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Stroke

Stroke
Synonyms cerebrovascular accident (CVA), cerebrovascular insult (CVI), brain attack
MCA Territory Infarct.svg
CT scan of the brain showing a right-hemispheric ischemic stroke.
Classification and external resources
Specialty Neurology
ICD-10 I61-I64ner
ICD-9-CM 434.91
OMIM 601367
DiseasesDB 2247
MedlinePlus 000726
eMedicine neuro/9 emerg/558 emerg/557 pmr/187
Patient UK Stroke
MeSH D020521
[]

Stroke is when poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death. There are two main types of stroke: ischemic, due to lack of blood flow, and hemorrhagic, due to bleeding. They result in part of the brain not functioning properly. Signs and symptoms of a stroke may include an inability to move or feel on one side of the body, problems understanding or speaking, feeling like the world is spinning, or loss of vision to one side. Signs and symptoms often appear soon after the stroke has occurred. If symptoms last less than one or two hours it is known as a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or mini-stroke. A hemorrhagic stroke may also be associated with a severe headache. The symptoms of a stroke can be permanent. Long-term complications may include pneumonia or loss of bladder control.

The main risk factor for stroke is high blood pressure. Other risk factors include tobacco smoking, obesity, high blood cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, previous TIA, and atrial fibrillation. An ischemic stroke is typically caused by blockage of a blood vessel, though there are also less common causes. A hemorrhagic stroke is caused by either bleeding directly into the brain or into the space between the brain's membranes. Bleeding may occur due to a ruptured brain aneurysm. Diagnosis is typically with medical imaging such as a CT scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan along with a physical exam. Other tests such as an electrocardiogram (ECG) and blood tests are done to determine risk factors and rule out other possible causes. Low blood sugar may cause similar symptoms.



sensitivity= 16%
specificity= 96%
sensitivity= 83%
specificity= 98%
sensitivity= 89%
specificity= 100%
sensitivity= 81%
specificity= 100%
  • Cerebral hemorrhage (also known as intracerebral hemorrhage), which is basically bleeding within the brain itself (when an artery in the brain bursts, flooding the surrounding tissue with blood), due to either intraparenchymal hemorrhage (bleeding within the brain tissue) or intraventricular hemorrhage (bleeding within the brain's ventricular system).
  • Subarachnoid hemorrhage, which is basically bleeding that occurs outside of the brain tissue but still within the skull, and precisely between the arachnoid mater and pia mater (the delicate innermost layer of the three layers of the meninges that surround the brain).
  • altered smell, taste, hearing, or vision (total or partial)
  • drooping of eyelid (ptosis) and weakness of ocular muscles
  • decreased reflexes: gag, swallow, pupil reactivity to light
  • decreased sensation and muscle weakness of the face
  • balance problems and nystagmus
  • altered breathing and heart rate
  • weakness in sternocleidomastoid muscle with inability to turn head to one side
  • weakness in tongue (inability to stick out the tongue and/or move it from side to side)
  • CT scans (without contrast enhancements)
  • MRI scan
  • CT scans (without contrast enhancements)
  • MRI scan
  • J. P. Mohr; Dennis Choi; James Grotta; Philip Wolf (2004). Stroke: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management. New York: Churchill Livingstone. ISBN . OCLC 50477349. 
  • Charles P. Warlow; Jan van Gijn; Martin S. Dennis; Joanna M. Wardlaw; John M. Bamford; Graeme J. Hankey; Peter A. G. Sandercock; Gabriel Rinkel; Peter Langhorne; Cathie Sudlow; Peter Rothwell (2008). Stroke: Practical Management (3rd ed.). Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN . 
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Wikipedia

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