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Universities


A university (Latin: universitas, "a whole", "a corporation") is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which grants academic degrees in various subjects. Universities typically provide undergraduate education and postgraduate education.

The word "university" is derived from the Latin universitas magistrorum et scholarium, which roughly means "community of teachers and scholars." Universities were created in Italy and evolved from Cathedral schools for the clergy during the High Middle Ages.

The original Latin word "universitas" refers in general to "a number of persons associated into one body, a society, company, community, guild, corporation, etc." At the time of the emergence of urban town life and medieval guilds, specialized "associations of students and teachers with collective legal rights usually guaranteed by charters issued by princes, prelates, or the towns in which they were located" came to be denominated by this general term. Like other guilds, they were self-regulating and determined the qualifications of their members.

In modern usage the word has come to mean "An institution of higher education offering tuition in mainly non-vocational subjects and typically having the power to confer degrees," with the earlier emphasis on its corporate organization considered as applying historically to Medieval universities.

The original Latin word referred to degree-granting institutions of learning in Western and Central Europe, where this form of legal organisation was prevalent, and from where the institution spread around the world.



  • Aronowitz, Stanley (2000). The Knowledge Factory: Dismantling the Corporate University and Creating True Higher Learning. Boston: Beacon Press. ISBN . 
  • Barrow, Clyde W. (1990). Universities and the Capitalist State: Corporate Liberalism and the Reconstruction of American Higher Education, 1894-1928. Madison, Wis: University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN . 
  • Diamond, Sigmund (1992). Compromised Campus: The Collaboration of Universities with the Intelligence Community, 1945-1955. New York, NY: Oxford Univ. Press. ISBN . 
  • Pedersen, Olaf (1997). The First Universities: Studium Generale and the Origins of University Education in Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press. ISBN . 
  • Ridder-Symoens, Hilde de, ed. (1992). A History of the University in Europe. Volume 1: Universities in the Middle Ages. Rüegg, Walter (general ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN . 
  • Ridder-Symoens, Hilde de, ed. (1996). A History of the University in Europe. Volume 2: Universities in Early Modern Europe (1500-1800). Rüegg, Walter (general ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN . 
  • Rüegg, Walter, ed. (2004). A History of the University in Europe. Volume 3: Universities in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries (1800-1945). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN . 
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Wikipedia

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