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Wheat

Wheat
Wheat close-up.JPG
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Monocots
(unranked): Commelinids
Order: Poales
Family: Poaceae
Subfamily: Pooideae
Tribe: Triticeae
Genus: Triticum
L.
Species

References:
  Serial No. 42236 ITIS 2002-09-22

Wheat, hard red winter
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 1,368 kJ (327 kcal)
71.18 g
Sugars 0.41
Dietary fiber 12.2 g
1.54 g
12.61 g
Vitamins
Thiamine (B1)
(33%)
0.383. mg
Riboflavin (B2)
(10%)
0.115 mg
Niacin (B3)
(36%)
5.464 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5)
(19%)
0.954 mg
Vitamin B6
(23%)
0.3 mg
Folate (B9)
(10%)
38 μg
Choline
(6%)
31.2 mg
Vitamin E
(7%)
1.01 mg
Vitamin K
(2%)
1.9 μg
Minerals
Calcium
(3%)
29 mg
Iron
(25%)
3.19 mg
Magnesium
(35%)
126 mg
Manganese
(190%)
3.985 mg
Phosphorus
(41%)
288 mg
Potassium
(8%)
363 mg
Sodium
(0%)
2 mg
Zinc
(28%)
2.65 mg
Other constituents
Water 13.1 g
Selenium 70.7 ug

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

References:
  Serial No. 42236 ITIS 2002-09-22

Wheat (Triticum spp., most commonly T. aestivum) is a cereal grain (botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis), originally from the Levant region but now cultivated worldwide. In 2016, world production of wheat was 749 million tonnes, making it the second most-produced cereal after maize (1.03 billion tonnes), with more than rice (499 million tonnes). Since 1960, world production of wheat and other grain crops has tripled and is expected to grow further through the middle of the 21st Century.

This grain is grown on more land area than any other commercial food (220.4 million hectares, 2014). World trade in wheat is greater than for all other crops combined. Globally, wheat is the leading source of vegetable protein in human food, having a protein content of about 13%, which is relatively high compared to other major cereals and staple foods. The archaeological record suggests that wheat was first cultivated in the regions of the Fertile Crescent around 9600 BCE.

When eaten as the whole grain, wheat is a source of multiple nutrients and dietary fiber, and is associated with lower risk of several diseases, including coronary heart disease, stroke, cancer and type 2 diabetes. In a small part of the general population, gluten – the major part of wheat protein – can trigger coeliac disease, non-coeliac gluten sensitivity, gluten ataxia and dermatitis herpetiformis.


Nutrient content of major staple foods per 100g portion
Nutrient component: Maize / Corn Rice (white) Rice (brown) Wheat Potato Cassava Soybean (Green) Sweet potato Yam Sorghum Plantain RDA
Water (g) 10 12 10 13 79 60 68 77 70 9 65 3000
Energy (kJ) 1528 1528 1549 1369 322 670 615 360 494 1419 511 2000–2500
Protein (g) 9.4 7.1 7.9 12.6 2.0 1.4 13.0 1.6 1.5 11.3 1.3 50
Fat (g) 4.74 0.66 2.92 1.54 0.09 0.28 6.8 0.05 0.17 3.3 0.37
Carbohydrates (g) 74 80 77 71 17 38 11 20 28 75 32 130
Fiber (g) 7.3 1.3 3.5 12.2 2.2 1.8 4.2 3 4.1 6.3 2.3 30
Sugar (g) 0.64 0.12 0.85 0.41 0.78 1.7 0 4.18 0.5 0 15
Calcium (mg) 7 28 23 29 12 16 197 30 17 28 3 1000
Iron (mg) 2.71 0.8 1.47 3.19 0.78 0.27 3.55 0.61 0.54 4.4 0.6 8
Magnesium (mg) 127 25 143 126 23 21 65 25 21 0 37 400
Phosphorus (mg) 210 115 333 288 57 27 194 47 55 287 34 700
Potassium (mg) 287 115 223 363 421 271 620 337 816 350 499 4700
Sodium (mg) 35 5 7 2 6 14 15 55 9 6 4 1500
Zinc (mg) 2.21 1.09 2.02 2.65 0.29 0.34 0.99 0.3 0.24 0 0.14 11
Copper (mg) 0.31 0.22 0.43 0.11 0.10 0.13 0.15 0.18 - 0.08 0.9
Manganese (mg) 0.49 1.09 3.74 3.99 0.15 0.38 0.55 0.26 0.40 - - 2.3
Selenium (μg) 15.5 15.1 70.7 0.3 0.7 1.5 0.6 0.7 0 1.5 55
Vitamin C (mg) 0 0 0 0 19.7 20.6 29 2.4 17.1 0 18.4 90
Thiamin (B1)(mg) 0.39 0.07 0.40 0.30 0.08 0.09 0.44 0.08 0.11 0.24 0.05 1.2
Riboflavin (B2)(mg) 0.20 0.05 0.09 0.12 0.03 0.05 0.18 0.06 0.03 0.14 0.05 1.3
Niacin (B3) (mg) 3.63 1.6 5.09 5.46 1.05 0.85 1.65 0.56 0.55 2.93 0.69 16
Pantothenic acid (B5) (mg) 0.42 1.01 1.49 0.95 0.30 0.11 0.15 0.80 0.31 - 0.26 5
Vitamin B6 (mg) 0.62 0.16 0.51 0.3 0.30 0.09 0.07 0.21 0.29 - 0.30 1.3
Folate Total (B9) (μg) 19 8 20 38 16 27 165 11 23 0 22 400
Vitamin A (IU) 214 0 0 9 2 13 180 14187 138 0 1127 5000
Vitamin E, alpha-tocopherol (mg) 0.49 0.11 0.59 1.01 0.01 0.19 0 0.26 0.39 0 0.14 15
Vitamin K1 (μg) 0.3 0.1 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 0 1.8 2.6 0 0.7 120
Beta-carotene (μg) 97 0 5 1 8 0 8509 83 0 457 10500
Lutein+zeaxanthin (μg) 1355 0 220 8 0 0 0 0 0 30
Saturated fatty acids (g) 0.67 0.18 0.58 0.26 0.03 0.07 0.79 0.02 0.04 0.46 0.14
Monounsaturated fatty acids (g) 1.25 0.21 1.05 0.2 0.00 0.08 1.28 0.00 0.01 0.99 0.03
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (g) 2.16 0.18 1.04 0.63 0.04 0.05 3.20 0.01 0.08 1.37 0.07
Top wheat producers in 2014
Country millions of tonnes
 China
126.2
 India
95.8
 Russia
59.7
 United States
55.1
 France
39.0
 Canada
29.3
 Germany
27.8
 Pakistan
26.0
 Australia
25.3
 Ukraine
24.1
World
720
Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organization

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