's quality of life. In 2002, Alfred was ranked number 14 in the BBC's poll of the 100 Greatest Britons.

      Alfred was born in the village of Wanating, now Wantage, Oxfordshire. He was the youngest son of King Æthelwulf of Wessex by his first wife, Osburh.

      In 853, at the age of four, Alfred is reported by the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle to have been sent to Rome, where he was confirmed by Pope Leo IV, who "anointed him as king".Victorian writers later interpreted this as an anticipatory coronation in preparation for his eventual succession to the throne of Wessex. This is unlikely; his succession could not have been foreseen at the time, as Alfred had three living elder brothers. A letter of Leo IV shows that Alfred was made a "consul"; a misinterpretation of this investiture, deliberate or accidental, could explain later confusion. It may also be based on Alfred's later having accompanied his father on a pilgrimage to Rome, where he spent some time at the court of Charles the Bald, King of the Franks, around 854–855.


      Name Birth Death Notes
      Æthelflæd 12 June 918 Married c 886, Æthelred, Lord of the Mercians d. 911; had children
      Edward c. 874 17 July 924 Married (1) Ecgwynn, (2) Ælfflæd, (3) 919 Eadgifu
      Æthelgifu Abbess of Shaftesbury
      Æthelweard 16 October 922(?) Married and had children
      Ælfthryth 929 Married Baldwin II d. 918; had children
      Alfred the Great
      Born: 849 Died: 26 October 899
      Regnal titles
      Preceded by
      Æthelred
      Bretwalda
      871–899
      Last holder
      King of Wessex
      871–899
      Succeeded by
      Edward the Elder
      New title King of the Anglo-Saxons
      878–899

      • Abels, Richard P. (1988). Lordship and Military Obligation in Anglo-Saxon England. British Museum Press. pp. 58–78. ISBN . 
      • Abels, Richard (1998). Alfred the Great: War, Kingship and Culture in Anglo-Saxon England. Longman. ISBN . 
      • Alfred (1969). "Saxon Chronicles". In Giles, J.A. Memorials of King Alfred: being essays on the history and antiquities of England during the ninth century, the age of King Alfred, by various authors. Burt Franklin research & source works series (287). New York: Burt Franklin. 
      • Arnold, Martin (2011). Thor: Myth to Marvel. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 37. ISBN . 
      • Asser (866). "Florentius Wigorniensis 23". Asserius de Rebus Gestis Aelfredib (in Latin). 
      • Asser (1969). "Life of King Alfred". In Giles, J.A. Memorials of King Alfred: being essays on the history and antiquities of England during the ninth century, the age of King Alfred, by various authors. Burt Franklin research & source works series (287). New York: Burt Franklin. 
      • Attenborough, F.L., Tr. and, ed. (1922). The laws of the earliest English kings. Cambridge University Press. pp. 52–53, 62–93, 98–101. 
      • Bately, Janet (1970). "King Alfred and the Old English Translation of Orosius". Anglia. 88: 433–460. 
      • Bately, Janet (1990). "'Those books that are most necessary for all men to know': The Classics and late ninth-century England: a reappraisal". In Bernardo, Aldo S.; Levin, Saul. The Classics in the Middle Ages. Binghamtion, New York. pp. 45–78. 
      • BBC staff (17 January 2014). "Bone fragment 'could be King Alfred or son Edward'". BBC News. 
      • Bradshaw, Anthony (1999). The Burghal Hidage: Alfred's Towns. 
      • Blackburn, M.A.S. (1998). "The London mint in the reign of Alfred". In Blackburn, M.A.S.; Dumville, D.N. Kings, Currency and Alliances: History and Coinage of Southern England in the 9th Century. pp. 105–24. 
      • Bristol University staff (17 June 2010). "Bones confirmed as those of Saxon Princess Eadgyth". Bristol University. 
      • Brooks, Nicholas (1984). The Early History of the Church of Canterbury: Christ Church from 597 to 1066. pp. 172–173. 
      • Brooks, N.P.; Graham-Campbell, J.A. (1986). "Reflections on the Viking-age silver hoard from Croydon, Surrey". Anglo-Saxon Monetary History: Essays in Memory of Michael Dolley. pp. 91–110. 
      • Cannon, John (1997). The Oxford Companion to British History. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN . 
      • Cornwell, Bernard (2009). The Burning Land. Harper. 
      • The Church Monuments Society (29 January 2014). "The Post-Mortem Adventures Of Alfred The Great". The Church Monuments Society. 
      • Cohen, Tamara (27 March 2013). "Could these be the bones of Alfred the Great?". IOL Scitech,. 
      • Crown staff (2011). "HomeHistory of the Monarchy: English Monarchs (400 AD - 1603): The Anglo-Saxon kings:Alfred 'The Great' (r. 871-899)". The official website of the British Monarchy. 
      • Craig, G (May 1991). "Alfred the Great: a diagnosis". Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 84 (5): 303–305. PMC 1293232Freely accessible. PMID 1819247. 
      • Crofton, Ian (2006). The Kings & Queens of England. Quercus Publishing. p. 8. ISBN . 
      • Daily Mail staff (21 August 2002). "100 great Britons – a complete list". Daily Mail. 
      • Dodson, Aidan (2004). The Royal Tombs of Great Britain. London: Duckworth. 
      • Dumville, David (1992). Wessex and England from Alfred to Edgar : six essays on political, cultural, and ecclesiastical revival. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell Press. ISBN . 
      • Dunstan, St (1992). Ramsey, Nigel; Sparks, Margaret; Tatton-Brown, Tim, eds. St Dunstan:His Life, Times, and Cult. Woodbridge, Suffolk, UK: Boydell Press. ISBN . 
      • Fleming, Robin (1985). "Monastic lands and England's defence in the Viking Age". 100 (395). English Historical Review: 247–65. 
      • Foot, Sarah (2011). Æthelstan: The First King of England. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. ISBN . 
      • Gifford, Edwin; Gifford, Joyce (2003). "Alfred's new longships". In Reuter, Timothy. Alfred the Great (Studies in early medieval Britain). pp. 281–89. ISBN . 
      • Giles, J. A.; Ingram, J., eds. (1 September 1996). The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Project Gutenberg.  — "Note: This electronic edition [of the The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle] is a collation of material from nine diverse extant versions of the Chronicle. It contains primarily the translation of Rev. James Ingram, as published in the [1847] Everyman edition". It was "Originally compiled on the orders of King Alfred the Great, approximately A.D. 890, and subsequently maintained and added to by generations of anonymous scribes until the middle of the 12th Century".
      • Gransden, Antonia (1996). Historical Writing in England: c. 500 to c. 1307. London: Routledge. ISBN . 
      • Gregory I, Pope; Alfred, King of England (1871). Sweet, Henry, ed. King Alfred's West-Saxon version of Gregory's Pastoral care. London: N. Trübner & Company for the Early English text society. pp. 1–9. 
      • Hollister, C. Warren (1962). Anglo-Saxon Military Institutions on the Eve of the Norman Conquest. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 
      • Horspool, David (2006). Why Alfred Burned the Cakes. London: Profile Books. ISBN . 
      • Hull, Lise E. (2006). Britain's Medieval Castles. Westport, CT: Praeger. ISBN . 
      • Huntingdon, Henry (1969). "Histories". In Giles, J.A. Memorials of King Alfred: being essays on the history and antiquities of England during the ninth century, the age of King Alfred, by various authors. Burt Franklin research & source works series (287). New York: Burt Franklin. 
      • Jackson, F I (January 1992). "Letter to the editor: Alfred the Great: a diagnosis". Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 85 (1): 58. PMC 1293470Freely accessible. PMID 1610468. 
      • Kennedy, Maev (27 March 2013). "'Alfred the Great' bones exhumed from unmarked grave". The Guardian. 
      • Keynes, Simon; Lapidge, Michael (1983). Alfred the Great, Asser's Life of King Alfred and other contemporary sources. Harmondsworth, England: Penguin. ISBN . 
      • Keynes, Simon (1998). "Alfred and the Mercians". In Blackburn, Mark A.S.; Dumville, David N. Kings, currency, and alliances: history and coinage of southern England in the ninth century. Woodbridge: Boydell & Brewer. pp. 1–46. ISBN . 
      • Keys, David (17 January 2014). "Bones of King Alfred the Great believed to have been found in a box at Winchester City Museum". The Independent. 
      • Kiernan, Kevin S. (1998). "Alfred the Great's Burnt Boethius". In Bornstein, George; Tinkle, Theresa. The Iconic Page in Manuscript, Print, and Digital Culture. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. 
      • Lapidge, Michael (2001). Blair, John; Keynes, Simon; Scragg, Donald, eds. The Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Anglo-Saxon England. London, UK: Blackwell. ISBN . 
      • Lavelle, Ryan (2010). Alfred's Wars Sources and Interpretations of Anglo-Saxon Warfare in the Viking Age. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydel Press. ISBN . 
      • Lavelle, Ryan (2003). Fortifications in Wessex c. 800-1066. Oxford: osprey Publishing. ISBN . 
      • Malmesbury, William (1904). Giles, J.A., ed. Chronicle of the Kings of England. London: George Bell and Sons. 
      • Merkle, Benjamin (2009). The White Horse King: The Life of Alfred the Great. New York: Thomas Nelson. p. 220. ISBN . 
      • Nares, Robert (1859). A Glossary; or Collection of Words, Phrases, Names and Allusions to Customs, Proverbs, etc., Which Have Been Thought to Require Illustration in the Works of English Authors, Particularly Shakespeare and His Contemporaries. London: John Russel Smith. 
      • Nelson, Janet (1999). Rulers and Ruling Families in Early Medieval Europe. Aldershot: Ashgate. ISBN . 
      • Orosius, Paulus; Hampson, Robert Thomas (1855). A Literal Translation of King Alfred's Anglo-Saxon Version of the Compendious History of the World. Longman. p. 16. 
      • Parker, Joanne (2007). 'England's Darling'. Manchester: Manchester University Press. ISBN . 
      • Paul, Suzanne (2015). "Alfred the Great's Old English translation of Gregory the Great's Pastoral Care (MS Ii.2.4)". Cambridge Digital Library. 
      • Pratt, David (2007). The political thought of King Alfred the Great. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Life and Thought: Fourth Series. 67. Cambridge University Press. ISBN . 
      • Preston, Richard A; Wise, Sydney F; Werner, Herman O (1956). Men in Arms: A History of Warfare and Its Interrelationships with Western Society. New York: Frederick A. Praeger. 
      • Hill, David; Rumble, Alexander R., eds. (1996). The Defence of Wessex: The Burghal Hidage and Anglo-Saxon Fortifications. Manchester: Manchester University Press. ISBN . 
      • Ranft, Patricia (2012). How the Doctrine of Incarnation Shaped Western Culture. Plymouth, England: Lexington Books. ISBN . 
      • Savage, Anne (1988). Anglo-Saxon Chronicles. Papermac. p. 288. ISBN . 
      • Schepss, Dr. G. (1895). "Zu König Alfreds Boethius". Archiv für das Studium der neueren Sprachenv. xciv: 149–160. 
      • Sedgefield, W.J. (1900). King Alfred's version of the Consolations of Boethius. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 
      • Townsend, Ian (3 January 2008). "Statue damage quiz man bailed". Wantage Herald. 
      • Welch, Martin (1992). Anglo-Saxon England. London: English Heritage. ISBN . 
      • Whitelock, Dorothy, ed. (1996). English historical documents. Volume 1, C. 500-1042 (2nd ed.). Routledge. ISBN . 
      • Woodruff, Douglas (1993). The Life And Times of Alfred the Great. London, UK: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN . 
      • Wormald, Patrick (2001) [1999]. The Making of English Law: King Alfred to the Twelfth Century. p. 528. ISBN . 
      • Winchester Museums Service (4 December 2009). "Summary of Hyde Community Archaeology Project (completed in 1999)". Winchester Council. Archived from the original on 13 July 2010. 
      • Wormald, Patrick (October 2006). "Alfred (848/9–899)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/183.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
      • Yorke, Barbara (1995). Wessex in the early Middle Ages. Leicester: Leicester University Press. ISBN . 
      • Yorke, Barbara (1999). "Alfred the Great: The Most Perfect Man in History?". History Today. Archived from the original on 15 February 2016. 
      • Yorke, B.A.E. (2001). "Alfred, king of Wessex (871–899)". In Lapidge, Michael; et al. The Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Anglo-Saxon England. Blackwell Publishing. pp. 27–28. ISBN . 
      • Discenza, Nicole Guenther; Szarmach, Paul E., eds. (2015). A Companion to Alfred the Great. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill. ISBN . 
      • Frantzen, Allen J. King Alfred the Great. Twayne's English Authors Series. ISBN . 
      • Fry, Fred (2006). Patterns of Power: The Military Campaigns of Alfred the Great. ISBN . 
      • Giles, J. A., ed. (1858). The Whole Works of King Alfred the Great (Jubileein 3 vols ed.). Oxford and Cambridge. 
      • Gross, Ernie (1990). This Day In Religion. New York: Neal-Schuman Publishers, Inc. ISBN . 
      • Heathorn, Stephen (December 2002). "The Highest Type of Englishman: Gender, War, and the Alfred the Great Commemoration of 1901". Canadian Journal of History: 459–84. 
      • Irvine, Susan (2006). "Beginnings and Transitions: Old English". In Mugglestone, Lynda. The Oxford History of English. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN . 
      • Pollard, Justin (2006). Alfred the Great: the man who made England. ISBN . 
      • Reuter, Timothy, ed. (2003). Alfred the Great. Studies in early medieval Britain. ISBN . 
      • The whole works of King Alfred the Great, with preliminary essays, illustrative of the history, arts, and manners, of the ninth century. 1969. OCLC 28387. 
    Wikipedia
  • What Else?

    • Alfred the Great

Extras