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Sucrose

Sucrose
Skeletal formula of sucrose
Ball-and-stick model of sucrose
Names
IUPAC name
(2R,3R,4S,5S,6R)-2-[(2S,3S,4S,5R)-3,4-Dihydroxy-2,5-bis(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxane-3,4,5-triol
Other names
Sugar; Saccharose; α-D-Glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-fructofuranoside;

β-D-Fructofuranosyl-(2→1)-α-D-glucopyranoside; β-(2S,3S,4S,5R)-Fructofuranosyl-α-(1R,2R,3S,4S,5R)-glucopyranoside; α-(1R,2R,3S,4S,5R)-Glucopyranosyl-β-(2S,3S,4S,5R)-fructofuranoside, dodecacarbon monodecahydrate;

(2R,3R,4S,5S,6R)-2-[(2S,3S,4S,5R)-3,4-Dihydroxy-2,5-bis(hydroxymethyl)oxapent-2-yl]oxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxahexane-3,4,5-triol
Identifiers
57-50-1 YesY
3D model (Jmol) Interactive image
ChEBI CHEBI:17992 YesY
ChEMBL ChEMBL253582 YesY
ChemSpider 5768 YesY
DrugBank DB02772 YesY
ECHA InfoCard 100.000.304
EC Number 200-334-9
5411
PubChem 5988
RTECS number WN6500000
UNII C151H8M554 YesY
Properties
C12H22O11
Molar mass 342.30 g/mol
Appearance white solid
Density 1.587 g/cm3, solid
Melting point None; decomposes at 186 °C (367 °F; 459 K)
2100 g/L (25 °C)
log P −3.76
+66.47°
-189.1·10−6 cm3/mol
Structure
Monoclinic
P21
Thermochemistry
5,643 kilojoules per mole (1,349 kcal/mol) (3.94 kcal/g)
Hazards
Safety data sheet ICSC 1507
NFPA 704
Flammability code 1: Must be pre-heated before ignition can occur. Flash point over 93 °C (200 °F). E.g., canola oil Health code 0: Exposure under fire conditions would offer no hazard beyond that of ordinary combustible material. E.g., sodium chloride Reactivity code 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g., liquid nitrogen Special hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
LD50 (median dose)
29700 mg/kg (oral, rat)
US health exposure limits (NIOSH):
PEL (Permissible)
TWA 15 mg/m3 (total) TWA 5 mg/m3 (resp)
REL (Recommended)
TWA 10 mg/m3 (total) TWA 5 mg/m3 (resp)
IDLH (Immediate danger)
N.D.
Related compounds
Related compounds
Lactose
Maltose
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
YesY  (what is YesYN ?)
Infobox references
Sugars, granulated [sucrose]
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 1,619 kJ (387 kcal)
100 g
0 g
0 g
Vitamins
Thiamine (B1)
(0%)
0 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
(0%)
0 mg
Niacin (B3)
(0%)
0 mg
Vitamin C
(0%)
0 mg
Minerals
Iron
(0%)
0 mg
Phosphorus
(0%)
0 mg
Potassium
(0%)
2.0 mg

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

β-D-Fructofuranosyl-(2→1)-α-D-glucopyranoside; β-(2S,3S,4S,5R)-Fructofuranosyl-α-(1R,2R,3S,4S,5R)-glucopyranoside; α-(1R,2R,3S,4S,5R)-Glucopyranosyl-β-(2S,3S,4S,5R)-fructofuranoside, dodecacarbon monodecahydrate;

Sucrose is a common, naturally occurring saccharide found in many plants and plant parts. Saccharose is an obsolete name for sugars in general, especially sucrose. The molecule is a disaccharide combination of the monosaccharides glucose and fructose with the formula C12H22O11.

Sucrose is often extracted and refined from either cane or beet sugar for human consumption. Modern industrial sugar refinement processes often involve bleaching and crystallization, producing a white, odorless, crystalline powder with a sweet taste of pure sucrose. This refined form of sucrose is commonly referred to as table sugar or just sugar. It plays a central role as an additive in food production and food consumption all over the world. About 175 million metric tons of sucrose were produced worldwide in 2013.

The word "sucrose" was coined in 1857 by the English chemist William Miller from the French sucre ("sugar") and the generic chemical suffix for sugars -ose. The abbreviated term Suc is often used for sucrose in scientific literature.

In sucrose, the components glucose and fructose are linked via an acetal bond between C1 on the glucosyl subunit and C2 on the fructosyl unit. The bond is called a glycosidic linkage. Glucose exists predominantly as two isomeric "pyranoses" (α and β), but only one of these forms links to the fructose. Fructose itself exists as a mixture of "furanoses", each of which having α and β isomers, but only one particular isomer links to the glucosyl unit. What is notable about sucrose is that, unlike most disaccharides, the glycosidic bond is formed between the reducing ends of both glucose and fructose, and not between the reducing end of one and the nonreducing end of the other. This linkage inhibits further bonding to other saccharide units. Since it contains no anomeric hydroxyl groups, it is classified as a non-reducing sugar.


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Wikipedia

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