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Three Kingdoms of Korea

Three Kingdoms of Korea
History of Korea-476.PNG
Map of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, at the end of the 5th century.
Korean name
Revised Romanization Samguk-sidae
McCune–Reischauer Samguk-sidae
Three Kingdoms of Korea
Chosŏn'gŭl 삼국시기
Hancha 三國時期
Revised Romanization Samguk-sigi
McCune–Reischauer Samguk-sigi
Other name
Chosŏn'gŭl 세나라시기
Revised Romanization Senara-sigi
McCune–Reischauer Senara-sigi

The concept of the Three Kingdoms of Korea (Hangul삼국시대; Hanja三國時代) refers to the three kingdoms of Baekje (百濟), Silla (新羅) and Goguryeo (高句麗), which was later known as Goryeo (高麗), from which the name Korea is derived. The Three Kingdoms period was defined as being from 57 BC to 668 AD (but there existed about 78 tribal states in the southern region of Korean peninsula and relatively big states like Okjeo, Buyeo, and Dongye in its northern part and Manchuria).

The three kingdoms occupied parts of Manchuria, in present-day China and Russia, and the Korean Peninsula. Baekje and Silla only dominated the southern part of the peninsula whereas Goguryeo controlled the Liaodong Peninsula, Manchuria and the northern half of the Korean Peninsula. In the 7th century, allied with China under the Tang dynasty, Silla unified the Korean Peninsula for the first time in Korean history, forming a Korean national identity for the first time.

After the fall of Baekje and Goguryeo, the Tang dynasty established a short-lived military government to administer parts of the Korean peninsula. However, as a result of the Silla–Tang Wars (≈670–676), Silla forces expelled the Protectorate armies from the peninsula in 676.

Subsequently, Dae Joyeong, a former Goguryeo general, founded Balhae in the former territory of Goguryeo after defeating the Tang dynasty at the Battle of Tianmenling.

The predecessor period, before the development of the full-fledged kingdoms, is sometimes called Proto–Three Kingdoms period.



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